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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054974/laryngeal-closure-impedes-non-invasive-ventilation-at-birth
#1
Jessica R Crawshaw, Marcus J Kitchen, Corinna Binder-Heschl, Marta Thio, Megan J Wallace, Lauren T Kerr, Charles C Roehr, Katie L Lee, Genevieve A Buckley, Peter G Davis, Andreas Flemmer, Arjan B Te Pas, Stuart B Hooper
BACKGROUND: Non-invasive ventilation is sometimes unable to provide the respiratory needs of very premature infants in the delivery room. While airway obstruction is thought to be the main problem, the site of obstruction is unknown. We investigated whether closure of the larynx and epiglottis is a major site of airway obstruction. METHODS: We used phase contrast X-ray imaging to visualise laryngeal function in spontaneously breathing premature rabbits immediately after birth and at approximately 1 hour after birth...
October 20, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054835/a-strategy-to-reduce-critical-cardiorespiratory-alarms-due-to-intermittent-enteral-feeding-of-preterm-neonates-in-intensive-care
#2
Rohan Joshi, Carola van Pul, Anouk Sanders, Hans Weda, Jan Willem Bikker, Loe Feijs, Peter Andriessen
BACKGROUND: Many preterm infants require enteral feeding as they cannot coordinate sucking, swallowing, and breathing. In enteral feeding, milk feeds are delivered through a small feeding tube passed via the nose or mouth into the stomach. Intermittent milk feeds may either be administered using a syringe to gently push milk into the infant's stomach (push feed) or milk can be poured into a syringe attached to the tube and allowed to drip in by gravity (gravity feed). This practice of enteral feeding is common in neonatal intensive care units...
October 20, 2017: Interactive Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054499/coupled-in-silico-platform-computational-fluid-dynamics-cfd-and-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-pbpk-modelling
#3
Aleksandra Vulovic, Tijana Sustersic, Sandra Cvijic, Svetlana Ibric, Nenad Filipovic
One of the critical components of the respiratory drug delivery is the manner in which the inhaled aerosol is deposited in respiratory tract compartments. Depending on formulation properties, device characteristics and breathing pattern, only a certain fraction of the dose will reach the target site in the lungs, while the rest of the drug will deposit in the inhalation device or in the mouth-throat region. The aim of this study was to link the Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling in order to predict aerolisolization of different dry powder formulations, and estimate concomitant in vivo deposition and absorption of amiloride hydrochloride...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054325/use-of-ideal-alveolar-air-equations-and-corrected-end-tidal-pco2-to-estimate-arterial-pco2-and-physiological-dead-space-during-exercise-in-patients-with-heart-failure
#4
Erik H Van Iterson, Thomas P Olson
BACKGROUND: Arterial CO2 tension (PaCO2) and physiological dead space (VD) are not routinely measured during clinical cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Abnormal changes in PaCO2 accompanied by increased VD directly contribute to impaired exercise ventilatory function in heart failure (HF). Because arterial catheterization is not standard practice during CPET, this study tested the construct validity of PaCO2 and VD prediction models using 'ideal' alveolar air equations and basic ventilation and gas-exchangegas exchange measurements during CPET in HF...
October 7, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054320/eradication-of-helicobacter-pylori-infection-with-a-new-bismuth-based-quadruple-therapy-in-clinical-practice
#5
Elena Pérez-Arellano, María Isabel Rodriguez-Garcia, Ana Belen Galera Rodenas, Emilio de la Morena-Madrigal
INTRODUCTION: The eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection represents a clinical challenge. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of quadruple therapy with esomeprazole plus a 3-in-1 capsule containing bismuth subcitrate, metronidazole and tetracycline, plus probiotics in patients diagnosed with H. pylori infection in routine clinical practice. METHODS: A prospective, interventional, single-centre and open-label study in consecutive patients with a confirmed indication for eradication of H...
