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Michael Schubert, Andreas Musolff, Holger Weiss
Elevated indoor radon concentrations (222 Rn) in dwellings pose generally a potential health risk to the inhabitants. During the last decades a considerable number of studies discussed both the different sources of indoor radon and the drivers for diurnal and multi day variations of its concentration. While the potential sources are undisputed, controversial opinions exist regarding their individual relevance and regarding the driving influences that control varying radon indoor concentrations. These drivers include (i) cyclic forced ventilation of dwellings, (ii) the temporal variance of the radon exhalation from soil and building materials due to e...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Shaoxiong Huang, Tingting Wang, Xiangmin Zhang, Chen-Wen Yen, Jiuxing Liang, Lingzi Zeng, Yuxi Luo
The purpose of this study was to explore the ways in which the Electroencephalogram (EEG) and oxygen saturation (SpO2 ) are involved in the progressive respiratory restoration process in patients with sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (SAHS). Twenty-five SAHS patients were enrolled in the analysis. The respiratory events scored from polysomnography (PSG) recordings were divided into two groups as follows: the events followed by secondary events (SREs), which failed to recover stable breathing and those that spontaneously restored stable ventilation (N-SREs)...
June 13, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Li Lin, Peng Hu, Junhui Shi, Catherine M Appleton, Konstantin Maslov, Lei Li, Ruiying Zhang, Lihong V Wang
We have developed a single-breath-hold photoacoustic computed tomography (SBH-PACT) system to reveal detailed angiographic structures in human breasts. SBH-PACT features a deep penetration depth (4 cm in vivo) with high spatial and temporal resolutions (255 µm in-plane resolution and a 10 Hz 2D frame rate). By scanning the entire breast within a single breath hold (~15 s), a volumetric image can be acquired and subsequently reconstructed utilizing 3D back-projection with negligible breathing-induced motion artifacts...
June 15, 2018: Nature Communications
Zihang Lu, Rachel E Foong, Krzysztof Kowalik, Theo J Moraes, Ayanna Boyce, Aimee Dubeau, Susan Balkovec, Per Magnus Gustafsson, Allan B Becker, Piush J Mandhane, Stuart E Turvey, Wendy Lou, Felix Ratjen, Malcolm Sears, Padmaja Subbarao
BACKGROUND: The care of infants with recurrent wheezing relies largely on clinical assessment. The lung clearance index (LCI), a measure of ventilation inhomogeneity, is a sensitive marker of early airway disease in children with cystic fibrosis, but its utility has not been explored in infants with recurrent wheezing. OBJECTIVE: To assess ventilation inhomogeneity using LCI among infants with a history of recurrent wheezing compared with healthy controls. METHODS: This is a case-control study, including 37 infants with recurrent wheezing recruited from outpatient clinics, and 113 healthy infants from a longitudinal birth cohort, the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development study...
June 15, 2018: Thorax
Tài Pham, Irene Telias, Thomas Piraino, Takeshi Yoshida, Laurent J Brochard
Poor synchrony between the delivery of mechanical breaths, the neural respiratory timing, and needs of patients is relatively frequent under mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the different types of dyssynchrony described to date, their mechanism, consequences, and potential management. There is still a long way to get to a comprehensive knowledge and uncertainties remain. Ongoing research and development of monitoring tools are urgently needed to allow a better appraisal of this area in a near future...
July 2018: Critical Care Clinics
Lisa Smithson, Tieghan Baird, Sukhpreet K Tamana, Amanda Lau, Jennifer Mariasine, Joyce Chikuma, Diana L Lefebvre, Padmaja Subbarao, Allan B Becker, Stuart E Turvey, Malcolm R Sears, Deryk S Beal, Jacqueline Pei, Piush J Mandhane
BACKGROUND: Both short sleep duration and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) are associated with poor neurocognitive development. However, the co-contributions of short sleep duration and SDB on neurodevelopment in pre-school children are relatively unknown. METHODS: We assessed both sleep duration and SDB by quarterly questionnaire from three months to two years of age among Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort participants. Group-based modeling determined trajectories of total, daytime, and nighttime sleep duration and SDB...
