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astrocyte heterogeneity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052088/fascin-1-contributes-to-neuropathic-pain-by-promoting-inflammation-in-rat-spinal-cord
#1
Binbin Wang, Bingbing Fan, Qijun Dai, Xingguo Xu, Peipei Jiang, Lin Zhu, Haifeng Dai, Zhigang Yao, Zhongling Xu, Xiaojuan Liu
Neuropathic pain is a complicated clinical syndrome caused by heterogeneous etiology. Despite the fact that the underlying mechanisms remain elusive, it is well accepted that neuroinflammation plays a critical role in the development of neuropathic pain. Fascin-1, an actin-bundling protein, has been proved to be involved in the processing of diverse biological events including cellular development, immunity, and tumor invasion etc. Recent studies have shown that Fascin-1 participates in antigen presentation and the regulation of pro-inflammatory agents...
October 19, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021743/resolving-astrocyte-heterogeneity-in-the-cns
#2
REVIEW
W Todd Farmer, Keith Murai
Astrocytes play essential roles in nearly all aspects of brain function from modulating synapses and neurovasculature to preserving appropriate extracellular solute concentrations. To meet the complex needs of the central nervous system (CNS), astrocytes possess highly specialized properties that are optimized for their surrounding neural circuitry. Precisely how these diverse astrocytes types are generated in vivo, however, remains poorly understood. Key to this process is a critical balance of intrinsic developmental patterning and context-dependent environmental signaling events that configures astrocyte phenotype...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987175/inflammatory-demyelinating-diseases-of-the-central-nervous-system
#3
Romana Höftberger, Hans Lassmann
Inflammatory demyelinating diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders, which occur against the background of an acute or chronic inflammatory process. The pathologic hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS) is the presence of focal demyelinated lesions with partial axonal preservation and reactive astrogliosis. Demyelinated plaques are present in the white as well as gray matter, such as the cerebral or cerebellar cortex and brainstem nuclei. Activity of the disease process is reflected by the presence of lesions with ongoing myelin destruction...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980933/predictive-role-of-cytokines-il-10-il-12-and-tnf-%C3%AE-gene-polymorphisms-for-the-development-of-osteonecrosis-of-the-femoral-head-in-the-chinese-han-population
#4
L Yuan, W Li, Z B Tian, Y Li, S Sun
The progressive neurodegenerative process in osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is accompanied by chronic inflammation, including activation of microglia and astrocytes that express pro-inflammatory cytokines. Up to now, numerous studies of genetic epidemiology have assessed the association of anti- and pro-inflammation cytokines gene polymorphisms and risk of ONFH in different populations, but contradictory results were obtained due to the genetic heterogeneity of in different populations. In the study, 250 ONFH patients and 228 matched healthy controls from Shandong Province were recruited to evaluate the influence of interleukin-10 (IL-10) rs1800872, IL-12 rs3212227 and tumor necrosis factor-(TNF-α) rs1800629 polymorphism in ONFH...
September 30, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968832/long-term-in-vivo-calcium-imaging-of-astrocytes-reveals-distinct-cellular-compartment-responses-to-sensory-stimulation
#5
Jillian L Stobart, Kim David Ferrari, Matthew J P Barrett, Michael J Stobart, Zoe J Looser, Aiman S Saab, Bruno Weber
Localized, heterogeneous calcium transients occur throughout astrocytes, but the characteristics and long-term stability of these signals, particularly in response to sensory stimulation, remain unknown. Here, we used a genetically encoded calcium indicator and an activity-based image analysis scheme to monitor astrocyte calcium activity in vivo. We found that different subcellular compartments (processes, somata, and endfeet) displayed distinct signaling characteristics. Closer examination of individual signals showed that sensory stimulation elevated the number of specific types of calcium peaks within astrocyte processes and somata, in a cortical layer-dependent manner, and that the signals became more synchronous upon sensory stimulation...
