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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753754/phosphatidylethanolamine-binding-protein-1-protects-ca1-neurons-against-ischemic-damage-via-erk-creb-signaling-in-mongolian-gerbils
#1
Hyo Young Jung, Su Bin Cho, Woosuk Kim, Dae Young Yoo, Moo-Ho Won, Goang-Min Choi, Tack-Geun Cho, Dae Won Kim, In Koo Hwang, Soo Young Choi, Seung Myung Moon
In the present study, we made a PEP-1-phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein 1 (PEP-1-PEBP1) fusion protein to facilitate the transduction of PEBP1 into cells and observed significant ameliorative effects of PEP-1-PEBP1 against H2 O2 -induced neuronal damage and the formation of reactive oxygen species in the HT22 hippocampal cells. In addition, administration of PEP-1-PEBP1 fusion protein ameliorated H2 O2 -induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) and facilitated the phosphorylation of cyclic-AMP response element binding protein (CREB) in HT22 cells after exposure to H2 O2 ...
May 10, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752716/low-dose-irradiated-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-break-tumor-defensive-properties-in-vivo
#2
Francesca Romana Stefani, Sofia Eberstål, Stefano Vergani, Trine A Kristiansen, Johan Bengzon
Solid tumors, including gliomas, still represent a challenge to clinicians and first line treatments often fail, calling for new paradigms in cancer therapy. Novel strategies to overcome tumor resistance are mainly represented by multi-targeted approaches, and cell vector-based therapy is one of the most promising treatment modalities under development. Here, we show that mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), when primed with low-dose irradiation (irMSCs), undergo changes in their immunogenic and angiogenic capacity and acquire anti-tumoral properties in a mouse model of glioblastoma (GBM)...
May 11, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746557/optic-tract-injury-after-closed-head-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice-a-model-of-indirect-traumatic-optic-neuropathy
#3
Nathan K Evanson, Fernanda Guilhaume-Correa, James P Herman, Michael D Goodman
Adult male C57BL/6J mice have previously been reported to have motor and memory deficits after experimental closed head traumatic brain injury (TBI), without associated gross pathologic damage or neuroimaging changes detectable by magnetic resonance imaging or diffusion tensor imaging protocols. The presence of neurologic deficits, however, suggests neural damage or dysfunction in these animals. Accordingly, we undertook a histologic analysis of mice after TBI. Gross pathology and histologic analysis using Nissl stain and NeuN immunohistochemistry demonstrated no obvious tissue damage or neuron loss...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673307/the-pathology-of-wobbly-hedgehog-syndrome
#4
Josué Díaz-Delgado, Derick B Whitley, Ralph W Storts, Jill J Heatley, Sharman Hoppes, Brian F Porter
Wobbly hedgehog syndrome (WHS) is a leading cause of neurologic disease in African pygmy hedgehogs (APHs; Atelerix albiventris). This study describes the signalment, clinical signs, gross, microscopic, and ultrastructural lesions of WHS in a cohort of 12 pet APHs. Microscopically, lesions consisted of status spongiosus of the white matter, typically bilateral and symmetrical, with myelin degeneration and loss that was accompanied by neuronal/axonal degeneration plus reactive microgliosis and mild, focal astrocytosis and astrogliosis...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627590/exploring-experimental-autoimmune-optic-neuritis-using-multimodal-imaging
#5
Praveena Manogaran, Christine Walker-Egger, Marijana Samardzija, Conny Waschkies, Christian Grimm, Markus Rudin, Sven Schippling
BACKGROUND: Neuro-axonal injury is a key contributor to non-reversible long-term disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Visual impairment is common among MS patients, in which episodes of optic neuritis (ON) are often followed by structural retinal damage and sustained functional impairment. Alterations in the optic nerve and retina have also been described in rodent experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of MS...
