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Stem cell, iPS cell, regenerative medicine

J Aznar, J Tudela
On the 10-year anniversary of the discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells, we review the main results from their various fields of application, the obstacles encountered during experimentation and the potential applications in clinical practice. The efficacy of induced pluripotent cells in clinical experimentation can be equated to that of human embryonic stem cells; however, unlike stem cells, induced pluripotent cells do not involve the severe ethical difficulties entailed by the need to destroy human embryos to obtain them...
October 4, 2016: Revista Clínica Española
Justo Aznar, Julio Tudela
BACKGROUND: The use of stem cells in regenerative medicine has major therapeutic potential. Recent clinical trials using cells derived from human stem cells are showing encouraging results, although these should be assessed with the necessary caution. DISCUSSION: Some media have reported the results of these trials without due care, perhaps creating expectations that do not match the reality of the facts. This paper describes some of the recent advances in the use of human stem cells, particularly those made in the area of ophthalmology, and more specifically, in Stargardt's disease and age-related macular degeneration (AMD)...
May 2016: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
Deepa Bhartiya, Ambreen Shaikh, Sandhya Anand, Hiren Patel, Sona Kapoor, Kalpana Sriraman, Seema Parte, Sreepoorna Unni
BACKGROUND: Both pluripotent very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells were reported in 2006. In 2012, a Nobel Prize was awarded for iPS technology whereas even today the very existence of VSELs is not well accepted. The underlying reason is that VSELs exist in low numbers, remain dormant under homeostatic conditions, are very small in size and do not pellet down at 250-280g. The VSELs maintain life-long tissue homeostasis, serve as a backup pool for adult stem cells and are mobilized under stress conditions...
September 10, 2016: Human Reproduction Update
Hideaki Nakajima
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are not only a valuable resource for regenerative medicine, but also a promising tool for disease modeling and drug discovery. Patient-specific iPSCs harboring disease-specific mutations are extremely useful for investigating disease mechanisms and novel treatment approaches. In the field of hematology, attempts to establish iPSCs from tumor cells such as those of leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) were largely unsuccessful because proper reprogramming processes were hampered by their extensive genetic alterations...
August 2016: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
Neli Kachamakova-Trojanowska, Witold Nowak, Krzysztof Szade, Jacek Stepniewski, Karolina Bukowska-Strakova, Monika Zukowska, Hevidar Taha, Antonina Chmura-Skirlinska, Michael Beilharz, Jozef Dulak, Alicja Jozkowicz
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have shown great potential in regenerative medicine and research applications like disease modeling or drug discovery. Endothelium is indispensable for vascular homeostasis, whereas endothelial dysfunction could lead to different diseases. Therefore, generating autologous cells, able to restore the endothelial lining, can be crucial for slowing or reversing certain pathological processes. In the current study we show efficient differentiation of murine iPSCs into endothelial cells (ECs) with stable CD34+/Tie-2+/Sca-1+/CD45- phenotype and proven functionality...
August 25, 2016: Vascular Pharmacology
Vanessa Sauer, Tatyana Tchaikovskaya, Xia Wang, Yanfeng Li, Wei Zhang, Krisztina Tar, Zsuzsanna Polgar, Jianqiang Ding, Chandan Guha, Ira J Fox, Namita Roy-Chowdhury, Jayanta Roy-Chowdhury
Although several types of somatic cells have been reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) and then differentiated to hepatocyte-like cells (iHep), the method for generating such cells from renal tubular epithelial cells shed in human urine and transplanting them in animal livers has not been described systematically. We report reprogramming of human urinary epithelial cells to iPSCs and subsequent hepatic differentiation, followed by a detailed characterization of the newly generated iHeps. The epithelial cells were reprogrammed into iPSCs by delivering the pluripotency factors OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4 and MYC using methods that do not involve transgene integration, such as nucleofection of episomal (oriP/EBNA-1) plasmids or infection with recombinant Sendai viruses...
June 9, 2016: Cell Transplantation
Yasuyuki Amoh, Kensei Katsuoka, Robert M Hoffman
Nestin, a neural stem cell marker protein, is expressed in hair follicle cells above the bulge area. These nestin-positive hair follicle-associated-pluripotent (HAP) stem cells are negative for the keratinocyte marker K15 and can differentiate into neurons, glia, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells, cardiac muscle cells, and melanocytes in vitro. HAP stem cells are positive for the stem cell marker CD34, as well as K15-negative, suggesting their relatively undifferentiated state. HAP stem cells promoted the functional recovery of injured peripheral nerves and the spinal cord...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Robert M Hoffman
Nestin-expressing stem cells of the hair follicle, discovered by our laboratory, have been shown to be able to form outer-root sheaths of the follicle as well as neurons and many other non-follicle cell types. We have termed the nestin-expressing stem cells of the hair follicle as hair-follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells. We have shown that the HAP stem cells from the hair follicle can effect the repair of peripheral nerve and spinal cord injury. The hair follicle stem cells differentiate into neuronal and glial cells after transplantation to the injured peripheral nerve and spinal cord, and enhance injury repair and locomotor recovery...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Takashi Aoi
In 2006, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells were generated by Yamanaka and Takahashi for the first time from a mouse fibroblast culture by introducing four factors. In the 10 years since then, this breakthrough discovery has been making waves in the fields of biology and medical science. For example, various technologies for generating iPS cells have been developed, and we have cultivated a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in reprogramming. In addition, many researchers have explored the applications of iPS cells, such as drug discovery, the study of disease mechanisms and regenerative medicine, and the development of advanced technologies for the differentiation and qualification of the cells...
