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Stem cell, iPS cell, regenerative medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667777/induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-conditional-medium-promotes-leydig-cell-anti-apoptosis-and-proliferation-via-autophagy-and-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#1
Xiaoling Guo, Yong Chen, Tingting Hong, Xianwu Chen, Yue Duan, Chao Li, Renshan Ge
Leydig cell transplantation is a better alternative in the treatment of androgen-deficient males. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived conditioned medium (iPS-CM) on the anti-apoptosis, proliferation and function of immature Leydig cells (ILCs), and illuminate the underlying mechanisms. ILCs were exposed to 200 μmol/L hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) for 24 hours with or without iPS-CM treatments. Cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometric analysis...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615438/generation-of-intestinal-organoids-suitable-for-pharmacokinetic-studies-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#2
Daichi Onozato, Misaki Yamashita, Anna Nakanishi, Takumi Akagawa, Yuriko Kida, Isamu Ogawa, Tadahiro Hashita, Takahiro Iwao, Tamihide Matsunaga
Intestinal organoids morphologically resemble intestinal tissues, and are expected to be used in both regenerative medicine and drug development studies, including pharmacokinetic studies. However, the pharmacokinetic properties of these organoids remain poorly characterized. In this study, we aimed to generate pharmacokinetically functional intestinal organoids from human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Human iPS cells were induced to differentiate into the hindgut and then seeded on EZSPHERE plates to generate uniform spheroids, and the floating spheroids were subsequently differentiated into intestinal organoids by using small-molecule compounds...
April 3, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409945/billion-scale-production-of-hepatocyte-like-cells-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#3
Tomoki Yamashita, Kazuo Takayama, Fuminori Sakurai, Hiroyuki Mizuguchi
Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells are expected to be utilized in drug screening and regenerative medicine. However, hepatocyte-like cells have not been fully used in such applications because it is difficult to produce such cells on a large scale. In this study, we tried to establish a method to mass produce hepatocyte-like cells using a three-dimensional (3D) cell culture bioreactor called the Rotary Cell Culture System (RCCS). RCCS enabled us to obtain homogenous hepatocyte-like cells on a billion scale (>109  cells)...
February 19, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404442/generation-of-safe-and-therapeutically-effective-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-hepatocyte-like-cells-for-regenerative-medicine
#4
Kazuo Takayama, Naoki Akita, Natsumi Mimura, Rina Akahira, Yukimasa Taniguchi, Makoto Ikeda, Fuminori Sakurai, Osamu Ohara, Tomohiro Morio, Kiyotoshi Sekiguchi, Hiroyuki Mizuguchi
Hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are expected to be applied for regenerative medicine. In this study, we attempted to generate safe and therapeutically effective human iPS-HLCs for hepatocyte transplantation. First, human iPS-HLCs were generated from a human leukocyte antigen-homozygous donor on the assumption that the allogenic transplantation might be carried out. Highly efficient hepatocyte differentiation was performed under a feeder-free condition using human recombinant laminin 111, laminin 511, and type IV collagen...
December 2017: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393405/aurora-a-overexpression-is-linked-to-development-of-aggressive-teratomas-derived-from-human-ips-cells
#5
Seiga Ohmine, Jeffrey L Salisbury, James Ingle, Giuseppe Pettinato, Candace L Haddox, Tufia Haddad, Evanthia Galanis, Yasuhiro Ikeda, Antonino B D'assoro
The discovery of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) is a promising advancement in the field of regenerative and personalized medicine. Expression of SOX2, KLF4, OCT4 and MYC transcription factors induces the nuclear reprogramming of somatic cells into hiPSCs that share striking similarities with human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). However, several studies have demonstrated that hESCs and hiPSCs could lead to teratoma formation in vivo, thus limiting their current clinical applications. Aberrant cell cycle regulation of hESCs is linked to centrosome amplification, which may account, for their enhanced chromosomal instability (CIN), and thus increase their tumorigenicity...
