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Health valuation

Jane L Wolstenholme, Danielle Bargo, Kay Wang, Anthony Harnden, Ulla Räisänen, Lucy Abel
BACKGROUND: No current guidance is available in the UK on the choice of preference-based measure (PBM) that should be used in obtaining health-related quality of life from children. The aim of this study is to review the current usage of PBMs for obtaining health state utility values in child and adolescent populations, and to obtain information on patient and parent-proxy respondent preferences in completing PBMs in the UK. METHODS: A literature review was conducted to determine which instrument is most frequently used for child-based economic evaluations and whether child or proxy responses are used...
March 21, 2018: Quality of Life Research
Christopher Vernazza, Lauren Anderson, Andrew Ian Hunter, Helen Christine Leck, Stephen Daniel O'Connor, Gillian Rose Smith, Richard Joseph Stokes, Sarah Rolland
Introduction: Given the limited evidence about the benefits of orthodontic treatment, many health care systems have rationed access to orthodontic care with the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) being one tool used to attempt to allocate resources based on need. However, it is not clear whether patient and public valuations of different levels of need (as described by the IOTN) reflect the resource allocation decisions. The aim of this project was therefore to determine the values parents placed on correction of malocclusions at different IOTN levels using the willingness to pay (WTP) technique...
April 1, 2018: JDR Clinical and Translational Research
Hao Yin, Massimo Pizzol, Jette Bredahl Jacobsen, Linyu Xu
Air pollution from PM2 .5 affects many cities worldwide, causing both health impacts and mood depression. One of the obstacles to implementing environmental regulations for PM2 .5 reduction is that there are limited studies of PM2 .5 welfare loss and few investigations of mood depression caused by PM2 .5 . This article describes a survey study conducted in Beijing, China to estimate the welfare loss due to PM2 .5 . In total, 1709 participants completed either a face-to-face or online survey. A contingent valuation method was applied to elicit people's willingness to pay to avoid PM2 ...
March 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Nicole R Giuliani, Junaid S Merchant, Danielle Cosme, Elliot T Berkman
Recently, there has been an increase in the number of human neuroimaging studies seeking to predict behavior above and beyond traditional measurements such as self-report. This trend has been particularly notable in the area of food consumption, as the percentage of people categorized as overweight or obese continues to rise. In this review, we argue that there is considerable utility in this form of health neuroscience, modeling the neural bases of eating behavior and dietary change in healthy community populations...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Katie N Dainty, M Bianca Seaton, Ian R Drennan, Laurie J Morrison
OBJECTIVE: Community paramedicine (CP) is a model of community-based health care being used around the world. Our objective was to study the patient perspective and valuation of this type of program to understand its potential value for primary care innovation in the future. STUDY SETTING: The EPIC community paramedicine program is a partnership between primary care physicians and specially trained community paramedics, designed to provide in-home support for complex chronic disease patients in Ontario, Canada...
March 15, 2018: Health Services Research
Sara C Atehortúa, Luz H Lugo, Mateo Ceballos, Esteban Orozco, Paula A Castro, Juan C Arango, Heidi E Mateus
OBJECTIVES: To determine the cost-effectiveness ratio of different courses of action for the diagnosis of Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophy in Colombia. METHODS: The cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from the Colombian health system perspective. Decision trees were constructed, and different courses of action were compared considering the following tests: immunohistochemistry (IHC), Western blot (WB), multiplex polymerase chain reaction, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), and the complete sequencing of the dystrophin gene...
March 9, 2018: Value in Health Regional Issues
Michał Jakubczyk, Benjamin M Craig, Mathias Barra, Catharina G M Groothuis-Oudshoorn, John D Hartman, Elisabeth Huynh, Juan M Ramos-Goñi, Elly A Stolk, Kim Rand
OBJECTIVE: To identify which specifications and approaches to model selection better predict health preferences, the International Academy of Health Preference Research (IAHPR) hosted a predictive modeling competition including 18 teams from around the world. METHODS: In April 2016, an exploratory survey was fielded: 4074 US respondents completed 20 out of 1560 paired comparisons by choosing between two health descriptions (e.g., longer life span vs. better health)...
