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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944718/obesity-is-associated-with-altered-mid-insula-functional-connectivity-to-limbic-regions-underlying-appetitive-responses-to-foods
#1
Jason A Avery, Joshua N Powell, Florence J Breslin, Rebecca J Lepping, Laura E Martin, Trisha M Patrician, Joseph E Donnelly, Cary R Savage, W Kyle Simmons
Obesity is fundamentally a disorder of energy balance. In obese individuals, more energy is consumed than is expended, leading to excessive weight gain through the accumulation of adipose tissue. Complications arising from obesity, including cardiovascular disease, elevated peripheral inflammation, and the development of Type II diabetes, make obesity one of the leading preventable causes of morbidity and mortality. Thus, it is of paramount importance to both individual and public health that we understand the neural circuitry underlying the behavioral regulation of energy balance...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943475/nutrition-labeling-reduces-valuations-of-food-through-multiple-health-and-taste-channels
#2
Geoffrey Fisher
One popularized technique to promote healthy dietary choice involves posting calorie or other nutritional information at the time individuals make a consumption decision. While the evidence on the effectiveness of such interventions is mixed, relatively little work has focused on the underlying mechanisms of how such labels alter behavior. In the research reported here, we asked hungry laboratory subjects to make bids over foods with and without nutrition labels present. We found that the presence of a nutrition label reduced bids by an average of 25 cents...
September 21, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940395/delay-discounting-as-impaired-valuation-delayed-rewards-in-an-animal-obesity-model
#3
David P Jarmolowicz, Jennifer L Hudnall, Luanne Hale, Stephen C Fowler, Marco Bortolato, Shea M Lemley, Michael J Sofis
Obesity is a major public health problem, which, like many forms of addiction, is associated with an elevated tendency to choose smaller immediate rather than larger delayed rewards, a response pattern often referred to as excessive delay discounting. Although some accounts of delay discounting conceptualize this process as impulsivity (placing the emphasis on overvaluing the smaller immediate reward), others have conceptualized delay discounting as an executive function (placing the emphasis on delayed rewards failing to retain their value)...
September 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934266/logical-inconsistencies-in-time-trade-off-valuation-of-eq-5d-5l-health-states-whose-fault-is-it
#4
Zhihao Yang, Jan van Busschbach, Reinier Timman, M F Janssen, Nan Luo
INTRODUCTION: Inconsistency in the time trade-off (TTO) task in EQ-5D-5L occurs when a respondent gives a higher value to a logically worse health state, the occurrence of inconsistency compromises the quality of the data. It is not yet clear which factors are associated with individual level inconsistency. Relating inconsistency to the characteristics of the respondent, interviewer, and the interview process could be helpful in understanding the causes of inconsistency. The objective of this paper is to discover the factors associated with individual level inconsistencies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932914/estimating-a-constant-wtp-for-a-qaly-a-mission-impossible
#5
Björn Sund, Mikael Svensson
Economic evaluations are an important input to decision-making and priority-setting in the health care sector. Measuring preferences for health improvements, as the demand-side value (willingness to pay) of gaining a quality-adjusted life year (QALY), is one relevant component in the interpretation of the results from health economic evaluations. Our article addresses whether willingness to pay for a QALY (WTP-Q) is sensitive to the size of the health differences and the probability for improvement. We use data from a contingent valuation survey based on 1400 respondents conducted in the spring of 2014...
September 21, 2017: European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923574/a-systematic-review-of-health-economic-evaluation-in-adjuvant-breast-radiotherapy-quality-counted-by-numbers
#6
Chris Monten, Liv Veldeman, Nick Verhaeghe, Yolande Lievens
BACKGROUND: Evolving practice in adjuvant breast radiotherapy inevitably impacts healthcare budgets. This is reflected in a rise of health economic evaluations (HEE) in this domain. The available HEE literature was analysed qualitatively and quantitatively, using available instruments. METHODS: HEEs published between 1/1/2000 and 31/10/2016 were retrieved through a systematic search in Medline, Cochrane and Embase. A quality-assessment using CHEERS (Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards) was translated into a quantitative score and compared with Tufts Medical Centre CEA registry and Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES) results...