November 19, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942474/svct2-expression-and-function-in-reactive-astrocytes-is-a-common-event-in-different-brain-pathologies
#6
Katterine Salazar, Fernando Martínez, Margarita Pérez-Martín, Manuel Cifuentes, Laura Trigueros, Luciano Ferrada, Francisca Espinoza, Natalia Saldivia, Romina Bertinat, Katherine Forman, María José Oviedo, Antonio J López-Gambero, Christian Bonansco, Ernesto R Bongarzone, Francisco Nualart
Ascorbic acid (AA), the reduced form of vitamin C, acts as a neuroprotector by eliminating free radicals in the brain. Sodium/vitamin C co-transporter isoform 2 (SVCT2) mediates uptake of AA by neurons. It has been reported that SVCT2 mRNA is induced in astrocytes under ischemic damage, suggesting that its expression is enhanced in pathological conditions. However, it remains to be established if SVCT expression is altered in the presence of reactive astrogliosis generated by different brain pathologies. In the present work, we demonstrate that SVCT2 expression is increased in astrocytes present at sites of neuroinflammation induced by intracerebroventricular injection of a GFP-adenovirus or the microbial enzyme, neuraminidase...
September 23, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938161/the-diverse-actions-of-astrocytes-during-synaptic-development
#7
REVIEW
Alexandra P Bosworth, Nicola J Allen
In the developing brain, cortical circuits are established through a complex process of synaptogenesis, maturation, and synaptic pruning. Astrocytes carry out diverse functions during each of these stages to facilitate the formation of complex networks. Recent work has begun to demonstrate that these heterogeneous roles during excitatory synaptic development are determined by the astrocyte population, brain region, and neuron type. This review will focus on current findings which highlight cell type specific mechanisms of excitatory synaptogenesis, as well as multiple mechanisms engaged by astrocytes to facilitate synaptic maturation and pruning...
September 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883484/astrocytes-and-oligodendrocytes-in-grey-and-white-matter-regions-of-the-brain-metabolize-fatty-acids
#8
Kristina Hofmann, Rosalia Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Anne Gaebler, Núria Casals, Anja Scheller, Lars Kuerschner
The grey and white matter regions of the mammalian brain consist of both neurons and neuroglial cells. Among the neuroglia, the two macroglia oligodendrocytes and astrocytes are the most abundant cell types. While the major function of oligodendrocytes is the formation of the lipid-rich myelin structure, the heterogeneous group of astrocytes fulfils a multitude of important roles in cerebral development and homeostasis. Brain lipid homeostasis involves the synthesis of a specific cerebral lipidome by local lipid metabolism...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851266/different-mixed-astrocyte-populations-derived-from-embryonic-stem-cells-have-variable-neuronal-growth-support-capacities
#9
Russell E Thompson, Allison Lake, Peter Kenny, Michael N Saunders, Kristina Sakers, Nisha R Iyer, Joseph D Dougherty, Shelly E Sakiyama-Elbert
Central nervous system injury often leads to functional impairment due, in part, to the formation of an inhibitory glial scar following injury that contributes to poor regeneration. Astrocytes are the major cellular components of the glial scar, which has led to the belief that they are primarily inhibitory following injury. Recent work has challenged this by demonstrating that some astrocytes are required for spinal cord regeneration and astrocytic roles in recovery depend on their phenotype. In this work, two mixed populations containing primarily either fibrous or protoplasmic astrocytes were derived from mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs)...
