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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450697/endogenous-sex-steroids-dampen-neuroinflammation-and-improve-outcome-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice
#1
Amy C Clevenger, Hoon Kim, Ernesto Salcedo, Joan C Yonchek, Krista M Rodgers, James E Orfila, Robert M Dietz, Nidia Quillinan, Richard J Traystman, Paco S Herson
The role of biological sex in short-term and long-term outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains controversial. The observation that exogenous female sex steroids (progesterone and estrogen) reduce brain injury coupled with a small number of clinical studies showing smaller injury in women suggest that sex steroids may play a role in outcome from TBI. We used the controlled cortical impact (CCI) model of TBI in mice to test the hypothesis that after CCI, female mice would demonstrate less injury than male mice, related to the protective role of endogenous steroids...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448957/brain-region-specific-enhancement-of-remyelination-and-prevention-of-demyelination-by-the-csf1r-kinase-inhibitor-blz945
#2
Nicolau Beckmann, Elisa Giorgetti, Anna Neuhaus, Stefan Zurbruegg, Nathalie Accart, Paul Smith, Julien Perdoux, Ludovic Perrot, Mark Nash, Sandrine Desrayaud, Peter Wipfli, Wilfried Frieauff, Derya R Shimshek
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the central nervous system (CNS). While multiple effective immunomodulatory therapies for MS exist today, they lack the scope of promoting CNS repair, in particular remyelination. Microglia play a pivotal role in regulating myelination processes, and the colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) pathway is a key regulator for microglia differentiation and survival. Here, we investigated the effects of the CSF-1 receptor kinase inhibitor, BLZ945, on central myelination processes in the 5-week murine cuprizone model by non-invasive and longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histology...
February 15, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447242/a-novel-ligand-on-astrocytes-interacts-with-natural-cytotoxicity-receptor-nkp44-regulating-immune-response-mediated-by-nk-cells
#3
Kelly E Bowen, Stephen O Mathew, Kathleen Borgmann, Anuja Ghorpade, Porunelloor A Mathew
NK cells play important role in immunity against pathogens and cancer. NK cell functions are regulated by inhibitory and activating receptors binding corresponding ligands on the surface of target cells. NK cells were shown to be recruited to the CNS following several pathological conditions. NK cells could impact CNS physiology by killing glial cells and by secreting IFN-γ. Astrocytes are intimately involved in immunological and inflammatory events occurring in the CNS and reactive astrogliosis is a key feature in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444457/brain-region-specific-responses-of-astrocytes-to-an-in-vitro-injury-and-neurotrophins
#4
Andrea Beatriz Cragnolini, Gonzalo Montenegro, Wilma J Friedman, Daniel Hugo Mascó
Astrocytes are a heterogeneous population of glial cells that react to brain insults through a process referred to as astrogliosis. Reactive astrocytes are characterized by an increase in proliferation, size, migration to the injured zone and release of a plethora of chemical mediators such as NGF and BDNF. The aim of this study was to determine whether there are brain region-associated responses of astrocytes to an injury and to the neurotrophins NGF and BDNF. We used the scratch injury model to study the closure of a wound inflicted on a monolayer of astrocytes obtained from cortex, hippocampus or striatum...
February 11, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438777/the-differential-roles-of-pea15-phosphorylations-in-reactive-astrogliosis-and-astroglial-apoptosis-following-status-epilepticus
#5
Jin-Young Park, Tae-Cheon Kang
Up to this day, the roles of PEA15 expression and its phosphorylation in seizure-related events have not been still unclear. In the present study, we found that PEA15 was distinctly phosphorylated in reactive astrocytes and apoptotic astrocytes in the rat hippocampus following LiCl-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE, a prolonged seizure activity). PEA15-serine (S) 104 phosphorylation was up-regulated in reactive astrocytes following SE, although PEA15 expression and its S116 phosphorylation were unaltered...
