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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102899/b-type-natriuretic-peptide-guided-treatment-for-heart-failure
#1
REVIEW
Julie McLellan, Carl J Heneghan, Rafael Perera, Alison M Clements, Paul P Glasziou, Karen E Kearley, Nicola Pidduck, Nia W Roberts, Sally Tyndel, F Lucy Wright, Clare Bankhead
BACKGROUND: Heart failure is a condition in which the heart does not pump enough blood to meet all the needs of the body. Symptoms of heart failure include breathlessness, fatigue and fluid retention. Outcomes for patients with heart failure are highly variable; however on average, these patients have a poor prognosis. Prognosis can be improved with early diagnosis and appropriate use of medical treatment, use of devices and transplantation. Patients with heart failure are high users of healthcare resources, not only due to drug and device treatments, but due to high costs of hospitalisation care...
December 22, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096196/craniospinal-irradiation-using-helical-tomotherapy-for-central-nervous-system-tumors
#2
Sanziana R I Schiopu, Gregor Habl, Matthias Häfner, Sonja Katayama, Klaus Herfarth, Juergen Debus, Florian Sterzing
The aim of this study was to describe early and late toxicity, survival and local control in 45 patients with primary brain tumors treated with helical tomotherapy craniospinal irradiation (HT-CSI). From 2006 to 2014, 45 patients with central nervous system malignancies were treated with HT-CSI. The most common tumors were medulloblastoma in 20 patients, ependymoma in 10 patients, intracranial germinoma (ICG) in 7 patients, and primitive neuroectodermal tumor in 4 patients. Hematological toxicity during treatment included leukopenia Grades 1-4 (6...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094194/mabp1-as-a-novel-antibody-treatment-for-advanced-colorectal-cancer-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-3-study
#3
Tamas Hickish, Thierry Andre, Lucjan Wyrwicz, Mark Saunders, Tomasz Sarosiek, Judit Kocsis, Radim Nemecek, Wojciech Rogowski, Krzysztof Lesniewski-Kmak, Lubos Petruzelka, Ron N Apte, Prasant Mohanty, Michael Stecher, John Simard, Aimery de Gramont
BACKGROUND: MABp1, an antibody that targets interleukin 1α, has been associated with antitumour activity and relief of debilitating symptoms in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. We sought to establish the effect of MABp1 with a new primary endpoint in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. METHODS: Eligible patients for the double-blind phase of this ongoing, placebo-controlled, randomised, phase 3 trial, had metastatic or unresectable disease, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score 1 or 2, systemic inflammation, weight loss, and other disease-related morbidities associated with poor prognosis, and were refractory to oxaliplatin and irinotecan...
January 13, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092565/a-passive-eeg-bci-for-single-trial-detection-of-changes-in-mental-state
#4
Andrew Myrden, Tom Chau
Traditional brain-computer interfaces often exhibit unstable performance over time. It has recently been proposed that passive brain-computer interfaces may provide a way to complement and stabilize these traditional systems. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of a passive brain-computer interface that uses electroencephalography to monitor changes in mental state on a single-trial basis. We recorded cortical activity from 15 locations while 11 able-bodied adults completed a series of challenging mental tasks...
January 9, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079704/modeling-perceived-exertion-during-graded-arm-cycling-exercise-in-spinal-cord-injury
#5
Jason S Au, Julia O Totosy de Zepetnek, Maureen J MacDonald
PURPOSE: Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) may be useful for exercise testing and prescription in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI), though the roles of differentiated central and peripheral fatigue during exercise are not clear. We aimed to model differentiated RPE responses during graded arm cycling in individuals with SCI and describe their relationship to cardiorespiratory outcomes. METHODS: Thirty-six individuals with SCI (13 paraplegia; 23 tetraplegia) completed a maximal graded-arm cycling exercise test to volitional exhaustion (5W/min paraplegia; 10W/min tetraplegia)...
