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Stem cell, iPS cell, regenerative medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918520/derivation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-ipsc-lines-and-mechanism-of-pluripotency-historical-perspective-and-recent-advances
#1
REVIEW
Arvind Chhabra
Derivation of human embryonic stem cell (hES) lines in 1998 was not only a major technological breakthrough in the field of regenerative medicine; it also triggered a passionate debate about the ethical issues associated with the utilization of human embryos for derivation of hESC lines. Successful derivation of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS) lines from human somatic cells with defined reprogramming factors by Shinya Yamanaka`s group in 2007 was another breakthrough that generated enormous excitement and hope for the development of donor-specific personalized cell replacement therapies (CRT) without the ethical dilemma associated with it...
September 16, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887108/new-approach-for-the-derivation-of-melanocytes-from-induced-pluripotent-stem-ips-cells
#2
Tamihiro Kawakami, Tatsuro Okano, Sora Takeuchi, Kayoko Osumi, Yoshinao Soma, Munenari Itoh, Tomohisa Hirobe, Kowichi Jimbow
Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have the ability to differentiate into multiple cell types in the body and have an unlimited growth potential. However, iPS cell-derived melanocytes produced by existing protocols have significant limitations in developing novel strategies for regenerative medicine and cell therapies of pigmentation disorders in humans, because they involve culture in media containing fetal bovine serum (FBS) and non-physiologic agents. In this study, we established a new in vitro approach to generate iPS cell-derived human melanocytes which have higher proliferation rates and increased melanin production compared to melanocytes prepared by previously reported approaches...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886268/implanted-hair-follicle-associated-pluripotent-hap-stem-cells-encapsulated-in-polyvinylidene-fluoride-membrane-cylinders-promote-effective-recovery-of-peripheral-nerve-injury
#3
Aiko Yamazaki, Kohya Obara, Natsuko Tohgi, Kyoumi Shirai, Sumiyuki Mii, Yuko Hamada, Nobuko Arakawa, Ryoichi Aki, Robert M Hoffman, Yasuyuki Amoh
Hair follicle-associated-pluripotent (HAP) stem cells are located in the bulge area of the hair follicle, express the stem-cell marker, nestin, and have been shown to differentiate to nerve cells, glial cells, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells, cardiac muscle cells, and melanocytes. Transplanted HAP stem cells promote the recovery of peripheral nerve and spinal cord injuries and have the potential for heart regeneration as well. In the present study, we implanted mouse HAP stem-cell spheres encapsulated in polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-membrane cylinders into the severed sciatic nerve of immunocompetent and immunocompromised (nude) mice...
September 8, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815441/pluripotent-stem-cells-in-adult-tissues-struggling-to-be-acknowledged-over-two-decades
#4
REVIEW
Deepa Bhartiya
Stem cells have fascinated scientists for a long time and huge research efforts have been put into them as they have the potential to regenerate diseased organs. Besides embryonic stem cells (ES) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS), it has been postulated that pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) may also exist in various adult tissues. They are thought to be more primitive than the adult stem cells (ASCs), serve as a backup pool to give rise to ASCs and thus play a crucial role in maintaining life-long homeostasis...
August 16, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749199/hair-follicle-associated-pluripotent-hap-stem-cells
#5
Yasuyuki Amoh, Robert M Hoffman
Various types of stem cells reside in the skin, including keratinocyte progenitor cells, melanocyte progenitor cells, skin-derived precursors (SKPs), and nestin-expressing hair follicle-associated-pluripotent (HAP) stem cells. HAP stem cells, located in the bulge area of the hair follicle, have been shown to differentiate to nerve cells, glial cells, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells, cardiac muscle cells, and melanocytes. HAP stem cells are positive for the stem-cell marker CD34, as well as K15-negative, suggesting their relatively undifferentiated state...
July 27, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699384/preclinical-safety-evaluation-of-allogeneic-ips-cell-based-therapy-in-a-swine-model-of-myocardial-infarction
#6
Carolina Gálvez-Montón, Carolina Soler-Botija, Oriol Iborra-Egea, Idoia Diaz-Guemes, Mercè Martí, Olalla Iglesias-Garcia, Cristina Prat-Vidal, Verónica Crisóstomo, Aida Llucià-Valldeperas, Isaac Perea-Gil, Santiago Roura, Francisco Miguel Sanchez Margallo, Ángel Raya, Antoni Bayés-Genís
The combination of biomatrices and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) derivatives to aid repair and myocardial scar formation may soon become a reality for cardiac regenerative medicine. However, the tumor risk associated to residual undifferentiated cells remains an important safety concern of iPSC-based therapies. This concern is not satisfactorily addressed in xenotransplantation, which require immune suppression of the transplanted animal. Here, we assessed the safety of transplanting undifferentiated iPSC in an allogeneic setting...
