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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821644/calpain-dependent-degradation-of-nucleoporins-contributes-to-motor-neuron-death-in-a-mouse-model-of-chronic-excitotoxicity
#1
Kaori Sugiyama, Tomomi Aida, Masatoshi Nomura, Ryoichi Takayanagi, Hanns U Zeilhofer, Kohichi Tanaka
Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity induces neuronal death by altering various intracellular signaling pathways and is implicated as a common pathogenic pathway in many neurodegenerative diseases. In the case of motor neuron disease, there is significant evidence to suggest that overactivation of AMPA receptors due to deficiencies in the expression and function of glial glutamate transporter GLT1 and GLAST plays an important role in the mechanisms of neuronal death. However, a causal role for glial glutamate transporter dysfunction in motor neuron death remains unknown...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821629/effects-of-spaceflight-on-the-muscles-of-the-murine-shoulder
#2
Hua Shen, Chanteak Lim, Andrea G Schwartz, Alexander Andreev-Andrievskiy, Alix C Deymier, Stavros Thomopoulos
Mechanical loading is necessary for the development and maintenance of the musculoskeletal system. Removal of loading via microgravity, paralysis, or bed rest leads to rapid loss of muscle mass and function; however, the molecular mechanisms that lead to these changes are largely unknown, particularly for the spaceflight (SF) microgravity environment. Furthermore, few studies have explored these effects on the shoulder, a dynamically stabilized joint with a large range of motion; therefore, we examined the effects of microgravity on mouse shoulder muscles for the 15-d Space Transportation System (STS)-131, 13-d STS-135, and 30-d Bion-M1 missions...
August 17, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819623/pharyngocutaneous-fistula-as-a-rare-late-postoperative-complication-following-submandibulectomy-a-case-report
#3
Leila Mashali, Somayeh Araghi
INTRODUCTION: Submandibular gland excision is the gold standard treatment for submandibular gland disease. Although submandibulectomy is a relatively standardized surgical procedure, complications are frequently reported. These complications include nerve paralysis or paresis, aesthetic sequelae, hematoma, salivary fistulas or sialoceles, wound infections, hypertrophic scars and inflammations caused by residual lithiasis in the salivary duct. CASE REPORT: We report a case of a rare complication of submandibular gland excision, pharyngocutaneous fistula, which appeared 6 years after previous surgery...
July 2017: Iranian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819079/-an-adult-case-of-enterovirus-d68-encephalomyelitis-presenting-as-bilateral-facial-nerve-palsy-and-dysphagia
#4
Yuta Kusabe, Akari Takeshima, Azusa Seino, Mana Nishida, Mami Takahashi, Shota Yamada, Junsuke Shimbo, Aki Sato, Kouichirou Okamoto, Shuichi Igarashi
A 33-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with bilateral facial nerve paralysis, dysphagia, and muscle weakness in the neck and trunk following fever, headache and throat pain. T<sub>2</sub>-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed hyperintense lesions in the tegmentum of the brain stem and the ventral region of the superior cervical cord. Based on the characteristic findings on the brain MRI, we diagnosed the patient with enteroviral encephalomyelitis. Steroid therapy was administered; however, his bilateral facial nerve paralysis and dysphagia were refractory to this therapy...
August 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817701/effect-of-exoskeletal-joint-constraint-and-passive-resistance-on-metabolic-energy-expenditure-implications-for-walking-in-paraplegia
#5
Sarah R Chang, Rudi Kobetic, Ronald J Triolo
An important consideration in the design of a practical system to restore walking in individuals with spinal cord injury is to minimize metabolic energy demand on the user. In this study, the effects of exoskeletal constraints on metabolic energy expenditure were evaluated in able-bodied volunteers to gain insight into the demands of walking with a hybrid neuroprosthesis after paralysis. The exoskeleton had a hydraulic mechanism to reciprocally couple hip flexion and extension, unlocked hydraulic stance controlled knee mechanisms, and ankles fixed at neutral by ankle-foot orthoses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817551/progress-toward-poliomyelitis-eradication-afghanistan-january-2016-june-2017
#6
Maureen Martinez, Hemant Shukla, Joanna Nikulin, Mufti Zubair Wadood, Stephen Hadler, Chukwuma Mbaeyi, Rudolph Tangermann, Jaume Jorba, Derek Ehrhardt
Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria remain the only countries where the transmission of endemic wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) continues (1). This report describes polio eradication activities, progress, and challenges in Afghanistan during January 2016-June 2017 and updates previous reports (2,3). Thirteen WPV1 cases were confirmed in Afghanistan in 2016, a decrease of seven from the 20 cases reported in 2015. From January to June 2017, five WPV1 cases were reported, compared with six during the same period in 2016...
