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Stem cell, iPS cell, regenerative medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207177/quaking-is-a-key-regulator-of-endothelial-cell-differentiation-neovascularization-and-angiogenesis
#1
Amy Cochrane, Sophia Kelaini, Marianna Tsifaki, James Bojdo, Marta Vilà-González, Daiana Drehmer, Rachel Caines, Corey Magee, Magdalini Eleftheriadou, Yanhua Hu, David Grieve, Alan W Stitt, Lingfang Zeng, Qingbo Xu, Andriana Margariti
The capability to derive endothelial cell (ECs) from induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) cells holds huge therapeutic potential for cardiovascular disease. Objective- This study elucidates the precise role of the RNA-binding protein Quaking isoform 5 (QKI-5) during EC differentiation from both mouse and human iPS cells and dissects how RNA-binding proteins can improve differentiation efficiency towards cell therapy for important vascular diseases. iPS cells represent an attractive cellular approach for regenerative medicine today since they can be used to generate patient-specific therapeutic cells towards autologous cell therapy...
February 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142229/whole-genome-dna-methylation-analyses-revealed-epigenetic-instability-in-tumorigenic-human-ips-cell-derived-neural-stem-progenitor-cells
#2
Tsuyoshi Iida, Akio Iwanami, Tsukasa Sanosaka, Jun Kohyama, Hiroyuki Miyoshi, Narihito Nagoshi, Rei Kashiwagi, Yoshiaki Toyama, Morio Matsumoto, Masaya Nakamura, Hideyuki Okano
Although human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) derivatives are considered promising cellular resources for regenerative medicine, their tumorigenicity potentially limits their clinical application in hiPSC technologies. We previously demonstrated that oncogenic hiPSC-derived neural stem/progenitor cells (hiPSC-NS/PCs) produced tumor-like tissues that were distinct from teratomas. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying the regulation of tumorigenicity in hiPSC-NS/PCs, we performed an integrated analysis using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array and the HumanHT-12 v4...
January 31, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137534/is-there-a-place-for-human-fetal-derived-stem-cells-for-cell-replacement-therapy-in-huntington-s-disease
#3
REVIEW
Sophie V Precious, Rike Zietlow, Stephen B Dunnett, Claire M Kelly, Anne E Rosser
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease that offers an excellent paradigm for cell replacement therapy because of the associated relatively focal cell loss in the striatum. The predominant cells lost in this condition are striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs). Transplantation of developing MSNs taken from the fetal brain has provided proof of concept that donor MSNs can survive, integrate and bring about a degree of functional recovery in both pre-clinical studies and in a limited number of clinical trials...
January 27, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057922/membrane-translocation-of-t-snare-protein-syntaxin-4-abrogates-ground-state-pluripotency-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#4
Natsumi Hagiwara-Chatani, Kota Shirai, Takumi Kido, Tomoatsu Horigome, Akihiro Yasue, Naoki Adachi, Yohei Hirai
Embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are attractive tools for regenerative medicine therapies. However, aberrant cell populations that display flattened morphology and lose ground-state pluripotency often appear spontaneously, unless glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK1/2) are inactivated. Here, we show that membrane translocation of the t-SNARE protein syntaxin-4 possibly is involved in this phenomenon. We found that mouse ES cells cultured without GSK3β/MEK1/2 inhibitors (2i) spontaneously extrude syntaxin-4 at the cell surface and that artificial expression of cell surface syntaxin-4 induces appreciable morphological changes and mesodermal differentiation through dephosphorylation of Akt...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998294/directed-differentiation-of-human-ipsc-into-insulin-producing-cells-is-improved-by-induced-expression-of-pdx1-and-nkx6-1-factors-in-ipc-progenitors
#5
Maciej P Walczak, Anna M Drozd, Ewelina Stoczynska-Fidelus, Piotr Rieske, Dawid P Grzela
BACKGROUND: Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) possess an enormous potential as both, scientific and therapeutic tools. Their application in the regenerative medicine provides new treatment opportunities for numerous diseases, including type 1 diabetes. In this work we aimed to derive insulin producing cells (IPC) from iPS cells established in defined conditions. METHODS: We optimized iPSC generation protocol and created pluripotent cell lines with stably integrated PDX1 and NKX6...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874035/p53-isoform-%C3%AE-133p53-promotes-efficiency-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-and-ensures-genomic-integrity-during-reprogramming
#6
Lu Gong, Xiao Pan, Haide Chen, Lingjun Rao, Yelin Zeng, Honghui Hang, Jinrong Peng, Lei Xiao, Jun Chen
Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have great potential in regenerative medicine, but this depends on the integrity of their genomes. iPS cells have been found to contain a large number of de novo genetic alterations due to DNA damage response during reprogramming. Thus, to maintain the genetic stability of iPS cells is an important goal in iPS cell technology. DNA damage response can trigger tumor suppressor p53 activation, which ensures genome integrity of reprogramming cells by inducing apoptosis and senescence...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837558/menstrual-blood-derived-stem-cells-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-characterization-of-functional-effects
#7
Maria Carolina Oliveira Rodrigues, Trenton Lippert, Hung Nguyen, Sussannah Kaelber, Paul R Sanberg, Cesar V Borlongan
Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that menstrual blood stands as a viable source of stem cells. Menstrual blood-derived stem cells (MenSCs) are morphologically and functionally similar to cells directly extracted from the endometrium, and present dual expression of mesenchymal and embryonic cell markers, thus becoming interesting tools for regenerative medicine. Functional reports show higher proliferative and self-renewal capacities than bone marrow-derived stem cells, as well as successful differentiation into hepatocyte-like cells, glial-like cells, endometrial stroma-like cells, among others...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717488/ten-years-since-the-discovery-of-ips-cells-the-current-state-of-their-clinical-application
#8
J Aznar, J Tudela
On the 10-year anniversary of the discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells, we review the main results from their various fields of application, the obstacles encountered during experimentation and the potential applications in clinical practice. The efficacy of induced pluripotent cells in clinical experimentation can be equated to that of human embryonic stem cells; however, unlike stem cells, induced pluripotent cells do not involve the severe ethical difficulties entailed by the need to destroy human embryos to obtain them...