October 17, 2017: Gastroenterología y Hepatología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054252/methodology-on-quantification-of-sonication-duration-for-safe-application-of-mr-guided-focused-ultrasound-for-liver-tumour-ablation
#6
Senay Mihcin, Ioannis Karakitsios, Nhan Le, Jan Strehlow, Daniel Demedts, Michael Schwenke, Sabrina Haase, Tobias Preusser, Andreas Melzer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Magnetic Resonance Guided Focused Ultrasound (MRgFUS) for liver tumour ablation is a challenging task due to motion caused by breathing and occlusion due the ribcage between the transducer and the tumour. To overcome these challenges, a novel system for liver tumour ablation during free breathing has been designed. METHODS: The novel TRANS-FUSIMO Treatment System (TTS, EUFP7) interacts with a Magnetic Resonance (MR) scanner and a focused ultrasound transducer to sonicate to a moving target in liver...
December 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053946/measurement-of-area-and-personal-breathing-zone-concentrations-of-diesel-particulate-matter-dpm-during-oil-and-gas-extraction-operations-including-hydraulic-fracturing
#7
Eric J Esswein, Marissa Alexander-Scott, John Snawder, Michael Breitenstein
Diesel engines serve many purposes in modern oil and gas extraction activities. Diesel particulate matter (DPM) emitted from diesel engines is a complex aerosol that may cause adverse health effects depending on exposure dose and duration. This study reports on personal breathing zone (PBZ) and area measurements for DPM (expressed as elemental carbon) during oil and gas extraction operations including drilling, completions (which includes hydraulic fracturing) and servicing work. Researchers at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) collected 104 full-shift air samples (49 PBZ and 55 area) in Colorado, North Dakota, Texas, and New Mexico during a four year period from 2008-2012 The arithmetic mean (AM) of the full shift TWA PBZ samples was 10 µg/m(3); measurements ranged from 0...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053942/do-elite-breath-hold-divers-suffer-from-mild-short-term-memory-impairments
#8
François Billaut, Patrice Gueit, Sylvane Faure, Guillaume Costalat, Frédéric Lemaitre
Repeated apneas are associated with severe hypoxemia that may ultimately lead to loss of consciousness in some breath-hold divers. Despite increasing number of practitioners, the relationship between apnea-induced hypoxia and neurocognitive functions is still poorly understood in the sport of free diving. To shed light onto this phenomenon, we examined the impact of long-term breath-hold diving training on attentional processing, short-term memory, and long-term mnesic and executive functions. Thirty-six men matched for age, height and weight were separated into three groups [12 elite breath-hold divers (EBHD, mean static apnea best time 371 sec, 105 months mean apnea experience); 12 novice breath-hold divers (NBHD, mean best time 243 sec, 8...
October 20, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053451/spatially-resolved-mr-compatible-doppler-ultrasound-proof-of-concept-for-triggering-of-diagnostic-quality-cardiovascular-mri-for-function-and-flow-quantification-at-3t
#9
Lindsey A Crowe, Gibran Manasseh, Aneta Chmielewski, Anne-Lise Hachulla, Daniel Speicher, Andreas Greiser, Hajo Muller, Thomas De Perrot, Jean-Paul Vallee, Rares Salomir
OBJECTIVES: We demonstrate the use of a Magnetic-Resonance (MR)-compatible ultrasound (US) imaging probe using spatially-resolved Doppler for diagnostic quality cardiovascular MR imaging as an initial step towards hybrid US/MR fetal imaging. METHODS: A newly developed technology for a dedicated MR-compatible phased array ultrasound-imaging probe acquired pulsed color Doppler carotid images, which were converted in near-real time to a trigger signal for cardiac cine and flow quantification MRI...