April 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315221/introduction-of-exogenous-hsv-tk-suicide-gene-increases-safety-of-keratinocyte-derived-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-by-providing-genetic-emergency-exit-switch
#6
Maciej Sułkowski, Paweł Konieczny, Paula Chlebanowska, Marcin Majka
Since their invention in 2006, induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) cells remain a great promise for regenerative medicine circumventing the ethical issues linked to Embryonic Stem (ES) cell research. iPS cells can be generated in a patient-specific manner as an unlimited source of various cell types for in vitro drug screening, developmental biology studies and regenerative use. Having the capacity of differentiating into the cells of all three primary germ layers, iPS cells have high potential to form teratoma tumors...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312817/murine-pluripotent-stem-cells-that-escape-differentiation-inside-teratomas-maintain-pluripotency
#7
Yangli Pei, Liang Yue, Wei Zhang, Jinzhu Xiang, Zhu Ma, Jianyong Han
Background: Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) offer immense potential as a source for regenerative therapies. The teratoma assay is widely used in the field of stem cells and regenerative medicine, but the cell composition of teratoma is still elusive. Methods: We utilized PSCs expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the Pou5f1 promoter to study the persistence of potential pluripotent cells during teratoma formation in vivo . OCT4-MES (mouse embryonic stem cells) were isolated from the blastocysts of 3...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214583/prospects-of-pluripotent-and-adult-stem-cells-for-rare-diseases
#8
Javier García-Castro, Ilyas Singeç
Rare diseases are highly diverse and complex regarding molecular underpinning and clinical manifestation and afflict millions of patients worldwide. The lack of appropriate model systems with face and construct validity and the limited availability of live tissues and cells from patients has largely hampered the understanding of underlying disease mechanisms. As a consequence, there are no adequate treatment options available for the vast majority of rare diseases. Over the last decade, remarkable progress in pluripotent and adult stem cell biology and the advent of powerful genomic technologies opened up exciting new avenues for the investigation, diagnosis, and personalized therapy of intractable human diseases...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066419/effect-of-stem-cell-niche-elasticity-ecm-protein-on-the-self-beating-cardiomyocyte-differentiation-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-ips-cells-at-different-stages
#9
Mitsuhi Hirata, Tetsuji Yamaoka
Stem cell-based myocardial regeneration therapies have emerged as alternative strategies to heart transplantation for serious heart diseases, but autologous beating mature cardiomyocytes are not available. Here we investigated the effect of culture substrates on the cardiomyocyte differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSs) in vitro by separately evaluating the following continuous three steps: (1) cardiac marker gene expression, (2) contractile gene expression and self-beating, and (3) beating duration...
January 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057926/engraftment-and-morphological-development-of-vascularized-human-ips-cell-derived-3d-cardiomyocyte-tissue-after-xenotransplantation
#10
Hirokazu Narita, Fumiaki Shima, Junya Yokoyama, Shigeru Miyagawa, Yoshinari Tsukamoto, Yasushi Takamura, Ayami Hiura, Ken Fukumoto, Tomohiro Chiba, Seiji Watanabe, Yoshiki Sawa, Mitsuru Akashi, Hiroshi Shimoda
One of the major challenges in cell-based cardiac regenerative medicine is the in vitro construction of three-dimensional (3D) tissues consisting of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte (iPSC-CM) and a blood vascular network supplying nutrients and oxygen throughout the tissue after implantation. We have successfully built a vascularized iPSC-CM 3D-tissue using our validated cell manipulation technique. In order to evaluate an availability of the 3D-tissue as a biomaterial, functional morphology of the tissues was examined by light and transmission electron microscopy through their implantation into the rat infarcted heart...