January 10, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073786/phase-1-study-of-twice-weekly-pulse-dose-and-daily-low-dose-erlotinib-as-initial-treatment-for-patients-with-egfr-mutant-lung-cancers
#6
H A Yu, C Sima, D Feldman, L L Liu, B Vaitheesvaran, J Cross, C M Rudin, M G Kris, W Pao, F Michor, G J Riely
BACKGROUND: Patients with EGFR-mutant lung cancers treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) develop clinical resistance, most commonly with acquisition of EGFR T790M. Evolutionary modeling suggests that a schedule of twice weekly pulse and daily low-dose erlotinib may delay emergence of EGFR T790M. Pulse dose erlotinib has superior central nervous system (CNS) penetration and may result in superior CNS disease control. METHODS: We evaluated toxicity, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of twice weekly pulse and daily low-dose erlotinib...
October 25, 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073122/central-%C3%AE-opioidergic-system-activation-evoked-by-heavy-and-severe-intensity-cycling-exercise-in-humans-a-pilot-study-using-positron-emission-tomography-with-11c-carfentanil
#7
Mikio Hiura, Muneyuki Sakata, Kenji Ishii, Jun Toyohara, Keiichi Oda, Tadashi Nariai, Kiichi Ishiwata
The central opioid receptor system likely contributes to the mechanism underlying the changes in affect elicited by exercise. Our aim was to use positron emission tomography (PET) to test whether exercise intensity influences activation of the μ-opioid receptor system in the brain, and whether changes in opioid receptor activation correlate with exercise-induced changes in affect. 7 healthy young male subjects (23±2 years) performed 20-min constant-load cycling exercises at heavy (ExH) and severe-intensity (ExS), and PET was performed using [(11)C]carfentanil as a tracer before and after each exercise...
January 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069279/masitinib-for-treatment-of-severely-symptomatic-indolent-systemic-mastocytosis-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-phase-3-study
#8
Olivier Lortholary, Marie Olivia Chandesris, Cristina Bulai Livideanu, Carle Paul, Gérard Guillet, Ewa Jassem, Marek Niedoszytko, Stéphane Barete, Srdan Verstovsek, Clive Grattan, Gandhi Damaj, Danielle Canioni, Sylvie Fraitag, Ludovic Lhermitte, Sophie Georgin Lavialle, Laurent Frenzel, Lawrence B Afrin, Katia Hanssens, Julie Agopian, Raphael Gaillard, Jean-Pierre Kinet, Christian Auclair, Colin Mansfield, Alain Moussy, Patrice Dubreuil, Olivier Hermine
BACKGROUND: Indolent systemic mastocytosis, including the subvariant of smouldering systemic mastocytosis, is a lifelong condition associated with reduced quality of life. Masitinib inhibits KIT and LYN kinases that are involved in indolent systemic mastocytosis pathogenesis. We aimed to assess safety and efficacy of masitinib versus placebo in severely symptomatic patients who were unresponsive to optimal symptomatic treatments. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study, we enrolled adults (aged 18-75 years) with indolent or smouldering systemic mastocytosis, according to WHO classification or documented mastocytosis based on histological criteria, at 50 centres in 15 countries...
January 6, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067943/gamma-aminobutyric-acid-gaba-modulators-for-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-motor-neuron-disease
#9
REVIEW
Andrea Diana, Rita Pillai, Paolo Bongioanni, Aidan G O'Keeffe, Robert G Miller, Dan H Moore
BACKGROUND: Imbalance of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and related modulators has been implicated as an important factor in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which is also known as motor neuron disease (MND). In this context, the role and mechanism of action of gabapentin and baclofen have been extensively investigated, although with conflicting results. This is the first systematic review to assess clinical trials of GABA modulators for the treatment of ALS. OBJECTIVES: To examine the efficacy of gabapentin, baclofen, or other GABA modulators in delaying the progression of ALS, and to evaluate adverse effects of these interventions...