August 18, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816948/medial-medullary-infarction-caused-by-antineutrophil-cytoplasmic-antibody-related-vasculitis-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
Kumi Yanagiha, Kazuhiro Ishii, Tomoyuki Ueno, Aiki Marushima, Akira Tamaoka
RATIONALE: Medial medullary infarction accounts for less than 1% of brain infarctions, and medial medullary infarctions is very rarely caused by antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report the case of a 76-year-old man at low risk of arteriosclerosis who presented with disorders on the left side including gaze-evoked nystagmus, paralysis of the extremities, pyramidal signs, sensory disturbance, and dysesthesia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging also showed right medial medullary infarction...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816829/treatment-outcome-of-metastatic-spine-tumor-in-lung-cancer-patients-did-the-treatments-improve-their-outcomes
#8
Hiroshi Uei, Yasuaki Tokuhashi, Masafumi Maseda
STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective, single-center study. OBJECTIVE: Investigation of the changes in the treatment outcomes of patients with lung cancer-derived metastatic spine tumors SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: Metastatic spine tumors derived from lung cancer had been progressive, and their prognosis is poor. It has recently been reported that the use of molecularly targeted drugs and bone-modifying agents (BMA) improved the treatment outcomes of patients with lung cancer, but no detailed information about the treatment of metastatic spine tumors has been reported...
August 14, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816824/analysis-of-the-relationship-between-the-epidural-spinal-cord-compression-escc-scale-and-paralysis-caused-by-metastatic-spine-tumors
#9
Hiroshi Uei, Yasuaki Tokuhashi, Masafumi Maseda
STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective, single-institute, and radiographic study. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between the epidural spinal cord compression (ESCC) scale and the severity of metastatic spine tumor-induced paralysis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The ESCC scale is used to evaluate the grade of spinal cord compression on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, few studies have investigated the relationship between such MRI findings and paralysis...
August 14, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814499/therapeutic-stimulation-for-restoration-of-function-after-spinal-cord-injury
#10
REVIEW
Aiva Ievins, Chet T Moritz
Paralysis due to spinal cord injury can severely limit motor function and independence. This review summarizes different approaches to electrical stimulation of the spinal cord designed to restore motor function, with a brief discussion of their origins and the current understanding of their mechanisms of action. Spinal stimulation leads to impressive improvements in motor function along with some benefits to autonomic functions such as bladder control. Nonetheless, the precise mechanisms underlying these improvements and the optimal spinal stimulation approaches for restoration of motor function are largely unknown...
September 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813960/towards-free-3d-end-point-control-for-robotic-assisted-human-reaching-using-binocular-eye-tracking
#11
Roni O Maimon-Dror, Jorge Fernandez-Quesada, Giuseppe A Zito, Charalambos Konnaris, Sabine Dziemian, A Aldo Faisal
Eye-movements are the only directly observable behavioural signals that are highly correlated with actions at the task level, and proactive of body movements and thus reflect action intentions. Moreover, eye movements are preserved in many movement disorders leading to paralysis (or amputees) from stroke, spinal cord injury, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and muscular dystrophy among others. Despite this benefit, eye tracking is not widely used as control interface for robotic interfaces in movement impaired patients due to poor human-robot interfaces...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813916/evaluating-an-open-loop-functional-electrical-stimulation-controller-for-holding-the-shoulder-and-elbow-configuration-of-a-paralyzed-arm
#12
Derek N Wolf, Eric M Schearer
Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a promising solution for restoring functional motion to individuals with paralysis, but the potential for achieving full-arm reaching motions with FES for various desired tasks has not been realized. We present an open-loop controller capable of calculating and applying the necessary muscle stimulations to hold the wrist of an individual with high tetraplegia at any desired position. We used the controller to hold the wrist at a series of static positions. The controller was capable of discriminating between different wrist positions...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813898/robots-testing-robots-alan-arm-a-humanoid-arm-for-the-testing-of-robotic-rehabilitation-systems
#13
Jack Brookes, Maksims Kuznecovs, Menelaos Kanakis, Arturs Grigals, Mazvydas Narvidas, Justin Gallagher, Martin Levesley
Robotics is increasing in popularity as a method of providing rich, personalized and cost-effective physiotherapy to individuals with some degree of upper limb paralysis, such as those who have suffered a stroke. These robotic rehabilitation systems are often high powered, and exoskeletal systems can attach to the person in a restrictive manner. Therefore, ensuring the mechanical safety of these devices before they come in contact with individuals is a priority. Additionally, rehabilitation systems may use novel sensor systems to measure current arm position...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813882/validation-of-the-efficiency-of-a-robotic-rehabilitation-training-system-for-recovery-of-severe-plegie-hand-motor-function-after-a-stroke
