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astrocyte heterogeneity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911416/the-indirect-neuron-astrocyte-coculture-assay-an-in-vitro-set-up-for-the-detailed-investigation-of-neuron-glia-interactions
#1
Christine Gottschling, Egor Dzyubenko, Maren Geissler, Andreas Faissner
Proper neuronal development and function is the prerequisite of the developing and the adult brain. However, the mechanisms underlying the highly controlled formation and maintenance of complex neuronal networks are not completely understood thus far. The open questions concerning neurons in health and disease are diverse and reaching from understanding the basic development to investigating human related pathologies, e.g., Alzheimer's disease and Schizophrenia. The most detailed analysis of neurons can be performed in vitro...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904142/functional-diversity-of-astrocytes-in-neural-circuit-regulation
#2
Lucile Ben Haim, David Rowitch
Although it is well established that all brain regions contain various neuronal subtypes with different functions, astrocytes have traditionally been thought to be homogenous. However, recent evidence has shown that astrocytes in the mammalian CNS display distinct inter- and intra-regional features, as well as functional diversity. In the CNS, astrocyte processes fill the local environment in non-overlapping domains. Therefore, a potential advantage of region-specified astrocytes might be their capacity to regulate local development or optimize local neural circuit function...
December 1, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853976/tapered-tip-capillary-electrophoresis-nano-electrospray-ionization-mass-spectrometry-for-ultrasensitive-proteomics-the-mouse-cortex
#3
Sam B Choi, Marta Zamarbide, M Chiara Manzini, Peter Nemes
Ultrasensitive characterization of the proteome raises the potential to understand how differential gene expression orchestrates cell heterogeneity in the brain. Here, we report a microanalytical capillary electrophoresis nano-flow electrospray ionization (CE-nanoESI) interface for mass spectrometry to enable the measurement of limited amounts of proteins in the mouse cortex. Our design integrates a custom-built CE system to a tapered-tip metal emitter in a co-axial sheath-flow configuration. This interface can be constructed in <15 min using readily available components, facilitating broad adaptation...
November 16, 2016: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801899/analysis-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-carrying-22q11-2-deletion
#4
M Toyoshima, W Akamatsu, Y Okada, T Ohnishi, S Balan, Y Hisano, Y Iwayama, T Toyota, T Matsumoto, N Itasaka, S Sugiyama, M Tanaka, M Yano, B Dean, H Okano, T Yoshikawa
Given the complexity and heterogeneity of the genomic architecture underlying schizophrenia, molecular analyses of these patients with defined and large effect-size genomic defects could provide valuable clues. We established human-induced pluripotent stem cells from two schizophrenia patients with the 22q11.2 deletion (two cell lines from each subject, total of four cell lines) and three controls (total of four cell lines). Neurosphere size, neural differentiation efficiency, neurite outgrowth, cellular migration and the neurogenic-to-gliogenic competence ratio were significantly reduced in patient-derived cells...
November 1, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796748/relationship-between-obesity-alzheimer-s-disease-and-parkinson-s-disease-an-astrocentric-view
#5
REVIEW
Cynthia Alexandra Martin-Jiménez, Diana Milena Gaitán-Vaca, Valentina Echeverria, Janneth González, George E Barreto
Obesity is considered one of the greatest risk to human health and is associated with several factors including genetic components, diet, and physical inactivity. Recently, the relationship between obesity and numerous progressive and aging-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been observed. Thus, the involvement of the most abundant and heterogeneous group of glial cells in neurodegenerative diseases, the astrocytes, is caused by a combination of the failure on their normal homeostatic functions and the increase of toxic metabolites upon pathological event...