September 15, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922024/the-implementation-of-multiple-interprofessional-integrated-modules-by-health-sciences-faculty-in-chile
#7
Silvana Castillo-Parra, Sandra Oyarzo Torres, Mónica Espinoza Barrios, Ana María Rojas-Serey, Juan Diego Maya, Valeria Sabaj Diez, Verónica Aliaga Castillo, Manuel Castillo Niño, Luis Romero Romero, Jennifer Foster, Gustavo Hawes Barrios
Multiple interprofessional integrated modules (MIIM) 1 and 2 are two required, cross-curricular courses developed by a team of health professions faculty, as well as experts in education, within the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Chile. MIIM 1 focused on virtual cases requiring team decision-making in real time. MIIM 2 focused on a team-based community project. The evaluation of MIIM included student, teacher, and coordinator perspectives. To explore the perceptions of this interprofessional experience quantitative data in the form of standardised course evaluations regarding teaching methodology, interpersonal relations and the course organisation and logistics were gathered...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Interprofessional Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901604/are-children-rational-decision-makers-when-they-are-asked-to-value-their-own-health-a-contingent-valuation-study-conducted-with-children-and-their-parents
#8
Carla Guerriero, John Cairns, Fabrizio Bianchi, Liliana Cori
Despite the importance of including children's preferences in the valuation of their own health benefits, no study has investigated the ability of children to understand willingness-to-pay (WTP) questions. Using a contingent valuation method, we elicit children's and parents' WTP to reduce children's risk of an asthma attack. Our results suggest that children are able to understand and value their own health risk reductions, and their ability to do so improves with age. Child age was found to be inversely related to parents' and children's WTP...
September 13, 2017: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898961/the-economic-impact-of-workplace-wellness-programmes-in-canada
#9
J C Jacobs, E Yaquian, S M Burke, M Rouse, G Zaric
Background: The economic benefits of workplace wellness programmes (WWPs) are commonly cited as a reason for employers to implement such programmes; however, there is limited evidence outside of the US context exploring their economic impact. US evidence is less relevant in countries such as Canada with universal publicly funded health systems because of the lower potential employer savings from WWPs. Aims: To conduct a systematic review of the Canadian literature investigating the economic impact of WWPs from an employer perspective...
August 1, 2017: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886947/using-campaigns-to-improve-perceptions-of-the-value-of-adult-vaccination-in-the-united-states-health-communication-considerations-and-insights
#10
REVIEW
Glen J Nowak, Angela K Shen, Jason L Schwartz
Vaccines have much relevance and promise for improving adult health in the United States, but to date, overall use and uptake remain far below desired levels. Many adults have not received recommended vaccinations and many healthcare providers do not strongly and actively encourage their use with patients. This has led some public health and medical experts to conclude that adult vaccines are severely undervalued by the U.S. public and healthcare providers and to call for campaigns and communication-based efforts to foster increased appreciation, and in turn, higher adult immunization rates...
September 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873864/the-use-of-apps-for-health-in-persons-with-multiple-sclerosis-parkinson-s-disease-and-stroke-barriers-and-facilitators
#11
C Winberg, M Kylberg, C Pettersson, T Harnett, P-O Hedvall, T Mattsson, E Månsson Lexell
INTRODUCTION: The importance of mobile health has increased during recent years but few studies have described the use of apps among persons with neurological disabilities. AIM: The aim of this paper was to describe how persons ageing with a neurological disability experience barriers and facilitators in relation to using apps in everyday life. METHOD: A qualitative approach was used. 16 persons with neurological disorders participated in two group discussions...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864334/the-benefits-of-avoiding-cancer-or-dying-from-cancer-evidence-from-a-four-country-study
#12
Anna Alberini, Milan Ščasný
We use stated-preference methods to estimate the cancer Value per Statistical Life (VSL) and Value per Statistical Case (VSCC) from a representative sample of 45-60-year olds in four countries in Europe. We ask respondents to report information about their willingness to pay for health risk reductions that are different from those used in earlier valuation work because they are comprised of two probabilities-that of getting cancer, and that of dying from it (conditional on getting it in the first place). The product of these two probabilities is the unconditional cancer mortality risk...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854879/identifying-priorities-for-quality-improvement-at-an-emergency-department-in-ghana
#13
Annelies DeWulf, Elom H Otchi, Sari Soghoian
BACKGROUND: Healthcare quality improvement (QI) is a global priority, and understanding the perspectives of frontline healthcare workers can help guide sustainable and meaningful change. We report a qualitative investigation of emergency department (ED) staff priorities for QI at a tertiary care hospital in Ghana. The aims of the study were to educate staff about the World Health Organization's (WHO) definition of quality in healthcare, and to identify an initial focus for building a departmental QI program...