January 9, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067604/central-hypogonadism-due-to-a-giant-silent-fsh-secreting-atypical-pituitary-adenoma-effects-of-adenoma-dissection-and-short-term-leydig-cell-stimulation-by-luteinizing-hormone-lh-and-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-hcg
#10
Daniele Santi, Giorgia Spaggiari, Livio Casarini, Flaminia Fanelli, Marco Mezzullo, Uberto Pagotto, Antonio R M Granata, Cesare Carani, Manuela Simoni
We present a case report of an atypical giant pituitary adenoma secreting follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). A 55-year-old patient presented for erectile dysfunction, loss of libido and fatigue. The biochemical evaluation showed very high FSH serum levels in the presence of central hypogonadism. Neither testicular enlargement nor increased sperm count was observed, thus a secretion of FSH with reduced biological activity was supposed. The histological examination after neuro-surgery showed an atypical pituitary adenoma with FSH-positive cells...
January 9, 2017: Aging Male: the Official Journal of the International Society for the Study of the Aging Male
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065580/fatigue-favors-in-vitro-th1-and-th17-like-cell-expansion-and-reduces-corticoid-sensitivity-in-ms-patients
#11
Hélcio Alvarenga-Filho, Marisa Salles, Joana Hygino, Thais B Ferreira, Priscila M Sacramento, Clarice Monteiro, Claudia Cristina F Vasconcelos, Regina Maria Papais Alvarenga, Cleonice A M Bento
Fatigue is a common "ghost" symptom in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune disease mediated by T cells that target myelin antigens of the central nervous system. As fatigue has been associated with inflammatory states, its occurrence may negatively impact MS progression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of fatigue on the cytokine profile of patients with relapsing-remitting (RR) MS. For our study, blood were collected from MS patients in clinical remission phase with (n=15) and without (n=15) fatigue...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060035/etiology-and-recovery-of-neuromuscular-fatigue-following-simulated-soccer-match-play
#12
Kevin Thomas, Jack Dent, Glyn Howatson, Stuart Goodall
PURPOSE: We profiled the etiology and recovery of neuromuscular fatigue post-simulated-soccer-match-play. METHODS: Fifteen semi-professional players completed a 90 min simulated soccer match. Pre-, immediately-post and at 24, 48 and 72 h participants completed a battery of neuromuscular, physical and perceptual tests. Perceived fatigue and muscle soreness were assessed via visual analogue scales. Maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and twitch responses to electrical (femoral nerve) and magnetic (motor cortex) stimulation during isometric knee-extensor contractions and at rest were measured to assess central (voluntary activation, VA) and peripheral (quadriceps potentiated twitch force, Qtw,pot) fatigue, and responses to single and paired-magnetic stimuli were assessed to quantify corticospinal excitability and short-intracortical inhibition (SICI), respectively...
January 3, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056205/evaluation-of-a-web-based-cognitive-rehabilitation-program-in-cancer-survivors-reporting-cognitive-symptoms-after-chemotherapy
#13
Victoria J Bray, Haryana M Dhillon, Melanie L Bell, Michael Kabourakis, Mallorie H Fiero, Desmond Yip, Frances Boyle, Melanie A Price, Janette L Vardy
Purpose Cognitive impairment is reported frequently by cancer survivors. There are no proven treatments. We evaluated a cognitive rehabilitation program (Insight) and compared it with standard care in cancer survivors self-reporting cognitive symptoms. Patients and Methods We recruited adult cancer survivors with a primary malignancy (excluding central nervous system malignancies) who had completed three or more cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy in the previous 6 to 60 months and reported persistent cognitive symptoms...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045473/gabapentin-for-fibromyalgia-pain-in-adults
#14
REVIEW
Tess E Cooper, Sheena Derry, Philip J Wiffen, R Andrew Moore
BACKGROUND: This review replaces part of an earlier review that evaluated gabapentin for both neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia, now split into separate reviews for the two conditions. This review will consider pain in fibromyalgia only.Fibromyalgia is associated with widespread pain lasting longer than three months, and is frequently associated with symptoms such as poor sleep, fatigue, depression, and reduced quality of life. Fibromyalgia is more common in women.Gabapentin is an antiepileptic drug widely licensed for treatment of neuropathic pain...