October 17, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840555/can-astrocytes-be-a-target-for-precision-medicine
#10
Chloe F Allen, Pamela J Shaw, Laura Ferraiuolo
Astrocytes are the most abundant non-neural cell type residing within the central nervous system (CNS) displaying tremendous heterogeneity depending on their location. Once believed to be 'passive support cells for electrically active neurons', astrocytes are now recognised to play an active role in brain homeostasis by forming connections with the surrounding neurons, microglia and endothelial cells. Most importantly, they provide an optimum microenvironment for functional neurons through regulation of the blood brain barrier, energy supply and removal of debris and toxic waste...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833202/molecular-composition-and-heterogeneity-of-the-lrrc8-containing-swelling-activated-osmolyte-channels-in-primary-rat-astrocytes
#11
Alexandra L Schober, Corinne S Wilson, Alexander A Mongin
Volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) is the ubiquitously expressed vertebrate Cl(-) /anion channel that is comprised of proteins belonging to the LRRC8 family and activated by cell swelling. In the brain, VRAC contributes to physiological and pathological release of a variety of small organic molecules, including the amino acid neurotransmitters glutamate, aspartate, and taurine. In the present work, we explored the role of all five LRRC8 family members in the release of organic osmolytes from primary rat astrocytes...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828608/eaat2-and-the-molecular-signature-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#12
Lauren Taylor Rosenblum, Davide Trotti
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapid and fatal neurodegenerative disease, primarily affecting upper and lower motor neurons. It is an extremely heterogeneous disease in both cause and symptom development, and its mechanisms of pathogenesis remain largely unknown. Excitotoxicity, a process caused by excessive glutamate signaling, is believed to play a substantial role, however. Excessive glutamate release, changes in postsynaptic glutamate receptors, and reduction of functional astrocytic glutamate transporters contribute to excitotoxicity in ALS...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827667/lapsyn-controls-branch-extension-and-positioning-of-astrocyte-like-glia-in-the-drosophila-optic-lobe
#13
Benjamin Richier, Cristina de Miguel Vijandi, Stefanie Mackensen, Iris Salecker
Astrocytes have diverse, remarkably complex shapes in different brain regions. Their branches closely associate with neurons. Despite the importance of this heterogeneous glial cell type for brain development and function, the molecular cues controlling astrocyte branch morphogenesis and positioning during neural circuit assembly remain largely unknown. We found that in the Drosophila visual system, astrocyte-like medulla neuropil glia (mng) variants acquire stereotypic morphologies with columnar and layered branching patterns in a stepwise fashion from mid-metamorphosis onwards...
August 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821665/molecular-and-functional-properties-of-regional-astrocytes-in-the-adult-brain
#14
Lydie Morel, Ming Sum R Chiang, Haruki Higashimori, Temitope Shoneye, Lakshmanan K Iyer, Julia Yelick, Albert Tai, Yongjie Yang
The molecular signature and functional properties of astroglial subtypes in the adult CNS remain largely undefined. By using translational ribosome affinity purification followed by RNA-Seq, we profiled astroglial ribosome-associated (presumably translating) mRNAs in major cortical and subcortical brain regions (cortex, hippocampus, caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, thalamus, and hypothalamus) of BAC aldh1l1-translational ribosome affinity purification (TRAP) mice (both sexes). We found that the expression of astroglial translating mRNAs closely follows the dorsoventral axis, especially from cortex/hippocampus to thalamus/hypothalamus posteriorly...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806136/harnessing-olig2-function-in-tumorigenicity-and-plasticity-to-target-malignant-gliomas
#15
Jennifer Kosty, Fanghui Lu, Robert Kupp, Shwetal Mehta, Q Richard Lu
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most prevalent and malignant brain tumor, displaying notorious resistance to conventional therapy, partially due to molecular and genetic heterogeneity. Understanding the mechanisms for gliomagenesis, tumor stem/progenitor cell propagation and phenotypic diversity is critical for devising effective and targeted therapy for this lethal disease. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor OLIG2, which is universally expressed in gliomas, has emerged as an important player in GBM cell reprogramming, genotoxic resistance, and tumor phenotype plasticity...