February 2018: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Darius N Lakdawalla, Jalpa A Doshi, Louis P Garrison, Charles E Phelps, Anirban Basu, Patricia M Danzon
The third section of our Special Task Force report identifies and defines a series of elements that warrant consideration in value assessments of medical technologies. We aim to broaden the view of what constitutes value in health care and to spur new research on incorporating additional elements of value into cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA). Twelve potential elements of value are considered. Four of them-quality-adjusted life-years, net costs, productivity, and adherence-improving factors-are conventionally included or considered in value assessments...
February 2018: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Samuel I Watson, Yen-Fu Chen, Julian F Bion, Cassie P Aldridge, Alan Girling, Richard J Lilford
INTRODUCTION: This protocol concerns the evaluation of increased specialist staffing at weekends in hospitals in England. Seven-day health services are a key policy for the UK government and other health systems trying to improve use of infrastructure and resources. A particular motivation for the 7-day policy has been the observed increase in the risk of death associated with weekend admission, which has been attributed to fewer hospital specialists being available at weekends. However, the causes of the weekend effect have not been adequately characterised; many of the excess deaths associated with the 'weekend effect' may not be preventable, and the presumed benefits of improved specialist cover might be offset by the cost of implementation...
February 23, 2018: BMJ Open
Mathieu F Janssen, Gouke J Bonsel, Nan Luo
OBJECTIVE: This study describes the first empirical head-to-head comparison of EQ-5D-3L (3L) and EQ-5D-5L (5L) value sets for multiple countries. METHODS: A large multinational dataset, including 3L and 5L data for eight patient groups and a student cohort, was used to compare 3L versus 5L value sets for Canada, China, England/UK (5L/3L, respectively), Japan, The Netherlands, South Korea and Spain. We used distributional analyses and two methods exploring discriminatory power: relative efficiency as assessed by the F statistic, and an area under the curve for the receiver-operating characteristics approach...
February 22, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
Kristina Ludwig, J-Matthias Graf von der Schulenburg, Wolfgang Greiner
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to develop a value set for EQ-5D-5L based on the societal preferences of the German population. As the first country to do so, the study design used the improved EQ-5D-5L valuation protocol 2.0 developed by the EuroQol Group, including a feedback module as internal validation and a quality control process that was missing in the first wave of EQ-5D-5L valuation studies. METHODS: A representative sample of the general German population (n = 1158) was interviewed using a composite time trade-off and a discrete choice experiment under close quality control...
February 19, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
Anna M Gorczyca, Richard A Washburn, Lauren Ptomey, Matthew S Mayo, Debra K Sullivan, Cheryl A Gibson, Robert Lee, Sarah Stolte, Joseph E Donnelly
Obesity prevalence is higher in rural compared to urban residents. Rural health clinics offer a potential venue for delivery of weight management. However, traditional programs require travel to attend on-site meetings which is impractical or inconvenient for rural residents. Clinic staff in most rural settings are unlikely to be trained to provide effective weight management. Remote delivery using group phone conferences (GP) or individual phone calls (IP), by staff associated with rural clinics eliminates the need for travel to attend on-site meetings...
February 14, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Nicole Cooper, Steven Tompson, Matthew B O'Donnell, Jean M Vettel, Danielle S Bassett, Emily B Falk
OBJECTIVE: Worldwide, tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death and illness. One common strategy for reducing the prevalence of cigarette smoking and other health risk behaviors is the use of graphic warning labels (GWLs). This has led to widespread interest from the perspective of health psychology in understanding the mechanisms of GWL effectiveness. Here we investigated differences in how the brain responds to negative, graphic warning label-inspired antismoking ads and neutral control ads, and we probed how this response related to future behavior...
February 15, 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
A Mavrodi, V Aletras, A Spanou, D Niakas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Contingent valuation is widely used to determine individuals' willingness to pay (WTP) for a health gain. Our study aimed to elicit an empirical estimate of the monetary value of a quality-adjusted life year (QALY) in a Greek outpatient setting in times of economic austerity and assess the impact of patients' characteristics on their valuations. METHODS: We used a questionnaire as a survey tool to determine the maximum WTP for a health gain of a hypothetical therapy and to evaluate patients' health-related quality of life (EuroQoL-5D-3L) and demographic and socioeconomic characteristics...