April 30, 2018: Sleep Medicine
Barry Danby Michael
This Commentary focuses on the landmark paper about hypoxia in radiotherapy by Gray, Scott et al published in 1953. By then, it was known that hypoxic regions in tumours could make them resistant to radiation treatment and that this was a possible cause of failure. The paper proposed that oxygen breathing could substantially decrease this resistance without incurring significant additional damage to normal tissues, thus reducing the likelihood of recurrence. Although the paper's supporting data were in some respects incomplete, the case it made was convincing and it prompted pilot clinical trials that combined radiotherapy with oxygen breathing, including under elevated pressure...
June 15, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
A Akbari-Sharbaf, R Sinclair, A Verrier, D Ziat, H D Zhou, X F Sun, J A Quilliam
We present measurements on a series of materials, Li_{2}In_{1-x}Sc_{x}Mo_{3}O_{8}, that can be described as a 1/6th-filled breathing kagome lattice. Substituting Sc for In generates chemical pressure which alters the breathing parameter nonmonotonically. Muon spin rotation experiments show that this chemical pressure tunes the system from antiferromagnetic long range order to a quantum spin liquid phase. A strong correlation with the breathing parameter implies that it is the dominant parameter controlling the level of magnetic frustration, with increased kagome symmetry generating the quantum spin liquid phase...
June 1, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Helen H Lee, Nicholas M Dalesio, Anthony T Lo Sasso, William C Van Cleve
BACKGROUND: Pediatric adenotonsillectomies are common and carry known risks of potentially severe complications. Complications that require a revisit, to either the emergency department or hospital readmission, increase costs and may be tied to lower reimbursements by federal programs. In 2011 and 2012, recommendations by pediatric and surgical organizations regarding selection of candidates for ambulatory procedures were issued. We hypothesized that guideline-associated changes in practice patterns would lower the odds of revisits...
June 12, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
M Ariel Geer Wallace, Joachim D Pleil
The data contained in this article are PubMed search strings and search string builders used to curate breath research manuscripts published from 1995-2016 and the respective number of articles found that satisfied the search requirements for selected categories. Breath sampling represents a non-invasive technique that has gained usefulness for public health, clinical, diagnostic, and environmental exposure assessment applications over the years. This data article includes search strings that were utilized to retrieve publications through the PubMed database for different breath research-related topics that were related to the analysis of exhaled breath, exhaled breath condensate (EBC), and exhaled breath aerosol (EBA) as well as the analysis of cellular headspace...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Sukesh Manthri, Sindhura Bandaru, Abdisamad Ibrahim, Chaitanya K Mamillapalli
Acute pericarditis as a presenting sign of adrenal insufficiency is rarely reported. We present a rare case that highlights pericarditis as a clinical presentation of secondary adrenal insufficiency later complicated by cardiac tamponade. A 44-year-old lady who presented to the hospital with a one-day history of pleuritic chest pain and shortness of breath. In the emergency room, she had a blood pressure of 70/35 mmHg. Laboratory evaluation revealed white blood cell count of 16.08 k/cumm with neutrophilia, normal renal function and elevated troponin (0...
April 13, 2018: Curēus
Ali Alsaadi, Hamdi A Alsufiani, Mohammad D Allugmani, Altaf Hussain Gora
Esophageal lung is a rare communicating bronchopulmonary foregut malformation in which the main bronchus arising from the trachea is absent. The affected lung is usually hypoplastic and aerated via an anomalous airway originating from the esophagus. Other anomalies such as esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula or VACTERL (vertebral defects, anal atresia, cardiac defects, tracheoesophageal fistula, renal anomalies, and limb abnormalities) association can co-exist. The initial radiographic findings may be normal, but subsequent imaging usually shows progressive and recurrent lung collapse, probably because of recurrent aspiration through the anomalous airway and poor compliance of the affected lung during breathing...
April 2018: Radiology Case Reports
Glenmore Lasam, Marcelina Lasam
A case of a 73-year-old woman with a history of von Recklinghausen disease (neurofibromatosis type 1) who presented initially with a gradual onset of shortness of breath and lightheadedness with no associated fever, chills, angina, palpitations, cough, weight loss, night sweats, nausea, vomiting, or constipation. She was found to be severely bradycardic and in third degree atrioventricular block by her primary care physician. She was admitted in the hospital because of intermittent bouts of lightheadedness and progression of the shortness of breath...