July 12, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661522/tubulogenesis-of-co-cultured-human-ips-derived-endothelial-cells-and-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-fibrin-and-gelatin-methacrylate-gels
#7
G A Calderon, P Thai, C W Hsu, B Grigoryan, S M Gibson, M E Dickinson, J S Miller
Here, we investigate the tubulogenic potential of commercially-sourced iPS-ECs with and without supporting commercially-sourced hMSCs within 3D natural fibrin or semi-synthetic gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogels. We developed a selectable dual color third generation lentiviral reporter (hEF1α-H2B-mOrange2-IRES-EGFP PGK-Puro) to differentially label the nucleus and cytoplasm of iPS-ECs which allowed real-time tracking of key steps of vascular morphogenesis such as vacuole formation and coalescence to form shared multicellular lumens...
July 25, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588295/cell-fiber-based-three-dimensional-culture-system-for-highly-efficient-expansion-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#8
Kazuhiro Ikeda, Shogo Nagata, Teru Okitsu, Shoji Takeuchi
Human pluripotent stem cells are a potentially powerful cellular resource for application in regenerative medicine. Because such applications require large numbers of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cells, a scalable culture system of human pluripotent stem cell needs to be developed. Several suspension culture systems for human pluripotent stem cell expansion exist; however, it is difficult to control the thickness of cell aggregations in these systems, leading to increased cell death likely caused by limited diffusion of gases and nutrients into the aggregations...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460880/transdifferentiation-and-reprogramming-overview-of-the-processes-their-similarities-and-differences
#9
REVIEW
Artur Cieślar-Pobuda, Viktoria Knoflach, Mikael V Ringh, Joachim Stark, Wirginia Likus, Krzysztof Siemianowicz, Saeid Ghavami, Andrzej Hudecki, Jason L Green, Marek J Łos
Reprogramming, or generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells (functionally similar to embryonic stem cells or ES cells) by the use of transcription factors (typically: Oct3/4, Sox2, c-Myc, Klf4) called "Yamanaka factors" (OSKM), has revolutionized regenerative medicine. However, factors used to induce stemness are also overexpressed in cancer. Both, ES cells and iPS cells cause teratoma formation when injected to tissues. This raises a safety concern for therapies based on iPS derivates. Transdifferentiation (lineage reprogramming, or -conversion), is a process in which one mature, specialized cell type changes into another without entering a pluripotent state...
July 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386481/ips-cell-technologies-and-their-prospect-for-bone-regeneration-and-disease-modeling-a-mini-review
#10
REVIEW
Maria Csobonyeiova, Stefan Polak, Radoslav Zamborsky, Lubos Danisovic
Bone disorders are a group of varied acute and chronic traumatic, degenerative, malignant or congenital conditions affecting the musculoskeletal system. They are prevalent in society and, with an ageing population, the incidence and impact on the population's health is growing. Severe persisting pain and limited mobility are the major symptoms of the disorder that impair the quality of life in affected patients. Current therapies only partially treat the disorders, offering management of symptoms, or temporary replacement with inert materials...
July 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372274/stem-cell-roadmap%C3%A2-the-industrial-point-of%C3%A2-view
#11
Mazen Elzaabi, Agnès Thevenin, Pierre-Noël Lirsac
CELLforCURE is a French Contract Development and Manufacturing Organization (CDMO) dedicated to industrialization and process development for routine manufacturing, GMP manufacturing for clinical and commercial batches and regulatory services and associated logistics. CELLforCURE is a subsidiary of LFB Group.Stem cells fields of application gather cell and gene therapy as well as tissue engineering. According to VisionGain survey, cell therapy medicinal products will remain predominant in the future.Clinical trials are sponsored either by universities or private companies...
2017: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361959/dinaciclib-potently-suppresses-mcl-1-and-selectively-induces-the-cell-death-in-human-ips-cells-without-affecting-the-viability-of-cardiac-tissue
#12
Khaled Alsayegh, Katsuhisa Matsuura, Hidekazu Sekine, Tatsuya Shimizu
Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells hold great potential for being a major source of cells for regenerative medicine. One major issue that hinders their advancement to clinic is the persistence of undifferentiated iPS cells in iPS-derived tissue. In this report, we show that the CDKs inhibitor, Dinaciclib, selectively eliminates iPS cells without affecting the viability of cardiac cells. We found that low nanomolar concentration of dinaciclib increased DNA damage and p53 protein levels in iPSCs. This was accompanied by negative regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein MCL-1...
March 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356547/mechanisms-of-ips-cell-generation-and-beyond
#13
Keisuke Kaji
The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) achieved by overexpression of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc, transformed our classical views of the cellular epigenetic landscape and delivered a new concept for cell and tissue engineering. In addition to iPSCs, several other cell types have also been generated by master transcription factor (TF)-mediated transdifferentiation. However, the critical molecular mechanisms amongst diverse cellular identity changes are not well understood. Through the investigation of reprogramming mechanisms, we recently revealed that over-expression of constitutive active Smad3 boosted not only iPSC generation, but also 3 other master TF-mediated conversions, from B cells to macrophages, myoblasts to adipocytes, and human fibroblasts to neurons...