September 2016: Journal of Biochemistry
Tadahiro Shinozawa, Hiroshi Y Yoshikawa, Takanori Takebe
The self-organizing tissue-based approach coupled with induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell technology is evolving as a promising field for designing organoids in culture and is expected to achieve valuable practical outcomes in regenerative medicine and drug development. Organoids show properties of functional organs and represent an alternative to cell models in conventional two-dimensional differentiation platforms; moreover, organoids can be used to investigate mechanisms of development and disease, drug discovery and toxicity assessment...
June 27, 2016: Developmental Biology
Hiroo Ueno
Adult stem cells and embryonic (ES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are two major focus areas of stem cell research. Studies on adult stem cells are important not only as sources for regenerative medicine but for analyzing the mechanisms of tissue homeostasis, tissue repair after injury, cancinogenesis, and aging. On the other hand, ES and iPS cells are mainly important for regenerative medicine. However, many adult stem cells, especially those in low-turnover tissues, have remained unidentified. We have been working on the development of methods using multiple fluorescent markers, to improve the accuracy of lineage-tracing analyses of adult stem cells and their fetal progenitors...
August 2016: Pathology International
Hidetaka Suga
The hypothalamic-pituitary system is essential for maintaining life and controlling systemic homeostasis. The functional disorder makes patients suffer from various symptoms all their lives. Pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, differentiate into neuroectodermal progenitors when cultured as floating aggregates under serum-free conditions. Recent results have shown that strict removal of exogenous patterning factors during the early differentiation period induces rostral hypothalamic-like progenitors from mouse ES cells...
August 31, 2016: Endocrine Journal
Kohji Nishida
Japan faces an aging population and a declining birth rate, so medical professionals and the public are seeking next-generation ophthalmological treatments to preserve and restore visual function. Two fields lie at the heart of this future concept of ophthalmological treatments. The first is predictive medicine and early intervention and treatment. This field is based on precision medicine to treat chronic conditions such as keratoconus, glaucoma, and macular degeneration while the condition is latent or soon after it has developed...
March 2016: Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi
Masayo Takahashi
Progress in basic research, starting with the work on neural stem cells in the middle 1990's to embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells at present, will lead the cell therapy (regenerative medicine) of various organs, including the central nervous system to a big medical field in the future. The author's group transplanted iPS cell-derived retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell sheets to the eye of a patient with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in 2014 as a clinical research...
March 2016: Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi
Kang-In Lee, Seo-Young Lee, Dong-Youn Hwang
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) hold great promise in the field of regenerative medicine, especially immune-compatible cell therapy. The most important safety-related issues that must be resolved before the clinical use of iPS cells include the generation of "footprint-free" and "xeno-free" iPS cells. In this study, we sought to examine whether an extracellular matrix- (ECM-) based xeno-free culture system that we recently established could be used together with a microRNA-enhanced mRNA reprogramming method for the generation of clinically safe iPS cells...
2016: Stem Cells International
Kazuhide Sato, Peter L Choyke, Kobayashi Hisataka
Recent developments in tissue engineering offer innovative solutions for many diseases. For example, tissue engineering using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS) emerged as a new method in regenerative medicine. Although this tissue regeneration is promising, contamination with unwanted cells during tissue cultures is a major concern. Moreover, there is a safety concern regarding tumorigenicity after transplantation. Therefore, there is an urgent need for eliminating specific cells without damaging other cells that need to be protected, especially in established tissue...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Noriyuki Tsumaki
The development of induced pluripotent stem cells(iPSCs)has enabled the acquisition of patient-specific chondrocytes by converting somatic cells, such as dermal fibroblasts or blood cells, from patients to iPSCs and then differentiating them toward chondrocytes. We can further generate cartilage tissue from iPSC-derived chondrocytes. Studies on iPSC-derived chondrocytes/cartilage for the regeneration of articular cartilage injury are ongoing. These studies will in the future use autologous iPSCs and allogenic iPSCs from an iPSC stock prepared from donor cells...
April 2016: Clinical Calcium
Yasuhiro Takashima
Currently it is less advanced to understand the pathology of lifestyle disease by using iPS cells because there is partly less direct connection between life style disease and iPS cells. So much more scientists focus on regenerative medicine such as beta cells therapy using iPS cells technologies. It will be indeed a powerful tool to generate beta cells from iPS cells as even in type2 diabetes patients, hyposecretion of insulin from beta cells in pancreas is one of causes. Another reason is complexity of the pathology of life style disease...
March 2016: Clinical Calcium
Asuka Morizane, Jun Takahashi
In Parkinson's disease (PD), dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra are degenerated and lost. Cell therapy for PD replaces the lost dopamine neurons by transplanting donor dopamine neural progenitor cells. Cell therapy for PD has been performed in the clinic since the 1980s and uses donor cells from the mesencephalon of aborted embryos. Regenerative medicine for PD using induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell technology is drawing attention, because it offers a limitless and more advantageous source of donor cells than aborted embryos...
2016: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
Katsuhisa Matsuura, Hiroyoshi Seta, Yuji Haraguchi, Khaled Alsayegh, Hidekazu Sekine, Tatsuya Shimizu, Nobuhisa Hagiwara, Kenji Yamazaki, Teruo Okano
The development of a suitable strategy for eliminating remaining undifferentiated cells is indispensable for the use of human-induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cells in regenerative medicine. Here, we show for the first time that TRPV-1 activation through transient culture at 42 °C in combination with agonists is a simple and useful strategy to eliminate iPS cells from bioengineered cardiac cell sheet tissues. When human iPS cells were cultured at 42 °C, almost all cells disappeared by 48 hours through apoptosis...
2016: Scientific Reports
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