October 4, 2016: Revista Clínica Española
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637197/use-of-embryonic-stem-cells-to-treat-severe-eye-diseases
#9
Justo Aznar, Julio Tudela
BACKGROUND: The use of stem cells in regenerative medicine has major therapeutic potential. Recent clinical trials using cells derived from human stem cells are showing encouraging results, although these should be assessed with the necessary caution. DISCUSSION: Some media have reported the results of these trials without due care, perhaps creating expectations that do not match the reality of the facts. This paper describes some of the recent advances in the use of human stem cells, particularly those made in the area of ophthalmology, and more specifically, in Stargardt's disease and age-related macular degeneration (AMD)...
May 2016: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614362/endogenous-very-small-embryonic-like-stem-cells-critical-review-therapeutic-potential-and-a-look-ahead
#10
REVIEW
Deepa Bhartiya, Ambreen Shaikh, Sandhya Anand, Hiren Patel, Sona Kapoor, Kalpana Sriraman, Seema Parte, Sreepoorna Unni
BACKGROUND: Both pluripotent very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells were reported in 2006. In 2012, a Nobel Prize was awarded for iPS technology whereas even today the very existence of VSELs is not well accepted. The underlying reason is that VSELs exist in low numbers, remain dormant under homeostatic conditions, are very small in size and do not pellet down at 250-280g. The VSELs maintain life-long tissue homeostasis, serve as a backup pool for adult stem cells and are mobilized under stress conditions...
December 2016: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599428/application-of-ips-cells-derived-from-congenital-myelodysplastic-syndrome-for-research-of-nomal-hematopoesis-and-hematological-malignancies
#11
Hideaki Nakajima
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are not only a valuable resource for regenerative medicine, but also a promising tool for disease modeling and drug discovery. Patient-specific iPSCs harboring disease-specific mutations are extremely useful for investigating disease mechanisms and novel treatment approaches. In the field of hematology, attempts to establish iPSCs from tumor cells such as those of leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) were largely unsuccessful because proper reprogramming processes were hampered by their extensive genetic alterations...
August 2016: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568462/generation-of-functional-endothelial-cells-with-progenitor-like-features-from-murine-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#12
Neli Kachamakova-Trojanowska, Witold Nowak, Krzysztof Szade, Jacek Stepniewski, Karolina Bukowska-Strakova, Monika Zukowska, Hevidar Taha, Antonina Chmura-Skirlinska, Michael Beilharz, Jozef Dulak, Alicja Jozkowicz
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have shown great potential in regenerative medicine and research applications like disease modeling or drug discovery. Endothelium is indispensable for vascular homeostasis, whereas endothelial dysfunction could lead to different diseases. Therefore, generating autologous cells, able to restore the endothelial lining, can be crucial for slowing or reversing certain pathological processes. In the current study we show efficient differentiation of murine iPSCs into endothelial cells (ECs) with stable CD34+/Tie-2+/Sca-1+/CD45- phenotype and proven functionality...
August 25, 2016: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512979/human-urinary-epithelial-cells-as-a-source-of-engraftable-hepatocyte-like-cells-using-stem-cell-technology
#13
Vanessa Sauer, Tatyana Tchaikovskaya, Xia Wang, Yanfeng Li, Wei Zhang, Krisztina Tar, Zsuzsanna Polgar, Jianqiang Ding, Chandan Guha, Ira J Fox, Namita Roy-Chowdhury, Jayanta Roy-Chowdhury
Although several types of somatic cells have been reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and then differentiated to hepatocyte-like cells (iHeps), the method for generating such cells from renal tubular epithelial cells shed in human urine and transplanting them into animal livers has not been described systematically. We report reprogramming of human urinary epithelial cells into iPSCs and subsequent hepatic differentiation, followed by a detailed characterization of the newly generated iHeps...