September 17, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778090/trastuzumab-distribution-in-an-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-model-of-brain-metastases-of-breast-cancer
#16
Tori B Terrell-Hall, Mohamed Ismail Nounou, Fatema El-Amrawy, Jessica I G Griffith, Paul R Lockman
BACKGROUND: Drug and antibody delivery to brain metastases has been highly debated in the literature. The blood-tumor barrier (BTB) is more permeable than the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and has shown to have highly functioning efflux transporters and barrier properties, which limits delivery of targeted therapies. METHODS: We characterized the permeability of 125I-trastuzumab in an in-vivo, and fluorescent trastuzumab-Rhodamine123 (t-Rho123) in a novel microfluidic in-vitro, BBB and BTB brain metastases of breast cancer model...
July 26, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775382/divergent-co-transcriptomes-of-different-host-cells-infected-with-toxoplasma-gondii-reveal-cell-type-specific-host-parasite-interactions
#17
Izabela J Swierzy, Ulrike Händel, Alexander Kaever, Michael Jarek, Maren Scharfe, Dirk Schlüter, Carsten G K Lüder
The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii infects various cell types in avian and mammalian hosts including humans. Infection of immunocompetent hosts is mostly asymptomatic or benign, but leads to development of largely dormant bradyzoites that persist predominantly within neurons and muscle cells. Here we have analyzed the impact of the host cell type on the co-transcriptomes of host and parasite using high-throughput RNA sequencing. Murine cortical neurons and astrocytes, skeletal muscle cells (SkMCs) and fibroblasts differed by more than 16,200 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) before and after infection with T...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748452/single-cell-transcriptomics-reveals-gene-signatures-and-alterations-associated-with-aging-in-distinct-neural-stem-progenitor-cell-subpopulations
#18
Zhanping Shi, Yanan Geng, Jiping Liu, Huina Zhang, Liqiang Zhou, Quan Lin, Juehua Yu, Kunshan Zhang, Jie Liu, Xinpei Gao, Chunxue Zhang, Yinan Yao, Chong Zhang, Yi E Sun
Aging associated cognitive decline has been linked to dampened neural stem/progenitor cells (NSC/NPCs) activities manifested by decreased proliferation, reduced propensity to produce neurons, and increased differentiation into astrocytes. While gene transcription changes objectively reveal molecular alterations of cells undergoing various biological processes, the search for molecular mechanisms underlying aging of NSC/NPCs has been confronted by the enormous heterogeneity in cellular compositions of the brain and the complex cellular microenvironment where NSC/NPCs reside...
July 26, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740449/genetic-factors-affecting-intraoperative-5-aminolevulinic-acid-induced-fluorescence-of-diffuse-gliomas
#19
Kiyotaka Saito, Toshinori Hirai, Hideo Takeshima, Yoshihito Kadota, Shinji Yamashita, Asya Ivanova, Kiyotaka Yokogami
BACKGROUND: In patients operated for malignant glioma, 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)-induced fluorescence guidance is useful. However, we occasionally experience instances of non-visible fluorescence despite a histopathological diagnosis of high-grade glioma. We sought to identify factors that influence the intraoperative visualization of gliomas by their 5-ALA-induced fluorescence. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed data from 60 patients with astrocytic or oligodendroglial tumors who underwent tumor removal under 5-ALA-induced fluorescence guidance between January 2014 and December 2015...
June 2017: Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728846/the-effects-of-type-i-interferon-on-glioblastoma-cancer-stem-cells
#20
Ziyun Du, Chun Cai, Michelle Sims, Frederick A Boop, Andrew M Davidoff, Lawrence M Pfeffer
Glioblastomas (GBMs) are highly invasive brain tumors that are extremely deadly. The highly aggressive nature of GBM as well as its heterogeneity at the molecular and cellular levels has been attributed to a rare subpopulation of GBM stem-like cells (GSCs). Interferons (IFNs) are a family of endogenous antiviral proteins that have anticancer activity in vitro, and have been used clinically to treat GBM. IFN inhibits the proliferation of various established GBM cell lines, but the effects of IFNs on GSCs remain relatively unknown...
September 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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