October 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044473/induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-from-ovarian-tissue
#11
Sophia Salas, Nicholas Ng, Behzad Gerami-Naini, Raymond M Anchan
Yamanaka and colleagues revolutionized stem cell biology and regenerative medicine by observing that somatic cells can be reprogrammed into pluripotent stem cells. Evidence indicates that induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells retain epigenetic memories that bias their spontaneous differentiation into the originating somatic cell type, therefore epigenetic memory may be exploited to improve tissue specific regeneration. We recently showed that iPS cells reprogrammed from ovarian granulosa cells using mouse and human tissue overwhelmingly differentiate homotypically into ovarian steroidogenic and primordial germ cells...
October 18, 2017: Current Protocols in Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978257/morphological-analysis-of-live-undifferentiated-cells-derived-from-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#12
Yukihiko Osawa, Tomoyuki Miyamoto, Setsuyo Ohno, Eiji Ohno
Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells possess pluripotency and self-renewal ability. Therefore, iPS cells are expected to be useful in regenerative medicine. However, iPS cells form malignant immature teratomas after transplantation into animals, even after differentiation induction. It has been suggested that undifferentiated cells expressing Nanog that remain after differentiation induction are responsible for teratoma formation. Various methods of removing these undifferentiated cells have therefore been investigated, but few methods involve morphological approaches, which may induce less cell damage...
January 1, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967890/long-term-expansion-of-alveolar-stem-cells-derived-from-human-ips-cells-in-organoids
#13
Yuki Yamamoto, Shimpei Gotoh, Yohei Korogi, Masahide Seki, Satoshi Konishi, Satoshi Ikeo, Naoyuki Sone, Tadao Nagasaki, Hisako Matsumoto, Shigeo Muro, Isao Ito, Toyohiro Hirai, Takashi Kohno, Yutaka Suzuki, Michiaki Mishima
The stable expansion of tissue-specific stem cells in vitro has contributed to research on several organs. Alveolar epithelial type II (AT2) cells function as tissue stem cells in the lung, but robust models for studying human AT2 cells are lacking. Here we report a method for the efficient generation and long-term expansion of alveolar organoids (AOs) harboring SFTPC+ alveolar stem cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). hiPSC-derived SFTPC+ cells self-renewed, with transcriptomes and morphology consistent with those of AT2 cells, and were able to differentiate into alveolar epithelial type I (AT1)-like cells...
November 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918520/derivation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-ipsc-lines-and-mechanism-of-pluripotency-historical-perspective-and-recent-advances
#14
REVIEW
Arvind Chhabra
Derivation of human embryonic stem cell (hES) lines in 1998 was not only a major technological breakthrough in the field of regenerative medicine; it also triggered a passionate debate about the ethical issues associated with the utilization of human embryos for derivation of hESC lines. Successful derivation of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS) lines from human somatic cells with defined reprogramming factors by Shinya Yamanaka`s group in 2007 was another breakthrough that generated enormous excitement and hope for the development of donor-specific personalized cell replacement therapies (CRT) without the ethical dilemma associated with it...
December 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887108/approach-for-the-derivation-of-melanocytes-from-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#15
Tamihiro Kawakami, Tatsuro Okano, Sora Takeuchi, Kayoko Osumi, Yoshinao Soma, Munenari Itoh, Tomohisa Hirobe, Kowichi Jimbow
Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have the ability to differentiate into multiple cell types in the body and have an unlimited growth potential. However, iPS cell-derived melanocytes produced by existing protocols have significant limitations in developing novel strategies for regenerative medicine and cell therapies of pigmentation disorders in humans because they involve culture in media containing fetal bovine serum and nonphysiological agents. In this study, we established an in vitro approach to generate iPS cell-derived human melanocytes that have higher proliferation rates and increased melanin production compared with melanocytes prepared by previously reported approaches...
