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Emilio Sudy, Francisco Urbina
We describe a case of unilateral acne which appeared after an episode of facial nerve palsy. An 18-year-old female patient presented with papules and pustules predominantly located on the side where the facial paralysis occurred. The patient suffered right facial paralysis, which was treated with prednisone and kinesiotherapy with massages, electrostimulation, and infrared light. Two weeks later, acne lesions appeared in the area affected by the paralysis. As suggested in other cases of paralysis, including cases of Parkinson's disease and spinal cord injury, an increased sebum excretion rate and the immobility of the affected area are most likely what caused the unilateral acne lesions...
June 2018: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
Ruofeng Yin, Pengyu Chang, Qingsan Zhu, Fei Cheng, Baolin Zhao, Rui Gu, Bo-Yin Zhang
RATIONALE: Traumatic nucleus pulposus sequestration (TNPS) usually occurs concurrently with severe destruction of bone. TNPS combined with a slight thoracolumbar flexion- distraction fracture, triggering a disastrous nerve injury, has rarely been reported. Due to the atypical radiologic manifestations, such a patient can easily be overlooked. PATIENT CONCERNS: Hereby, we present a TNPS patient as well as a slight thoracolumbar flexion-distraction fracture and serious neurologic symptoms...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
L D Ladino, V Benjumea-Cuartas, D M Diaz-Marin, R Lopez-Gonzalez, J P Orozco-Hernandez, P Bedoya-Rodriguez, J F Tellez-Zenteno
INTRODUCTION: Selected patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy benefit from epilepsy surgery, however significant delays remain. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy surgery among patients with epilepsy and identify barriers that might delay the treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 10-minute questionnaire was administered to patients with epilepsy in Colombia. Survey assessed the following: knowledge of surgical options, perceptions about the risks of surgery vs...
July 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
L Liu, L F Wang, J Z Sang, L Chen
Objective: To improve diagnosis and treatment of Castleman' s disease (CD) originating in the head and neck. Method: Of 15 cases of Castleman' s disease originating in the head and neck, 8 cases occurred in the right side of the neck, 6 cases in the left side, and 1 case in both sides. Eleven cases were focal type CD (UCD), and 4 cases were multi-center type CD (MCD). All patients underwent imaging examination and neck nephrectomy. Four patients with MCD received drug treatment after surgery. Result: During follow-up from 12 to 69 months, one patient suffered a slight facial paralysis due to a close relationship between mass and the parotid gland...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
Kerem Teralı
Many so-called neuroactive insecticides target invertebrate neurotransmitter systems, including the cholinergic system. With their relatively low toxicity to vertebrates, neonicotinoids represent a new class of neuroactive insecticides that bind to nicotinic receptors for acetylcholine in the insect central nervous system and result in paralysis and eventual death due to receptor overstimulation. On the understanding that, today, cholinesterase inhibitors are used to obtain the symptomatic relief of Alzheimer disease (AD), the aforementioned direct cholinomimetic action of neonicotinoids could, perhaps, confer anti-AD drug-like attributes to these compounds...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Akash A Shah, Paul T Ogink, Mitchel B Harris, Joseph H Schwab
BACKGROUND: Spinal epidural abscess is a high-risk condition that can lead to paralysis or death. It would be of clinical and prognostic utility to identify which subset of patients with spinal epidural abscess is likely to develop a motor deficit or die within 90 days of discharge. METHODS: We identified all patients ≥18 years of age who were admitted to our hospital system with a diagnosis of spinal epidural abscess during the period of 1993 to 2016. Explanatory variables were collected retrospectively...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Manouchehr Aghajanzadeh, Mohammad Reza Asgary, Fereshteh Mohammadi, Haniye Darvishi, Yasaman Safarpour
Introduction: Retrosternal goiter refers to any thyroid enlargement in which over 50% of the thyroid permanently located under the thoracic inlet or the lower pole of thyroid is not palpable with the neck in hyperextended position. Due to the increasing number of surgical procedures of retrosternal goiter, the present study was carried out to examine the symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and treatment complications in retrosternal goiter patients. Materials and Methods: Data related to demographic data (age and gender), clinical symptoms (dyspnea, dysphagia, dysphonia, lumps in neck, and hoarseness), methods of diagnosis (computed tomography [CT], chest X-ray [CXR], ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging), and postoperative complications (bleeding, early and late dysphonia, early and late dyspnea, transient and permanent hypocalcemia, transient, and permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis) were collected...