April 5, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587294/macroscopic-localized-subicular-thinning-as-a-potential-indicator-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#6
Hiroki Yamada, Takahiro Takeda, Toshiki Uchihara, Shizuko Sato, Susumu Kirimura, Yuka Hirota, Makoto Kodama, Masanobu Kitagawa, Katsuiku Hirokawa, Takanori Yokota, Shuta Toru
Subicular degeneration occurs in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. However, it was unknown whether microscopic subicular degeneration could be observed as macroscopic changes and whether these changes were associated with the transactive-response DNA binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43) pathology. Topographic differences between subicular degeneration caused by ALS and Alzheimer disease (AD) had also not been characterized. Here we investigated the subiculum and related areas in autopsied brains from 3 ALS and 3 AD patients...
March 23, 2018: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577981/perfluorooctane-sulfonate-mediates-secretion-of-il-1%C3%AE-through-pi3k-akt-nf-%C3%B0%C2%BAb-pathway-in-astrocytes
#7
Xiaoxu Chen, Xiaoke Nie, Jiamin Mao, Yan Zhang, Kaizhi Yin, Pingping Sun, Jiashan Luo, Yiming Liu, Shengyang Jiang
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent and bioaccumulative compound that has been widely used in various fields of life and industrial productions, because of its special chemical and physical properties. Numerous studies have indicated significant neurotoxic effect of PFOS, especially on neurons and microglia. However, the influence of PFOS on astrocyte physiology remains unclear. In this study, we showed that PFOS triggered reactive astrocytosis in time- and dose-dependent manners. The low-doses of PFOS increased the cell number and the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a well-known hallmark of reactive astrocytes, in C6 astrocyte cells...
March 22, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568933/effects-and-mechanism-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-1-42-on-mitochondria-in-astrocytes
#8
Yunyi Yao, Jin-Zhong Huang, Yingqi Chen, He-Juan Hu, Xiying Tang, Xianhong Li
Amyloid β (Aβ)1-42 is strongly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The effects of Aβ1‑42 on astrocytes remain largely unknown. The present study focused on the effects of Aβ1‑42 on U87 human glioblastoma cells as astrocytes for in vitro investigation and mouse brains for in vivo investigation. The mechanism and regulation of mitochondria and cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) were also investigated. As determined by MTT assays, low doses of Aβ1‑42 (<1 µM) marginally promoted astrocytosis compared with the 0 µM group within 24 h, however, after 48 h treatment these doses reduced cellular growth compared with the 0 µM group...
March 16, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544513/neonatal-hyperglycemia-induces-cxcl10-cxcr3-signaling-and-microglial-activation-and-impairs-long-term-synaptogenesis-in-the-hippocampus-and-alters-behavior-in-rats
#9
Katherine M Satrom, Kathleen Ennis, Brian M Sweis, Tatyana M Matveeva, Jun Chen, Leif Hanson, Akhil Maheshwari, Raghavendra Rao
BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia is common in extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGAN) and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity, including abnormal neurodevelopment. Hippocampus-mediated cognitive deficits are common in this population, but the specific effects of hyperglycemia on the developing hippocampus are not known. METHODS: The objective of this study was to determine the acute and long-term effects of hyperglycemia on the developing hippocampus in neonatal rats using a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced model of hyperglycemia...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512077/imaging-neuroinflammation-quantification-of-astrocytosis-in-a-multitracer-pet-approach
#10
Elena Rodriguez-Vieitez, Agneta Nordberg
The recent progress in the development of in vivo biomarkers is rapidly changing how neurodegenerative diseases are conceptualized and diagnosed, and how clinical trials are designed today. Alzheimer's disease (AD)-the most common neurodegenerative disorder-is characterized by a complex neuropathology involving the deposition of extracellular amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins, accompanied by the activation of glial cells-astrocytes and microglia-and neuroinflammatory responses, leading to neurodegeneration and cognitive dysfunction...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489862/time-course-of-blast-induced-injury-in-the-rat-auditory-cortex
#11
Srinivasu Kallakuri, Edward Pace, Huichao Lu, Hao Luo, John Cavanaugh, Jinsheng Zhang