August 30, 2017: BMC Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843213/response-shift-in-parents-assessment-of-health-related-quality-of-life-of-children-with-new-onset-epilepsy
#14
Tolulope T Sajobi, Kathy N Speechley, Zhiying Liang, Shane W Goodwin, Mark A Ferro, Samuel Wiebe
OBJECTIVE: Diagnosis of epilepsy is known to impact health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of children with new-onset epilepsy and can also influence their conceptualization and valuation of HRQOL construct, also known as response shift. This study investigates the presence of response shift in a cohort of children with new-onset epilepsy. METHODS: Data are from the HEalth-Related QUality of Life in children with Epilepsy Study, a prospective cohort study of 373 children with new-onset epilepsy...
August 23, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837557/altruism-by-age-and-social-proximity
#15
Mark C Long, Eleanor Krause
This study evaluates the extent to which an individual's stated altruistic sentiments can be influenced by context-most importantly, by the age and social proximity of the other person and by the nature of what is being sacrificed. We measure willingness to sacrifice own health for another person's health and willingness to sacrifice own wealth for another person's wealth. To evaluate these sentiments, two surveys were administered to representative samples of Americans which contained hypothetical scenarios with context randomly assigned; the first survey posed a dictator game question and the second survey was designed to elicit marginal rates of substitution between own and other's health/wealth...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833902/multidimensional-performance-assessment-of-public-sector-organisations-using-dominance-criteria
#16
Nils Gutacker, Andrew Street
Public sector organisations pursue multiple objectives and serve a number of stakeholders. But stakeholders are rarely explicit about the valuations they attach to different objectives, nor are these valuations likely to be identical. This complicates the assessment of their performance because no single set of weights can be chosen legitimately to aggregate outputs into unidimensional composite scores. We propose the use of dominance criteria in a multidimensional performance assessment framework to identify best practice and poor performance under relatively weak assumptions about stakeholders' preferences...
August 18, 2017: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833869/valuing-health-related-quality-of-life-an-eq-5d-5l-value-set-for-england
#17
Nancy J Devlin, Koonal K Shah, Yan Feng, Brendan Mulhern, Ben van Hout
A new version of the EQ-5D, the EQ-5D-5L, is available. The aim of this study is to produce a value set to support use of EQ-5D-5L data in decision-making. The study design followed an international research protocol. Randomly selected members of the English general public completed 10 time trade-off and 7 discrete choice experiment tasks in face-to-face interviews. A 20-parameter hybrid model was used to combine time trade-off and discrete choice experiment data to generate values for the 3,125 EQ-5D-5L health states...
August 22, 2017: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821010/willingness-to-pay-for-safe-drinking-water-a-contingent-valuation-study-in-jacksonville-fl
#18
Chiradip Chatterjee, Russell Triplett, Christopher K Johnson, Parvez Ahmed
A surprising number of U.S. cities have drinking water with unhealthy levels of chemicals and contaminants. The city of Jacksonville (Florida), the location for this study, owns the dubious distinction of being ranked among the worst major American cities in water quality according to water quality tests conducted between 2005 and 2009 by the Environmental Working Group (EWG). This report of toxic chemicals in the Jacksonville water supply generated considerable negative publicity and coincides with a frequent and common complaint among residents of foul-smelling water...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806728/costing-evidence-for-health-care-decision-making-in-austria-a-systematic-review
#19
Susanne Mayer, Noemi Kiss, Agata Łaszewska, Judit Simon
BACKGROUND: With rising healthcare costs comes an increasing demand for evidence-informed resource allocation using economic evaluations worldwide. Furthermore, standardization of costing and reporting methods both at international and national levels are imperative to make economic evaluations a valid tool for decision-making. The aim of this review is to assess the availability and consistency of costing evidence that could be used for decision-making in Austria. It describes systematically the current economic evaluation and costing studies landscape focusing on the applied costing methods and their reporting standards...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804600/analysis-of-health-economics-assessment-reports-for-pharmaceuticals-in-france-understanding-the-underlying-philosophy-of-ceesp-assessment
#20
Mondher Toumi, Anastasiia Motrunich, Aurélie Millier, Cécile Rémuzat, Christos Chouaid, Bruno Falissard, Samuel Aballéa
Background: Despite the guidelines for Economic and Public Health Assessment Committee (CEESP) submission having been available for nearly six years, the dossiers submitted continue to deviate from them, potentially impacting product prices. Objective: to review the reports published by CEESP, analyse deviations from the guidelines, and discuss their implications for the pricing and reimbursement process. Study design: CEESP reports published until January 2017 were reviewed, and deviations from the guidelines were extracted...
2017: Journal of Market Access & Health Policy
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