October 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052557/determination-of-volatile-organic-compounds-in-exhaled-breath-of-heart-failure-patients-by-needle-trap-micro-extraction-coupled-with-gas-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#10
Denise Biagini, Tommaso Lomonaco, Silvia Ghimenti, Francesca Giuseppa Bellagambi, Massimo Onor, Maria Chiara Scali, Valentina Barletta, Mario Marzilli, Pietro Salvo, Maria Giovanna Trivella, Roger Fuoco, Fabio Di Francesco
The analytical performances of needle trap micro-extraction (NTME) coupled with gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry were evaluated by analyzing a mixture of twenty-two representative breath VOCs belonging to different chemical classes (i.e. hydrocarbons, ketones, aldehydes, aromatics and sulfurs). NTME is an emerging technique that guarantees detection limits in pptv range by pre-concentrating low volumes of sample, and it is particularly suitable for breath analysis. For most VOCs, detection limits between 20 and 500 pptv were obtained by pre-concentrating 25 mL of a humidified standard gas mixture at a flow rate of 15 mL/min...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052536/breathing-new-life-into-an-old-target-pulmonary-disease-drugs-for-parkinson-s-disease-therapy
#11
Hisham Abdelmotilib, Andrew B West
Increases in α-synuclein protein expression are suspected to increase the risk of the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). A recent study has demonstrated that β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) agonists decrease histone acetylation in the α-synuclein gene and suppress transcription. Coupled with the anti-inflammatory effects that are associated with β2AR activation, this two-pronged attack holds promise for PD treatment and the development of new therapeutic approaches for this disease.
October 19, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052351/analysis-of-the-clinical-features-of-invasive-bronchopulmonary-aspergillosis
#12
Yueqin Cao, Changzhou Shao, Yuanlin Song
INTRODUCTION: Early diagnosis of invasive bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (IBPA) is difficult, so the mortality rate is high. OBJECTIVE: To discuss the clinical features of IBPA. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical features, imaging findings, laboratory test, diagnosis, and treatment of 115 patients with IBPA diagnosed from October 2004 to June 2013 in Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University. RESULTS: The main clinical manifestations were cough in 58 patients (50...
October 20, 2017: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052280/reappraisal-of-systemic-venous-chemoreceptors-might-they-explain-the-matching-of-breathing-to-metabolic-rate-in-humans
#13
M J Parkes
What is the topic of this review? One of the major unanswered questions in physiology is that of how breathing matches metabolic rate. Venous chemoreceptors seem to have been dismissed since the 1960s. What advances does it highlight? New evidence shows that their apparent dismissal needs reappraisal. The paper on which this depends has more than one interpretation, and another paper obtained the opposite result. Previous search ignored all locations between skeletal muscle and the right heart. Oxygen sensors other than the arterial chemoreceptors do exist...
October 19, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051894/a-diagnostic-surprise-primary-hodgkin-s-lymphoma-of-the-lung
#14
Ankur Sinha, Ravikaran Patti, Prabhsimranjot Singh, William Solomon, Yizhak Kupfer
An 81-year-old male presented to the emergency room with a 3-month history of progressive shortness of breath, productive cough with white sputum, and generalized weakness with 10-pound weight loss in 2 months. On presentation, the patient was afebrile, with blood pressure of 93/55 mm Hg and oxy-hemoglobin saturation of 92% on 2 liters of oxygen via nasal cannula. Complete blood count with differential was significant for white count of 12 400/mL. Brain natriuretic peptide level was 454 ng/mL. Postero-anterior chest radiograph showed multiple round opacities in the lung fields...