Blast exposure is an increasingly significant health hazard and can have a range of debilitating effects, including auditory dysfunction and traumatic brain injury. To assist in the development of effective treatments, a greater understanding of the mechanisms of blast-induced auditory damage and dysfunction, especially in the central nervous system, is critical. To elucidate this area, we subjected rats to a unilateral blast exposure at 22 psi, measured their auditory brainstem responses (ABRs), and histologically processed their brains at 1 day, 1 month, and 3-month survival time points...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422055/calcineurin-a-beta-deficiency-ameliorates-hfd-induced-hypothalamic-astrocytosis-in-mice
#12
Katrin Pfuhlmann, Sonja C Schriever, Beata Legutko, Peter Baumann, Luke Harrison, Dhiraj G Kabra, Emily Violette Baumgart, Matthias H Tschöp, Cristina Garcia-Caceres, Paul T Pfluger
ᅟ: Astrocytosis is a reactive process involving cellular, molecular, and functional changes to facilitate neuronal survival, myelin preservation, blood brain barrier function and protective glial scar formation upon brain insult. The overall pro- or anti-inflammatory impact of reactive astrocytes appears to be driven in a context- and disease-driven manner by modulation of astrocytic Ca2+ homeostasis and activation of Ca2+ /calmodulin-activated serine/threonine phosphatase calcineurin. Here, we aimed to assess whether calcineurin is dispensable for astrocytosis in the hypothalamus driven by prolonged high fat diet (HFD) feeding...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419414/motor-neuron-degeneration-correlates-with-respiratory-dysfunction-in-sca1
#13
James P Orengo, Meike E van der Heijden, Shuang Hao, Jianrong Tang, Harry T Orr, Huda Y Zoghbi
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is characterized by adult-onset cerebellar degeneration with attendant loss of motor coordination. Bulbar function is eventually impaired and patients typically die from an inability to clear the airway. We investigated whether motor neuron degeneration is at the root of bulbar dysfunction by studying SCA1 knock-in ( Atxn1154Q/+ ) mice. Spinal cord and brainstem motor neurons were assessed in Atxn1154Q/+ mice at 1, 3 and 6 months of age. Specifically, we assessed breathing physiology, diaphragm histology and electromyography, and motor neuron histology and immunohistochemistry...
February 26, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383832/long-lasting-pathological-consequences-of-overexpression-induced-%C3%AE-synuclein-spreading-in-the-rat-brain
#14
Raffaella Rusconi, Ayse Ulusoy, Helia Aboutalebi, Donato A Di Monte
Increased expression of α-synuclein can initiate its long-distance brain transfer, representing a potential mechanism for pathology spreading in age-related synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson's disease. In this study, the effects of overexpression-induced α-synuclein transfer were assessed over a 1-year period after injection of viral vectors carrying human α-synuclein DNA into the rat vagus nerve. This treatment causes targeted overexpression within neurons in the dorsal medulla oblongata and subsequent diffusion of the exogenous protein toward more rostral brain regions...
April 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360998/concussion-microvascular-injury-and-early-tauopathy-in-young-athletes-after-impact-head-injury-and-an-impact-concussion-mouse-model
#15
Chad A Tagge, Andrew M Fisher, Olga V Minaeva, Amanda Gaudreau-Balderrama, Juliet A Moncaster, Xiao-Lei Zhang, Mark W Wojnarowicz, Noel Casey, Haiyan Lu, Olga N Kokiko-Cochran, Sudad Saman, Maria Ericsson, Kristen D Onos, Ronel Veksler, Vladimir V Senatorov, Asami Kondo, Xiao Z Zhou, Omid Miry, Linnea R Vose, Katisha R Gopaul, Chirag Upreti, Christopher J Nowinski, Robert C Cantu, Victor E Alvarez, Audrey M Hildebrandt, Erich S Franz, Janusz Konrad, James A Hamilton, Ning Hua, Yorghos Tripodis, Andrew T Anderson, Gareth R Howell, Daniela Kaufer, Garth F Hall, Kun P Lu, Richard M Ransohoff, Robin O Cleveland, Neil W Kowall, Thor D Stein, Bruce T Lamb, Bertrand R Huber, William C Moss, Alon Friedman, Patric K Stanton, Ann C McKee, Lee E Goldstein
The mechanisms underpinning concussion, traumatic brain injury, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy, and the relationships between these disorders, are poorly understood. We examined post-mortem brains from teenage athletes in the acute-subacute period after mild closed-head impact injury and found astrocytosis, myelinated axonopathy, microvascular injury, perivascular neuroinflammation, and phosphorylated tau protein pathology. To investigate causal mechanisms, we developed a mouse model of lateral closed-head impact injury that uses momentum transfer to induce traumatic head acceleration...