2017: Keio Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339300/genetic-manipulation-by-zinc-finger-nucleases-in-rat-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#14
Sheng Yang, Shufang Ding, Qianhua Xu, Xiong Li, Qiong Xiong
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have an extensive application in regenerative medicine, pharmaceutical discovery, and basic research. With the recent derivation of rat iPSCs, it is now feasible to apply genetic manipulation in this species. But such tools do not yet exist for many rat strains, especially for disease model rat. The Sprague Dawley (SD) rat is an inbred disease model for hypertension, nephropathy, pulmonary hypertension, depression, and alcohol consumption. In this study, the SD rat iPSCs were generated using lentiviral method...
June 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326803/when-is-an-alveolar-type-2-cell-an-alveolar-type-2-cell-a-conundrum-for-lung-stem-cell-biology-and-regenerative-medicine
#15
REVIEW
Michael F Beers, Yuben Moodley
Generating mature, differentiated, adult lung cells from pluripotent cells, such as induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells, offers the hope of both generating disease-specific in vitro models and creating definitive and personalized therapies for a host of debilitating lung parenchymal and airway diseases. With the goal of advancing lung-regenerative medicine, several groups have developed and reported on protocols using defined media, coculture with mesenchymal components, or sequential treatments mimicking lung development, to obtain distal lung epithelial cells from stem cell precursors...
July 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326324/three-dimensional-human-cardiac-tissue-engineered-by-centrifugation-of-stacked-cell-sheets-and-cross-sectional-observation-of-its-synchronous-beatings-by-optical-coherence-tomography
#16
Yuji Haraguchi, Akiyuki Hasegawa, Katsuhisa Matsuura, Mari Kobayashi, Shin-Ichi Iwana, Yasuhiro Kabetani, Tatsuya Shimizu
Three-dimensional (3D) tissues are engineered by stacking cell sheets, and these tissues have been applied in clinical regenerative therapies. The optimal fabrication technique of 3D human tissues and the real-time observation system for these tissues are important in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, cardiac physiology, and the safety testing of candidate chemicals. In this study, for aiming the clinical application, 3D human cardiac tissues were rapidly fabricated by human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cardiac cell sheets with centrifugation, and the structures and beatings in the cardiac tissues were observed cross-sectionally and noninvasively by two optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322920/stem-cell-transplantation-therapy-for-multifaceted-therapeutic-benefits-after-stroke
#17
REVIEW
Ling Wei, Zheng Z Wei, Michael Qize Jiang, Osama Mohamad, Shan Ping Yu
One of the exciting advances in modern medicine and life science is cell-based neurovascular regeneration of damaged brain tissues and repair of neuronal structures. The progress in stem cell biology and creation of adult induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has significantly improved basic and pre-clinical research in disease mechanisms and generated enthusiasm for potential applications in the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases including stroke. Endogenous neural stem cells and cultured stem cells are capable of self-renewal and give rise to virtually all types of cells essential for the makeup of neuronal structures...
October 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293168/modeling-human-neurological-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-from-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-neuronal-differentiation-and-its-applications-in-neurotrauma
#18
REVIEW
Hisham Bahmad, Ola Hadadeh, Farah Chamaa, Katia Cheaito, Batoul Darwish, Ahmad-Kareem Makkawi, Wassim Abou-Kheir
With the help of several inducing factors, somatic cells can be reprogrammed to become induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSCs) lines. The success is in obtaining iPSCs almost identical to embryonic stem cells (ESCs), therefore various approaches have been tested and ultimately several ones have succeeded. The importance of these cells is in how they serve as models to unveil the molecular pathways and mechanisms underlying several human diseases, and also in its potential roles in the development of regenerative medicine...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266864/recent-advances-in-therapeutic-applications-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#19
Farzaneh Rami, Shamsi Naderi Beni, Mahboobeh Mojaver Kahnamooi, Ilnaz Rahimmanesh, Ahmad Reza Salehi, Rasoul Salehi
Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are generated by reprogramming of differentiated somatic cells. These cells are identical to human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in gene expression pattern and the ability to differentiate. iPS cells can be used in in vitro modeling of diseases, testing drugs, assessing gene therapy methods, and cell therapy. Yet, the most important and promising application of iPS cells is in regenerative medicine. Regenerative medicine is a novel area in medicine aiming at the treatment of impaired or lost tissues by replacing them with functional and healthy ones...
April 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207177/quaking-is-a-key-regulator-of-endothelial-cell-differentiation-neovascularization-and-angiogenesis
#20
Amy Cochrane, Sophia Kelaini, Marianna Tsifaki, James Bojdo, Marta Vilà-González, Daiana Drehmer, Rachel Caines, Corey Magee, Magdalini Eleftheriadou, Yanhua Hu, David Grieve, Alan W Stitt, Lingfang Zeng, Qingbo Xu, Andriana Margariti
The capability to derive endothelial cell (ECs) from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) holds huge therapeutic potential for cardiovascular disease. This study elucidates the precise role of the RNA-binding protein Quaking isoform 5 (QKI-5) during EC differentiation from both mouse and human iPSCs (hiPSCs) and dissects how RNA-binding proteins can improve differentiation efficiency toward cell therapy for important vascular diseases. iPSCs represent an attractive cellular approach for regenerative medicine today as they can be used to generate patient-specific therapeutic cells toward autologous cell therapy...
April 2017: Stem Cells
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