October 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051628/deadly-acute-decompression-sickness-in-risso-s-dolphins
#15
A Fernández, E Sierra, J Díaz-Delgado, S Sacchini, Y Sánchez-Paz, C Suárez-Santana, M Arregui, M Arbelo, Y Bernaldo de Quirós
Diving air-breathing vertebrates have long been considered protected against decompression sickness (DCS) through anatomical, physiological, and behavioural adaptations. However, an acute systemic gas and fat embolic syndrome similar to DCS in human divers was described in beaked whales that stranded in temporal and spatial association with military exercises involving high-powered sonar. More recently, DCS has been diagnosed in bycaught sea turtles. Both cases were linked to human activities. Two Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) out of 493 necropsied cetaceans stranded in the Canary Islands in a 16-year period (2000-2015), had a severe acute decompression sickness supported by pathological findings and gas analysis...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051338/the-occurrence-of-cardiac-output-decrease-via-stroke-volume-is-more-pronounced-in-women-than-in-men-during-prolonged-dry-static-apnoea
#16
Sara Magnani, Gabriele Mulliri, Gianmarco Sainas, Giovanna Ghiani, Virginia Pinna, Irene Sanna, Antonio Crisafulli, Filippo Tocco
Little is known on gender differences in autonomic cardiovascular regulation of diving response (DR) and the few available studies into these differences were conducted on subjects with limited or no diving experience. We examined gender influence on hemodynamics during dry-static apnoea (SA) in 8 male and 8 female elite divers matched for their breath-hold (BH) ability. Hemodynamics was assessed by means of simultaneous echocardiography and impedance cardiography measurements and arterial pressure and oxygen saturation (SaO2) were also collected...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051337/gravity-outweighs-the-contribution-of-structure-to-passive-ventilation-perfusion-matching-in-the-supine-adult-human-lung
#17
Wendy Kang, Alys R Clark, Merryn H Tawhai
Gravity and matched airway/vascular tree geometries are both hypothesized to be key contributors to ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) matching in the lung, but their relative contributions are challenging to quantify experimentally. We used a structure-based model to conduct an analysis of the relative contributions of tissue deformation (the 'Slinky' effect), other gravitational mechanisms (weight of blood and gravitational gradient in tissue elastic recoil), and matched airway and arterial tree geometry to V/Q matching and therefore to total lung oxygen exchange...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051333/pre-load-corrected-dynamic-starling-mechanism-in-patients-with-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction
#18
Michinari Hieda, Erin Howden, Shigeki Shibata, Takashi Tarumi, Justin Stevan Lawley, Christopher M Hearon, M Dean Palmer, Qi Fu, Rong Zhang, Satyam Sarma, Benjamin D Levine
The beat-to-beat dynamic Starling mechanism (DSM), the dynamic modulation of stroke volume (SV) due to breath-to-breath changes in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), reflects ventricular-arterial coupling. The purpose of this study was to test whether LVEDP-SV relationship remained impaired in HFpEF patients after normalization of LVEDP. Right heart catheterization and model-flow analysis of the arterial pressure waveform were performed while preload was manipulated using lower body negative pressure to alter LVEDP...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051306/peripheral-chemosensitivity-is-not-blunted-during-2%C3%A2-h-of-thermoneutral-head-out-water-immersion-in-healthy-men-and-women
#19
James R Sackett, Zachary J Schlader, Suman Sarker, Christopher L Chapman, Blair D Johnson
Carbon dioxide (CO2) retention occurs during water immersion, but it is not known if peripheral chemosensitivity is altered during water immersion, which could contribute to CO2 retention. We tested the hypothesis that peripheral chemosensitivity to hypercapnia and hypoxia is blunted during 2 h of thermoneutral head out water immersion (HOWI) in healthy young adults. Peripheral chemosensitivity was assessed by the ventilatory, heart rate, and blood pressure responses to hypercapnia and hypoxia at baseline, 10, 60, 120 min, and post HOWI and a time-control visit (control)...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051274/effect-of-morphine-on-breathlessness-and-exercise-endurance-in-advanced-copd-a%C3%A2-randomised-crossover-trial
#20
Sara J Abdallah, Courtney Wilkinson-Maitland, Nathalie Saad, Pei Zhi Li, Benjamin M Smith, Jean Bourbeau, Dennis Jensen
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of morphine on exertional breathlessness and exercise endurance in advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).In a randomised crossover trial, we compared the acute effect of immediate-release oral morphine versus placebo on physiological and perceptual responses during constant-load cardiopulmonary cycle exercise testing (CPET) in 20 adults with advanced COPD and chronic breathlessness syndrome.Compared with placebo, morphine reduced exertional breathlessness at isotime by 1...
October 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
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