October 28, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790055/optogenetic-and-chemogenetic-approaches-for-studying-astrocytes-and-gliotransmitters
#6
REVIEW
Juwon Bang, Hak Yeong Kim, Hyosang Lee
The brain consists of heterogeneous populations of neuronal and non-neuronal cells. The revelation of their connections and interactions is fundamental to understanding normal brain functions as well as abnormal changes in pathological conditions. Optogenetics and chemogenetics have been developed to allow functional manipulations both in vitro and in vivo to examine causal relationships between cellular changes and functional outcomes. These techniques are based on genetically encoded effector molecules that respond exclusively to exogenous stimuli, such as a certain wavelength of light or a synthetic ligand...
October 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779684/microfluidic-profiling-of-apoptosis-related-genes-after-treatment-with-bh3-mimetic-agents-in-astrocyte-and-glioblastoma-cell-lines
#7
Eva Vidomanova, Peter Racay, Ivana Pilchova, Erika Halasova, Jozef Hatok
Glioblastoma (GB) is the most frequent and biologically the most aggressive primary brain tumor in adults. Standard treatment for newly diagnosed GB consists of surgical resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Resistance to therapy is a major obstacle, even with optimal treatment with a survival median of only 12-15 months. The heterogeneity and treatment response of GB makes this tumor type a challenging area of research. The aim of our study was to study the response of normal human astrocyte (HA) and human GB (T98G) cell lines to apoptosis inhibitors in vitro...
October 21, 2016: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714685/microglia-function-in-the-normal-brain
#8
Rommy von Bernhardi, Florencia Heredia, Nicole Salgado, Paola Muñoz
The activation of microglia has been recognized for over a century by their morphological changes. Long slender microglia acquire a short sturdy ramified shape when activated. During the past 20 years, microglia have been accepted as an essential cellular component for understanding the pathogenic mechanism of many brain diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases. More recently, functional studies and imaging in mouse models indicate that microglia are active in the healthy central nervous system. It has become evident that microglia release several signal molecules that play key roles in the crosstalk among brain cells, i...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647730/a-mosaic-world-puzzles-revealed-by-adult-neural-stem-cell-heterogeneity
#9
Zayna Chaker, Paolo Codega, Fiona Doetsch
Neural stem cells (NSCs) reside in specialized niches in the adult mammalian brain. The ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ), adjacent to the lateral ventricles, gives rise to olfactory bulb (OB) neurons, and some astrocytes and oligodendrocytes throughout life. In vitro assays have been widely used to retrospectively identify NSCs. However, cells that behave as stem cells in vitro do not reflect the identity, diversity, and behavior of NSCs in vivo. Novel tools including fluorescence activated cell sorting, lineage-tracing, and clonal analysis have uncovered multiple layers of adult V-SVZ NSC heterogeneity, including proliferation state and regional identity...
November 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628292/astroglial-vesicular-trafficking-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#10
Robert Zorec, Vladimir Parpura, Alexei Verkhratsky
The neocortex represents one of the largest estates of the human brain. This structure comprises ~30-40 billions of neurones and even more of non-neuronal cells. Astrocytes, highly heterogeneous homoeostatic glial cells, are fundamental for housekeeping of the brain and contribute to information processing in neuronal networks. Gray matter astrocytes tightly enwrap synapses, contact blood vessels and, naturally, are also in contact with the extracellular space, where convection of fluid takes place. Thus astrocytes receive signals from several distinct extracellular domains and can get excited by numerous mechanisms, which regulate cytosolic concentration of second messengers, such as Ca(2+) and cAMP...
September 14, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606318/cell-type-specific-effects-of-mutant-disc1-a-proteomics-study
#11
Meng Xia, Jantine A C Broek, Yan Jouroukhin, Jeannine Schoenfelder, Sofya Abazyan, Hanna Jaaro-Peled, Akira Sawa, Sabine Bahn, Mikhail Pletnikov
Despite the recent progress in psychiatric genetics, very few studies have focused on genetic risk factors in glial cells that, compared to neurons, can manifest different molecular pathologies underlying psychiatric disorders. In order to address this issue, we studied the effects of mutant disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), a genetic risk factor for schizophrenia, in cultured primary neurons and astrocytes using an unbiased mass spectrometry-based proteomic approach. We found that selective expression of mutant DISC1 in neurons affects a wide variety of proteins predominantly involved in neuronal development (e...