January 3, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045199/yoga-for-improving-health-related-quality-of-life-mental-health-and-cancer-related-symptoms-in-women-diagnosed-with-breast-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Holger Cramer, Romy Lauche, Petra Klose, Silke Lange, Jost Langhorst, Gustav J Dobos
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the cancer most frequently diagnosed in women worldwide. Even though survival rates are continually increasing, breast cancer is often associated with long-term psychological distress, chronic pain, fatigue and impaired quality of life. Yoga comprises advice for an ethical lifestyle, spiritual practice, physical activity, breathing exercises and meditation. It is a complementary therapy that is commonly recommended for breast cancer-related impairments and has been shown to improve physical and mental health in people with different cancer types...
January 3, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044282/are-prepubertal-children-metabolically-comparable-to-well-trained-adult-endurance-athletes
#16
REVIEW
Sébastien Ratel, Anthony J Blazevich
It is well acknowledged that prepubertal children have smaller body dimensions and a poorer mechanical (movement) efficiency, and thus a lower work capacity than adults. However, the scientific evidence indicates that prepubertal children have a greater net contribution of energy derived from aerobic metabolism in exercising muscle and reduced susceptibility to muscular fatigue, which makes them metabolically comparable to well-trained adult endurance athletes. For example, the relative energy contribution from oxidative and non-oxidative (i...
January 2, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043581/common-features-of-tuberculosis-and-sarcoidosis
#17
Esmaeil Mortaz, Mohammad Reza Masjedi, Atefeh Abedini, Soheila Matroodi, Arda Kiani, Dina Soroush, Ian M Adcock
Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Despite the availability of novel therapeutic approaches, TB is considered as one of the leading causes of death due to infectious diseases worldwide. Alveolar macrophages are the first line of defense against M. tuberculosis; they ingest and sequester the bacilli within granulomatous structures. Control and resolution of the infection requires activated T lymphocytes as well as Th1 cytokines. There are two forms of TB: active TB and latent TB...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040567/effects-of-age-and-sex-on-fatigability-and-recovery-from-a-sustained-maximal-isometric-voluntary-contraction
#18
Rima Solianik, Lina Kreivėnaitė, Vytautas Streckis, Dalia Mickevičienė, Albertas Skurvydas
The aim was to assess the effects of sex and age on fatigability and recovery from sustained maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the knee extensor muscles. The central (central activation ratio (CAR) and electrical activity amplitude) and peripheral (electrically evoked torque and muscle contractile properties) factors contributing to fatigue and recovery of 24 young adults (12 males) aged 23.2±3.6years and 20 older adults (12 males) aged 70.6±4.4years were compared. The increase in central and peripheral fatigue was greater (p⩽0...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031762/effects-of-fatigue-on-throwing-performance-in-experienced-team-handball-players
#19
Alberto Nuño, Ignacio J Chirosa, Roland van den Tillaar, Rafael Guisado, Ignacio Martín, Isidoro Martinez, Luis J Chirosa
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of central and peripheral physiological fatigue on throwing accuracy and ball release velocity in team handball. Twenty male subjects (age 24.7 ± 3.9 yrs, body mass 88.5 ± 5.0 kg, body height 1.86 ± 0.05 m, training experience 12.7 ± 3.8 yrs) from one handball team participated in this study. The participants completed four sets of eight laps of a circuit that consisted of specific team handball drills/exercises, with decreasing recovery times between the laps in each set in order to induce physiological fatigue...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028818/a-mechanism-for-sickness-sleep-lessons-from-invertebrates
#20
Kristen C Davis, David M Raizen
During health, animal sleep is regulated by an internal clock and by the duration of prior wakefulness. During sickness, sleep is regulated by cytokines released from either peripheral cells or from cells within the nervous system. These cytokines regulate central nervous system neurons to induce sleep. Recent research in the invertebrates Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster has led to new insights into the mechanism of sleep during sickness. Sickness is triggered by exposure to environments such as infection, heat, or ultraviolet light irradiation, all of which cause cellular stress...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Physiology
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