December 13, 2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27431243/peripheral-nerve-and-spinal-cord-regeneration-in-mice-using-hair-follicle-associated-pluripotent-hap-stem-cells
#14
Yasuyuki Amoh, Kensei Katsuoka, Robert M Hoffman
Nestin, a neural stem cell marker protein, is expressed in hair follicle cells above the bulge area. These nestin-positive hair follicle-associated-pluripotent (HAP) stem cells are negative for the keratinocyte marker K15 and can differentiate into neurons, glia, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells, cardiac muscle cells, and melanocytes in vitro. HAP stem cells are positive for the stem cell marker CD34, as well as K15-negative, suggesting their relatively undifferentiated state. HAP stem cells promoted the functional recovery of injured peripheral nerves and the spinal cord...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27431240/introduction-to-hair-follicle-associated-pluripotent-stem-cells
#15
Robert M Hoffman
Nestin-expressing stem cells of the hair follicle, discovered by our laboratory, have been shown to be able to form outer-root sheaths of the follicle as well as neurons and many other non-follicle cell types. We have termed the nestin-expressing stem cells of the hair follicle as hair-follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells. We have shown that the HAP stem cells from the hair follicle can effect the repair of peripheral nerve and spinal cord injury. The hair follicle stem cells differentiate into neuronal and glial cells after transplantation to the injured peripheral nerve and spinal cord, and enhance injury repair and locomotor recovery...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27387749/10th-anniversary-of-ips-cells-the-challenges-that-lie-ahead
#16
REVIEW
Takashi Aoi
In 2006, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells were generated by Yamanaka and Takahashi for the first time from a mouse fibroblast culture by introducing four factors. In the 10 years since then, this breakthrough discovery has been making waves in the fields of biology and medical science. For example, various technologies for generating iPS cells have been developed, and we have cultivated a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in reprogramming. In addition, many researchers have explored the applications of iPS cells, such as drug discovery, the study of disease mechanisms and regenerative medicine, and the development of advanced technologies for the differentiation and qualification of the cells...
September 2016: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27364470/reverse-engineering-liver-buds-through-self-driven-condensation-and-organization-towards-medical-application
#17
REVIEW
Tadahiro Shinozawa, Hiroshi Y Yoshikawa, Takanori Takebe
The self-organizing tissue-based approach coupled with induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell technology is evolving as a promising field for designing organoids in culture and is expected to achieve valuable practical outcomes in regenerative medicine and drug development. Organoids show properties of functional organs and represent an alternative to cell models in conventional two-dimensional differentiation platforms; moreover, organoids can be used to investigate mechanisms of development and disease, drug discovery and toxicity assessment...
December 15, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27345364/identification-of-normal-and-neoplastic-stem-cells-by-the-multicolor-lineage-tracing-methods
#18
REVIEW
Hiroo Ueno
Adult stem cells and embryonic (ES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are two major focus areas of stem cell research. Studies on adult stem cells are important not only as sources for regenerative medicine but for analyzing the mechanisms of tissue homeostasis, tissue repair after injury, cancinogenesis, and aging. On the other hand, ES and iPS cells are mainly important for regenerative medicine. However, many adult stem cells, especially those in low-turnover tissues, have remained unidentified. We have been working on the development of methods using multiple fluorescent markers, to improve the accuracy of lineage-tracing analyses of adult stem cells and their fetal progenitors...
August 2016: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27245938/making-pituitary-hormone-producing-cells-in-a-dish-review
#19
Hidetaka Suga
The hypothalamic-pituitary system is essential for maintaining life and controlling systemic homeostasis. The functional disorder makes patients suffer from various symptoms all their lives. Pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, differentiate into neuroectodermal progenitors when cultured as floating aggregates under serum-free conditions. Recent results have shown that strict removal of exogenous patterning factors during the early differentiation period induces rostral hypothalamic-like progenitors from mouse ES cells...
August 31, 2016: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27164759/-future-innovative-medicine-for-corneal-diseases
#20
Kohji Nishida
Japan faces an aging population and a declining birth rate, so medical professionals and the public are seeking next-generation ophthalmological treatments to preserve and restore visual function. Two fields lie at the heart of this future concept of ophthalmological treatments. The first is predictive medicine and early intervention and treatment. This field is based on precision medicine to treat chronic conditions such as keratoconus, glaucoma, and macular degeneration while the condition is latent or soon after it has developed...
March 2016: Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi
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