May 2016: Molecular Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27564458/a-comparative-transcriptomic-analysis-of-astrocytes-differentiation-from-human-neural-progenitor-cells
#12
Marco Magistri, Nathalie Khoury, Emilia Maria Cristina Mazza, Dmitry Velmeshev, Jae K Lee, Silvio Bicciato, Pantelis Tsoulfas, Mohammad Ali Faghihi
Astrocytes are a morphologically and functionally heterogeneous population of cells that play critical roles in neurodevelopment and in the regulation of central nervous system homeostasis. Studies of human astrocytes have been hampered by the lack of specific molecular markers and by the difficulties associated with purifying and culturing astrocytes from adult human brains. Human neural progenitor cells (NPCs) with self-renewal and multipotent properties represent an appealing model system to gain insight into the developmental genetics and function of human astrocytes, but a comprehensive molecular characterization that confirms the validity of this cellular system is still missing...
November 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547709/human-stem-cell-derived-astrocytes-specification-and-relevance-for-neurological-disorders
#13
Giulia Tyzack, Andras Lakatos, Rickie Patani
Astrocytes abound in the human central nervous system (CNS) and play a multitude of indispensable roles in neuronal homeostasis and regulation of synaptic plasticity. While traditionally considered to be merely ancillary supportive cells, their complex yet fundamental relevance to brain physiology and pathology have only become apparent in recent times. Beyond their myriad canonical functions, previously unrecognised region-specific functional heterogeneity of astrocytes is emerging as an important attribute and challenges the traditional perspective of CNS-wide astrocyte homogeneity...
2016: Current Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488079/time-dependent-uptake-and-trafficking-of-vesicles-capturing-extracellular-s100b-in-cultured-rat-astrocytes
#14
Eva Lasič, Fabiana Galland, Nina Vardjan, Jernej Šribar, Igor Križaj, Marina Concli Leite, Robert Zorec, Matjaž Stenovec
Astrocytes, the most heterogeneous glial cells in the central nervous system, contribute to brain homeostasis, by regulating a myriad of functions, including the clearance of extracellular debris. When cells are damaged, cytoplasmic proteins may exit into the extracellular space. One such protein is S100B, which may exert toxic effects on neighboring cells unless it is removed from the extracellular space, but the mechanisms of this clearance are poorly understood. By using time-lapse confocal microscopy and fluorescently labeled S100B (S100B-Alexa(488) ) and fluorescent dextran (Dextran(546) ), a fluid phase uptake marker, we examined the uptake of fluorescently labeled S100B-Alexa(488) from extracellular space and monitored trafficking of vesicles that internalized S100B-Alexa(488) ...
October 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458589/canine-butterfly-glioblastomas-a-neuroradiological-review
#15
John H Rossmeisl, Kemba Clapp, Theresa E Pancotto, Samantha Emch, John L Robertson, Waldemar Debinski
In humans, high-grade gliomas may infiltrate across the corpus callosum resulting in bihemispheric lesions that may have symmetrical, winged-like appearances. This particular tumor manifestation has been coined a "butterfly" glioma (BG). While canine and human gliomas share many neuroradiological and pathological features, the BG morphology has not been previously reported in dogs. Here, we describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of BG in three dogs and review the potential differential diagnoses based on neuroimaging findings...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27448245/heterogeneity-of-astrocyte-and-ng2-cell-insertion-at-the-node-of-ranvier
#16
David R Serwanski, Peter Jukkola, Akiko Nishiyama
The node of Ranvier is a functionally important site on the myelinated axon where sodium channels are clustered and regeneration of action potentials occurs, allowing fast saltatory conduction of action potentials. Early ultrastructural studies have revealed the presence of "glia" or "astrocytes" at the nodes. NG2 cells, also known as oligodendrocyte precursor cells or polydendrocytes, which are a resident glial cell population in the mature mammalian central nervous system that is distinct from astrocytes, have also been shown to extend processes that contact the nodes...