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886268/implanted-hair-follicle-associated-pluripotent-hap-stem-cells-encapsulated-in-polyvinylidene-fluoride-membrane-cylinders-promote-effective-recovery-of-peripheral-nerve-injury
#16
Aiko Yamazaki, Kohya Obara, Natsuko Tohgi, Kyoumi Shirai, Sumiyuki Mii, Yuko Hamada, Nobuko Arakawa, Ryoichi Aki, Robert M Hoffman, Yasuyuki Amoh
Hair follicle-associated-pluripotent (HAP) stem cells are located in the bulge area of the hair follicle, express the stem-cell marker, nestin, and have been shown to differentiate to nerve cells, glial cells, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells, cardiac muscle cells, and melanocytes. Transplanted HAP stem cells promote the recovery of peripheral nerve and spinal cord injuries and have the potential for heart regeneration as well. In the present study, we implanted mouse green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing HAP stem-cell spheres encapsulated in polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-membrane cylinders into the severed sciatic nerve of immunocompetent and immunocompromised (nude) mice...
October 18, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815441/pluripotent-stem-cells-in-adult-tissues-struggling-to-be-acknowledged-over-two-decades
#17
REVIEW
Deepa Bhartiya
Stem cells have fascinated scientists for a long time and huge research efforts have been put into them as they have the potential to regenerate diseased organs. Besides embryonic stem cells (ES) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS), it has been postulated that pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) may also exist in various adult tissues. They are thought to be more primitive than the adult stem cells (ASCs), serve as a backup pool to give rise to ASCs and thus play a crucial role in maintaining life-long homeostasis...
December 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749199/hair-follicle-associated-pluripotent-hap-stem-cells
#18
Yasuyuki Amoh, Robert M Hoffman
Various types of stem cells reside in the skin, including keratinocyte progenitor cells, melanocyte progenitor cells, skin-derived precursors (SKPs), and nestin-expressing hair follicle-associated-pluripotent (HAP) stem cells. HAP stem cells, located in the bulge area of the hair follicle, have been shown to differentiate to nerve cells, glial cells, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells, cardiac muscle cells, and melanocytes. HAP stem cells are positive for the stem-cell marker CD34, as well as K15-negative, suggesting their relatively undifferentiated state...
July 27, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699384/preclinical-safety-evaluation-of-allogeneic-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-based-therapy-in-a-swine-model-of-myocardial-infarction
#19
Carolina Gálvez-Montón, Carolina Soler-Botija, Oriol Iborra-Egea, Idoia Díaz-Güemes, Mercè Martí, Olalla Iglesias-García, Cristina Prat-Vidal, Verónica Crisóstomo, Aida Llucià-Valldeperas, Isaac Perea-Gil, Santiago Roura, Francisco M Sánchez-Margallo, Ángel Raya, Antoni Bayes-Genis
The combination of biomatrices and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) derivatives to aid repair and myocardial scar formation may soon become a reality for cardiac regenerative medicine. However, the tumor risk associated with residual undifferentiated cells remains an important safety concern of iPSC-based therapies. This concern is not satisfactorily addressed in xenotransplantation, which requires immune suppression of the transplanted animal. In this study, we assessed the safety of transplanting undifferentiated iPSCs in an allogeneic setting...
November 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661522/tubulogenesis-of-co-cultured-human-ips-derived-endothelial-cells-and-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-fibrin-and-gelatin-methacrylate-gels
#20
G A Calderon, P Thai, C W Hsu, B Grigoryan, S M Gibson, M E Dickinson, J S Miller
Here, we investigate the tubulogenic potential of commercially-sourced iPS-ECs with and without supporting commercially-sourced hMSCs within 3D natural fibrin or semi-synthetic gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogels. We developed a selectable dual color third generation lentiviral reporter (hEF1α-H2B-mOrange2-IRES-EGFP PGK-Puro) to differentially label the nucleus and cytoplasm of iPS-ECs which allowed real-time tracking of key steps of vascular morphogenesis such as vacuole formation and coalescence to form shared multicellular lumens...
July 25, 2017: Biomaterials Science
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