January 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Brian Lee, Daniel Kramer, Michelle Armenta Salas, Spencer Kellis, David Brown, Tatyana Dobreva, Christian Klaes, Christi Heck, Charles Liu, Richard A Andersen
Sensory feedback is a critical aspect of motor control rehabilitation following paralysis or amputation. Current human studies have demonstrated the ability to deliver some of this sensory information via brain-machine interfaces, although further testing is needed to understand the stimulation parameters effect on sensation. Here, we report a systematic evaluation of somatosensory restoration in humans, using cortical stimulation with subdural mini-electrocorticography (mini-ECoG) grids. Nine epilepsy patients undergoing implantation of cortical electrodes for seizure localization were also implanted with a subdural 64-channel mini-ECoG grid over the hand area of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1)...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Jonathan B Rothbard, Jesse J Rothbard, Luis Soares, C Garrison Fathman, Lawrence Steinman
Although certain dogma portrays amyloid fibrils as drivers of neurodegenerative disease and neuroinflammation, we have found, paradoxically, that amyloid fibrils and small heat shock proteins (sHsps) are therapeutic in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). They reduce clinical paralysis and induce immunosuppressive pathways, diminishing inflammation. A key question was the identification of the target for these molecules. When sHsps and amyloid fibrils were chemically cross-linked to immune cells, a limited number of proteins were precipitated, including the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 NAChR)...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Rebecca Shaw, Cristina Dias, Jeffrey Ludemann, Rosemarie Rupps, Vance Tsai, Anna Lehman
We report on a family with three siblings, male and female, affected by congenital bilateral limitation of vocal cord abduction, with the additional finding of clubfeet in two. The paternal family history suggests an autosomal dominant inheritance. The siblings and father also have mild craniofacial features, which may be an expression of variability or may be unrelated. The association between congenital vocal cord paralysis and clubfeet has been reported with additional major features or in the context of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease...
June 14, 2018: Clinical Dysmorphology
Anuj Sarma
Sjögren syndrome is an autoimmune disorder characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of exocrine gland. The most common symptom by virtue of its involvement includes dryness of eyes, mouth, and parotid gland enlargement. However, the disease may be associated with extraglandular manifestation affecting multiple organs. Such a presentation involves renal involvement with tubular dysfunction manifesting as severe hypokalemia.
March 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Satyendra Kumar Sonkar, Satish Kumar, Neeraj Kumar Singh
Hypokalemia is a serious and life-threatening clinical condition. We present a case of a 45-year-old male, with known hyperthyroidism presenting with profound tremor, irritability, quadriparesis, and labored breathing since morning, on the day of admission. Arterial blood gas analysis showed severe hypokalemia. Patient's vital was stabilized and patient's oxygen saturation was maintained on oxygen inhalation. Intravenous potassium chloride infusion was administered with regular monitoring of vitals and electrolytes...
May 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Konstantinos Laios
Professor William Wayne Babcock (1872-1963) is considered as a leading figure of American surgery during early 20th century. He introduced many innovative surgical techniques such as Babcock operation for the treatment of varicose veins, the Babcock-Bacon operation for the treatment of cancer of the rectum and sigmoid colon preserving anal sphincters, the "soup bone" cranioplasty technique, and the nerve disassociation technique for the relief of certain forms of paralysis or parasthesia due to injury or inflammation...
June 1, 2018: Surgical Innovation
Mathew Wooster, Paul Armstrong, Martin Back
OBJECTIVE: Maintenance of pelvic circulation has been connected to reduced risks of ischemic colitis, buttock claudication, erectile dysfunction, and spinal cord ischemia during the treatment of extensive aorto-iliac aneurysmal disease. We evaluate the mid to late follow up of a cohort of patients treated using one preservation technique, the endovascular external (EIA) to internal (IIA) iliac artery bypass. METHODS: All patients undergoing elective retrograde EIA-IIA endovascular bypass at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed over a ten-year period from 2006-2016...