July 22, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27442752/review-astrocytes-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-other-age-associated-dementias-a-supporting-player-with-a-central-role
#17
C J Garwood, L E Ratcliffe, J E Simpson, P R Heath, P G Ince, S B Wharton
Astrocytes have essential roles in the central nervous system and are also implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease. Forming non-overlapping domains, astrocytes are highly complex cells. Immunohistochemistry to a variety of proteins can be used to study astrocytes in tissue, labelling different cellular components and subpopulations, including GFAP, ALDH1L1, CD44, NDRG2 and amino acid transporters, but none of these label the entire astrocyte population. Increasing heterogeneity is recognised in the astrocyte population, a complexity that is relevant both to their normal function and pathogenic roles...
July 21, 2016: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27425622/cellular-taxonomy-of-the-mouse-striatum-as-revealed-by-single-cell-rna-seq
#18
Ozgun Gokce, Geoffrey M Stanley, Barbara Treutlein, Norma F Neff, J Gray Camp, Robert C Malenka, Patrick E Rothwell, Marc V Fuccillo, Thomas C Südhof, Stephen R Quake
The striatum contributes to many cognitive processes and disorders, but its cell types are incompletely characterized. We show that microfluidic and FACS-based single-cell RNA sequencing of mouse striatum provides a well-resolved classification of striatal cell type diversity. Transcriptome analysis revealed ten differentiated, distinct cell types, including neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal, immune, and vascular cells, and enabled the discovery of numerous marker genes. Furthermore, we identified two discrete subtypes of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) that have specific markers and that overexpress genes linked to cognitive disorders and addiction...
July 26, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27423618/a-family-with-hereditary-diffuse-leukoencephalopathy-with-spheroids-caused-by-a-novel-c-2442-2t-c-mutation-in-the-csf1r-gene
#19
Ito Kawakami, Eizo Iseki, Koji Kasanuki, Michiko Minegishi, Kiyoshi Sato, Hiroyuki Hino, Katsuhiko Shibuya, Kohshiro Fujisawa, Shinji Higashi, Haruhiko Akiyama, Akiko Furuta, Masashi Takanashi, Yuanzhe Li, Nobutaka Hattori, Yoshio Mitsuyama, Heii Arai
Clinical phenotypes of hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids (HDLS), a familial progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting the white matter of the brain, are heterogenous and may include behavioral and personality changes, memory impairment, parkinsonism, seizure, and spasticity. Thus, HDLS is frequently unrecognized and misdiagnosed. Heterozygous mutations located within the kinase domain of the gene encoding the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R), a cell surface receptor with key roles in development and innate immunity, have been shown in HDLS...
August 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27390101/regional-myelin-and-axon-damage-and-neuroinflammation-in-the-adult-mouse-brain-after-long-term-postnatal-vanadium-exposure
#20
Idris A Azeez, Funmilayo Olopade, Claudia Laperchia, Anna Andrioli, Ilaria Scambi, Silas K Onwuka, Marina Bentivoglio, James O Olopade
Environmental exposure to vanadium occurs in areas of persistent burning of fossil fuels; this metal is known to induce oxidative stress and oligodendrocyte damage. Here, we determined whether vanadium exposure (3 mg/kg) in mice during the first 3 postnatal months leads to a sustained neuroinflammatory response. Body weight monitoring, and muscle strength and open field tests showed reduction of body weight gain and locomotor impairment in vanadium-exposed mice. Myelin histochemistry and immunohistochemistry for astrocytes, microglia, and nonphosphorylated neurofilaments revealed striking regional heterogeneity...
September 2016: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
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