June 2018: Cardiology Research
Anna Brzecka, Jerzy Leszek, Ghulam Md Ashraf, Maria Ejma, Marco F Ávila-Rodriguez, Nagendra S Yarla, Vadim V Tarasov, Vladimir N Chubarev, Anna N Samsonova, George E Barreto, Gjumrakch Aliev
Sleep disturbances, as well as sleep-wake rhythm disturbances, are typical symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that may precede the other clinical signs of this neurodegenerative disease. Here, we describe clinical features of sleep disorders in AD and the relation between sleep disorders and both cognitive impairment and poor prognosis of the disease. There are difficulties of the diagnosis of sleep disorders based on sleep questionnaires, polysomnography or actigraphy in the AD patients. Typical disturbances of the neurophysiological sleep architecture in the course of the AD include deep sleep and paradoxical sleep deprivation...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Gethin H Evans, Lewis Mattin, Isabelle Ireland, William Harrison, Adora M W Yau, Victoria McIver, Tristan Pocock, Elizabeth Sheader, Lewis J James
Whey protein is a commonly ingested nutritional supplement amongst athletes and regular exercisers; however, its role in post-exercise rehydration remains unclear. Eight healthy male and female participants completed two experimental trials involving the ingestion of 35 g of whey protein (WP) or maltodextrin (MD) at the onset of a rehydration period, followed by ingestion of water to a volume equivalent to 150% of the amount of body mass lost during exercise in the heat. The gastric emptying rates of the solutions were measured using 13 C breath tests...
June 14, 2018: Nutrients
Mathias Munkholm, Jacob Louis Marott, Lars Bjerre-Kristensen, Flemming Madsen, Ole Find Pedersen, Peter Lange, Børge G Nordestgaard, Jann Mortensen
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine reference equations for the combined measurement of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO) diffusing capacity (DL,CO,NO ). In addition, we wanted to appeal for consensus regarding methodology of the measurement including calculation of diffusing capacity of the alveolo-capillary membrane (Dm) and pulmonary capillary volume (Vc). Methods: DL,CO,NO was measured in 282 healthy individuals aged 18-97 years using the single breath technique and a breath-hold time of 5 seconds (true apnoea period)...
June 14, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Ali Mirzaei, Sang Sub Kim, Hyoun Woo Kim
Gas sensors play an undeniable role in most fields of technology in the modern world; they are broadly used for public safety, pollution monitoring, quality control, breath analysis, smart homes and automobiles, and so on. Due to their low cost, high sensitivity, compact size, online detection, ease of use, portability, and low power consumption, metal oxide (MO) gas sensors have exceptional potential for detection of more than 150 gases. This paper reviews the current state-of-the-art H2 S conductometric MO gas sensors...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Harry Prapavessis, Stefanie De Jesus, Lyndsay Fitzgeorge, Scott Rollo
INTRODUCTION: Post-cessation weight gain contributes to smoking relapse, especially for women. Furthermore, excess weight in the form of android or visceral fat is associated with metabolic health problems. For this study, a secondary analysis was conducted in 2015 to determine whether quitting status, achieved through a 14 week supervised exercise-aided nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) cessation program [Getting Physical on Cigarette Trial-2009 to 2013; Prapavessis, et al., 2016], affects anthropometric and body composition parameters in female smokers (N = 413, M age = 42...
June 7, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Magnus Halland, John Pandolfino, Elizabeth Barba
Rumination syndrome is a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by effortless post-prandial regurgitation. The disorder appears uncommon, although only limited epidemiological data are available. Awareness of the characteristic symptoms is essential for recognizing the disorder, and thus avoiding the long delay in diagnosis which many patients experience. Whilst objective testing by post-prandial esophageal high resolution impedance manometry is available in select referral centers, a clinical diagnosis can be made in most patients...
June 11, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
M A Palacios, O Bohoudi, A M E Bruynzeel, J R van Sörnsen-de Koste, P Cobussen, B J Slotman, F J Lagerwaard, S Senan
PURPOSE: To study inter-fractional organ changes during MR-guided stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for adrenal metastases and to evaluate the dosimetric advantages of online plan adaptation. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Seventeen patients underwent a total of 84 fractions of video-assisted, respiration-gated MR-guided adaptive radiotherapy to deliver either 50 Gy (5 fractions), 60 Gy (8 fractions) or 24 Gy (3 fractions). An MR scan was repeated prior to each fraction, followed by rigid co-registration to the GTV on the pre-treatment MR scan...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
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