June 13, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Jiatao Huang, Sixi Chen, Li Hu, Huan Niu, Qianqian Sun, Wenna Li, Guoqian Tan, Jianghui Li, LongJin Jin, Jianxin Lyu, Huaibin Zhou
In mammals, mitoferrin-1and mitoferrin-2, two homologous proteins of the mitochondrial solute carrier family are required for iron delivery into mitochondria. However, there is only one kind, called W02B12 (mitoferrin-1 or mfn-1), in Caenorhabditis elegans and its regulatory mechanism is unknown. In this study, we used Caenorhabditis elegans strains CL2006 and GMC101 as models to investigate what role mitoferrin-1 played in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We found that knockdown of mitoferrin-1 by feeding-RNAi treatment extended lifespans of both strains of C...
June 13, 2018: Neuroscience
Yuichi Akaba, Satoru Takahashi, Yoshiaki Sasaki, Hiroki Kajino
BACKGROUND: Periodic paralysis (PP) is an autosomal dominant muscle disorder characterized by periodic muscle weakness attacks associated with serum potassium level variations. It is classified into hypokalemic (hypoKPP), hyperkalemic (hyperKPP), and normokalemic (normoKPP) forms based on the ictal serum potassium level. HyperKPP and normoKPP are caused by mutations of the same gene SCN4A, the gene encoding the skeletal muscle voltage-gated sodium channel. Prophylactic treatment with thiazide diuretics is highly effective in preventing attacks in hyperKPP...
June 12, 2018: Brain & Development
Kentaro Nakashima, Yuhki Koga, Yasunari Sakai, Hidetoshi Takada, Katsumi Harimaya, Saiji Ohga, Tomoaki Taguchi, Yoshinao Oda, Hiroshi Honda, Shouichi Ohga
BACKGROUND: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a clonal disease with focal or disseminated lesions that may compress the surrounding tissues, including the spinal cord. Because few reports have described the spinal symptoms as the first manifestation of pediatric LCH, the long-term neurological outcomes remain unclear. CASE REPORT AND LITERATURE REVIEW: We report a 21-month-old boy who presented with sudden-onset paraplegia. Imaging analyses revealed that osteolytic lesions and epidural tumors compressing the spinal cord at the T7-9 vertebrae...
June 12, 2018: Brain & Development
Qing Zhou, Qingquan Kong, Bo Gao
Objective: To analyze the treatment of Gartland type Ⅱ and Ⅲ supracondylar fracture of the humerus in children. Methods: Between January 2015 and January 2017, 45 cases of Gartland type Ⅱ and Ⅲ supracondylar fracture of the humerus were treated. There were 28 boys and 17 girls with an age of 1-13 years (mean, 5.7 years). The causes of injury included sports injury in 43 cases and falling from height in 2 cases. Fractures were classified as type Ⅱ in 12 cases and type Ⅲ in 33 cases according to Gartland classification...
June 1, 2018: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
Jiayin Li, Xing Li, Zhifeng Xiao, Jianwu Dai
Spinal cord injury (SCI), especially the complete SCI, usually results in complete paralysis below the level of the injury and seriously affects the patient's quality of life. SCI repair is still a worldwide medical problem. In the last twenty years, Professor DAI Jianwu and his team pioneered complete SCI model by removing spinal tissue with varied lengths in rodents, canine, and non-human primates to verify therapeutic effect of different repair strategies. Moreover, they also started the first clinical study of functional collagen scaffold on patients with acute complete SCI on January 16th, 2015...
June 1, 2018: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
Mario Buffelli, Enrico Tognana, Alberto Cangiano, Giuseppe Busetto
Evoked electrical muscle activity suppresses the transcription of mRNAs for acetylcholine receptors in extrajunctional myonuclei. Muscle denervation or disuse release such inhibition and extrajunctional receptors appear. However, in soleus muscles paralyzed with nerve-applied tetrodotoxin, a restricted perijunctional region has been described where myonuclei remain inhibited, a finding attributed to nerve-derived trophic factor(s). Here, we reinvestigate extrajunctional acetylcholine receptor expression in soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles up to 90 days after denervation or up to 20 days of disuse, to clarify the role of trophic factors, if any...
June 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
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