#14
Hirofumi Tanabe, Munehiro Ikuta, Yoshifumi Morita
We have developed a rehabilitation training system called the Useful and Ultimate Rehabilitation System PARKO (UR System PARKO) to promote the recovery of motor function of the severe chronic plegic hand of stroke patients. This system was equipped with two functions to realize two conditions: (1) fixing of all fingers to a hyperextended position and (2) extending the elbow joint while applying resistance load to the fingertips. A clinical test was conducted with two patients to determine the therapeutic effect of the UR System PARKO for severe plegic hand...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813875/rehabilitation-for-hemiplegia-using-an-upper-limb-training-system-based-on-a-force-direction
#15
Kunihiro Ogata, Yuto Hirabayashi, Keisuke Kubota, Yuri Hasegawa, Toshiaki Tsuji
Hemiplegia patients have complete paralysis of half their body, and encounter many challenges in living an independent life. Rehabilitation of the lower body is more important than that of the upper body for independent living; thus, recovering upper body functions of their paralyzed side is not enough. Rehabilitation robots may be used to assist training without therapists. In this study, a small portable rehabilitation robot was developed for use at home, and a new training method was proposed. This robot consists on an omni wheel mechanism and a force sensor, and is capable of deciding the motion based on the force value...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807295/anthelmintic-effects-of-forage-chicory-cichorium-intybus-against-free-living-and-parasitic-stages-of-cooperia-oncophora
#16
Miguel Peña-Espinoza, Andrew R Williams, Stig M Thamsborg, Henrik T Simonsen, Heidi L Enemark
Chicory shows great promise as an anthelmintic forage for grazing ruminants that can reduce reliance on anti-parasitic drugs. Recently, we reported potent anthelmintic effects of chicory-based diets in infected cattle with significant reductions in worm burdens of the abomasal nematode Ostertagia ostertagi, whilst no apparent activity was observed against the small intestinal parasite Cooperia oncophora. To explore this discrepancy, we investigated direct anthelmintic effects of forage chicory against C. oncophora in vitro...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806470/efficacy-and-safety-of-sugammadex-versus-neostigmine-in-reversing-neuromuscular-blockade-in-adults
#17
REVIEW
Ana-Marija Hristovska, Patricia Duch, Mikkel Allingstrup, Arash Afshari
BACKGROUND: Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, such as neostigmine, have traditionally been used for reversal of non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents. However, these drugs have significant limitations, such as indirect mechanisms of reversal, limited and unpredictable efficacy, and undesirable autonomic responses. Sugammadex is a selective relaxant-binding agent specifically developed for rapid reversal of non-depolarizing neuromuscular blockade induced by rocuronium. Its potential clinical benefits include fast and predictable reversal of any degree of block, increased patient safety, reduced incidence of residual block on recovery, and more efficient use of healthcare resources...
August 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804557/motor-neuron-degeneration-following-glycine-mediated-excitotoxicity-induces-spastic-paralysis-after-spinal-cord-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rabbit
#18
Li Wang, Sen Li, Yuan Liu, Dong-Liang Feng, Long Jiang, Zai-Yun Long, Ya-Min Wu
Spinal cord ischemia and reperfusion (SCIR) injury is the major cause of a wide range of complications, including neural degeneration and devastating paraplegia. Decrease of inhibitory neurotransmitters and increase of excitory neurotransmitters are the major cause for the excitotoxicity of neurons. However, no study has reported the temporal loss of motor neuron in the ventral horn of spinal cord area following SCIR-induced spastic paralysis, not even the mechanism under it. In the present study, we found that the rabbits were mainly spastic paralyzed after spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800194/a-comparison-of-two-endoscopic-posterior-cordotomy-techniques-laser-cordotomy-vs-diathermy-assisted-cordotomy
#19
Kerem Ozturk, Goksel Turhal, Isa Kaya, Abdulhalim Aysel, Murat Benzer, Pervin Korkmaz Ekren, Serdar Akyildiz
OBJECTIVES: To compare respiratory function, swallowing and voice quality of bilateral abductor vocal fold paralysis (BAVFP) patients undergoing laser and diathermy assisted posterior cordotomy. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Tertiary academic hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty patients were included in the study (Group 1 and 2, 15 patients each). Mean age was 53±14.27 years with a range of 31-78 years (12 (40%) male, 18 (60%) female)...
August 11, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798922/practical-approach-to-the-patient-with-acute-neuromuscular-weakness
#20
REVIEW
Rajeev Nayak
Acute neuromuscular paralysis (ANMP) is a clinical syndrome characterized by rapid onset muscle weakness progressing to maximum severity within several days to weeks (less than 4 wk). Bulbar and respiratory muscle weakness may or may not be present. It is a common neurological emergency which requires immediate and careful investigations to determine the etiology because accurate diagnosis has significant impact on therapy and prognosis. Respiratory failure caused by neuromuscular weakness is considered as more critical than lung disease because its development may be insidious or subtle until sudden decompensation leads to life threatening hypoxia...
July 16, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Cases
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