December 2017: PharmacoEconomics Open
Theresa Tawiah, Keziah Malam, Anthony Kwarteng, Constance Bart-Plange, Lawrence Febir, Vivian Aubyn, Konrad Obermann, Seth Owusu-Agyei, Kwaku Poku Asante
Background: Use of malaria rapid diagnostic test (mRDT) enhances patient management and reduces costs associated with the inappropriate use of antimalarials. Despite its proven clinical effectiveness, mRDT is not readily available at licensed chemical shops in Ghana. Therefore, in order to improve the use of mRDT, there is the need to understand the willingness to pay for and sell mRDT. This study assessed patients' willingness to pay and licensed chemical operators' (LCS) willingness to sell mRDTs...
2018: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
M Biggeri, M Nannini, G Putoto
Community health insurance (CHI) aims to provide financial protection and facilitate health care access among poor rural populations. Given common operational challenges that hamper the full development of the scheme, there is need to undertake systematic feasibility studies. These are scarce in the literature and usually they do not provide a comprehensive analysis of the local context. The present research intends to adopt a mixed-methods approach to assess ex-ante the feasibility of CHI. In particular, eight preconditions are proposed to inform the viability of introducing the micro insurance...
January 31, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Jonas Steel, Lode Godderis, Jeroen Luyten
Objectives Occupational health and safety (OHS) interventions` effect on worker productivity is an essential, but complex element of the value of these programs. The trustworthiness of economic evaluation studies, aiming to provide guidance to decision-makers in the field of OHS, depends at least partly on how accurately productivity changes are measured. We aim to review the methods used to estimate productivity changes in recently published economic evaluations of OHS interventions. Methods We performed systematic searches of economic evaluations of OHS programs published between 2007 and 2017 and reviewed these studies` methods to quantify the programs` impact on worker productivity Results Of the 90 identified studies, 44 used a human capital approach, 17 a friction cost approach, 13 stated productivity in natural units (eg, a cost-per-absence-day-avoided), 7 made use of compensation expenses, 4 used output-based methods, 4 an "ad hoc" approach, and 1 study did not state its method...
February 6, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
Jacob T Painter, Laura Gressler, Niranjan Kathe, S Lane Slabaugh, Karen Blumenschein
BACKGROUND: Quantifying the value of pharmacy services is imperative for the profession as it works to establish an expanded role within evolving health care systems. The literature documents the work that many have contributed toward meeting this goal. To date, however, the preponderance of evidence evaluates the value of pharmacist services to third-party payers; few published studies address the value that consumers place on these services. OBJECTIVES: In 1999, a review of studies that used the contingent valuation method to value pharmacy services was published...
February 2, 2018: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
C G Fawsitt, S Meaney, R A Greene, P Corcoran
Surgical site infections (SSIs) are one of the most common and, yet, preventable healthcare associated infections. In Ireland, the rate of Caesarean section (CS) is increasing, while postpartum hospital stay is decreasing, adversely affecting SSI among women. There is much need to develop post-discharge surveillance which can effectively monitor, detect, and arrange treatment for affected women. The use of modern technology to survey SSI following discharge from hospital remains unexplored. We report the results of a feasibility study which investigates whether an integrated mobile application (hereafter, app) is more cost-beneficial than a stand-alone app or telephone helpline at surveying SSI following CS...
September 18, 2017: Irish Medical Journal
Tracy A Comans, Kim-Huong Nguyen, Brendan Mulhern, Megan Corlis, Li Li, Alyssa Welch, Susan E Kurrle, Donna Rowen, Wendy Moyle, Sanjeewa Kularatna, Julie Ratcliffe
INTRODUCTION: Generic instruments for assessing health-related quality of life may lack the sensitivity to detect changes in health specific to certain conditions, such as dementia. The Quality of Life in Alzheimer's Disease (QOL-AD) is a widely used and well-validated condition-specific instrument for assessing health-related quality of life for people living with dementia, but it does not enable the calculation of quality-adjusted life years, the basis of cost utility analysis. This study will generate a preference-based scoring algorithm for a health state classification system -the Alzheimer's Disease Five Dimensions (AD-5D) derived from the QOL-AD...
January 21, 2018: BMJ Open
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