February 1, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344928/morphine-mediated-brain-region-specific-astrocytosis-involves-the-er-stress-autophagy-axis
#16
Susmita Sil, Palsamy Periyasamy, Ming-Lei Guo, Shannon Callen, Shilpa Buch
A recent study from our lab has revealed a link between morphine-mediated autophagy and synaptic impairment. The current study was aimed at investigating whether morphine-mediated activation of astrocytes involved the ER stress/autophagy axis. Our in vitro findings demonstrated upregulation of GFAP indicating astrocyte activation with a concomitant increase in the production of proinflammatory cytokines in morphine-exposed human astrocytes. Using both pharmacological and gene-silencing approaches, it was demonstrated that morphine-mediated defective autophagy involved upstream activation of ER stress with subsequent downstream astrocyte activation via the μ-opioid receptor (MOR)...
January 17, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323756/juvenile-taiep-rats-have-shorter-dendritic-trees-in-the-dorsal-field-of-the-hippocampus-without-spatial-learning-disabilities
#17
Adriana B Silva-Gómez, Dolores A Bravo-Duran, Jose R Eguibar, Carmen Cortes
Myelin mutant taiep rats show a progressive demyelination in the central nervous system due to an abnormal accumulation of microtubules in the cytoplasm and the processes on their oligodendrocytes. Demyelination is associated with electrophysiological alterations and the mutant had a progressive astrocytosis. The illness is associated with change in cytokine levels and in the expression of different nitric oxide synthase and concomitantly lipoperoxidation in several areas of the brain. However, until now there has been no detailed anatomical analysis of neurons in this mutant...
January 11, 2018: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318446/vitamin-d-improves-neurogenesis-and-cognition-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Maria Morello, Véréna Landel, Emmanuelle Lacassagne, Kevin Baranger, Cedric Annweiler, François Féron, Pascal Millet
The impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis at the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is believed to support early cognitive decline. Converging studies sustain the idea that vitamin D might be linked to the pathophysiology of AD and to hippocampal neurogenesis. Nothing being known about the effects of vitamin D on hippocampal neurogenesis in AD, we assessed them in a mouse model of AD. In a previous study, we observed that dietary vitamin D supplementation in female AD-like mice reduced cognitive decline only when delivered during the symptomatic phase...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285982/effects-of-veliparib-on-microglial-activation-and-functional-outcomes-following-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-rat-and-pig
#19
Karen Irvine, Robin Bishop, Seok Joon Won, Jianguo Xu, Katherine Hamel, Valerie Coppes, Pardeep Singh, Andrew Sondag, Eric Rome, Jayinee Basu, Giordano Santos, S Scott Panter, Raymond Swanson
The inflammation response induced by brain trauma can impair recovery. This response requires several hours to fully develop, and thus provides a clinically relevant therapeutic window of opportunity. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors suppress inflammatory responses, including brain microglial activation. Here we evaluated delayed treatment with veliparib, a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor currently in clinical trials as a cancer therapeutic, in rats and pigs subjected to controlled cortical impact (CCI)...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278729/stroke-promotes-survival-of-nearby-transplanted-neural-stem-cells-by-decreasing-their-activation-of-caspase-3-while-not-affecting-their-differentiation
#20
Nina Kosi, Ivan Alić, Iva Salamon, Dinko Mitrečić
Although transplantation of stem cells improves recovery of the nervous tissue, little is known about the influence of different brain regions on transplanted cells. After we confirmed that cells with uniform differentiation potential can be generated in independent experiments, one million of neural stem cells isolated from B6.Cg-Tg(Thy1-YFP)16Jrs/J mouse embryos were transplanted into the brain 24 h after induction of stroke. The lateral ventricles, the corpus callosum and the striatum were tested. Two and four weeks after the transplantation, the cells transplanted in all three regions have been attracted to the ischemic core...
February 14, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
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