February 10, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434186/preconditioning-induced-by-sub-toxic-dose-of-the-neurotoxin-l-bmaa-delays-als-progression-in-mice-and-prevents-na-ca2-exchanger-3-downregulation
#6
Serenella Anzilotti, Paola Brancaccio, Giuseppe Simeone, Valeria Valsecchi, Antonio Vinciguerra, Agnese Secondo, Tiziana Petrozziello, Natascia Guida, Rossana Sirabella, Ornella Cuomo, Pasquale Cepparulo, Andrè Herchuelz, Salvatore Amoroso, Gianfranco Di Renzo, Lucio Annunziato, Giuseppe Pignataro
Preconditioning (PC) is a phenomenon wherein a mild insult induces resistance to a later, severe injury. Although PC has been extensively studied in several neurological disorders, no studies have been performed in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here we hypothesize that a sub-toxic acute exposure to the cycad neurotoxin beta-methylamino-L-alanine (L-BMAA) is able to delay ALS progression in SOD1 G93A mice and that NCX3, a membrane transporter able to handle the deregulation of ionic homeostasis occurring during ALS, takes part to this neuroprotective effect...
February 12, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428401/exposure-to-an-obesogenic-diet-during-adolescence-leads-to-abnormal-maturation-of-neural-and-behavioral-substrates-underpinning-fear-and-anxiety
#7
Julio David Vega-Torres, Elizabeth Haddad, Jeong Bin Lee, Priya Kalyan-Masih, Wanda I Maldonado George, Leonardo López Pérez, Darla M Piñero Vázquez, Yaría Arroyo Torres, José M Santiago Santana, Andre Obenaus, Johnny D Figueroa
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and obesity are highly prevalent in adolescents. Emerging findings from our laboratory and others are consistent with the novel hypothesis that obese individuals may be predisposed to developing PTSD. Given that aberrant fear responses are pivotal in the pathogenesis of PTSD, the objective of this study was to determine the impact of an obesogenic Western-like high-fat diet (WD) on neural substrates associated with fear. METHODS: Adolescent Lewis rats (n = 72) were fed with either the experimental WD (41...
February 8, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427386/diffusion-mri-monitoring-of-specific-structures-in-the-irradiated-rat-brain
#8
Julie Constanzo, Matthieu Dumont, Réjean Lebel, Luc Tremblay, Kevin Whittingstall, Laurence Masson-Côté, Sameh Geha, Philippe Sarret, Martin Lepage, Benoit Paquette, Maxime Descoteaux
PURPOSE: The analysis of biological and mesoscopic structures properties by diffusion MRI (dMRI) in brain after radiation therapy remains challenging. In our study, we described the consequences associated with an unwanted dose to healthy tissue, assessing radiation-induced brain alterations of living rats with dMRI compared to histopathology and behavioral assays. METHODS: The right primary motor cortex M1 of the rat brain was targeted by stereotactic radiosurgery with a mean radiation dose of 41 Gy...
February 9, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408270/gaba-function-may-be-related-to-the-impairment-of-learning-and-memory-caused-by-systemic-prenatal-hypoxia-ischemia
#9
Marta Cristina Cunha-Rodrigues, Cassiana Thayara do Nascimento Balduci, Frank Tenório, Penha Cristina Barradas
Intrauterine adverse conditions may be responsible for long-lasting damages which impact health even during adult phase. Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) events are a relevant cause of newborn mortality and the principal factor leading to permanent brain lesions. Using a model in which the ovarian and uterine flux of a pregnant rat is obstructed for 45 minutes we have described oligodendrocyte death, astrogliosis and neuronal loss. In this work we investigated hippocampal neuronal population and performed a functional evaluation of memory and learning of young rats that had been affected by prenatal HI...
February 3, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405081/acute-inhalation-of-combustion-smoke-triggers-neuroinflammation-and-persistent-anxiety-like-behavior-in-the-mouse
#10
Murat F Gorgun, Ming Zhuo, IbDanelo Cortez, Kelly T Dineley, Ella W Englander
CONTEXT: Acute inhalation of combustion smoke triggers neurologic sequelae in survivors. Due to the challenges posed by heterogeneity of smoke exposures in humans, mechanistic links between acute smoke inhalation and neuropathologic sequelae have not been systematically investigated. METHODS: Here, using mouse model of acute inhalation of combustion smoke, we studied longitudinal neurobehavioral manifestations of smoke exposures and molecular/cellular changes in the mouse brain...
February 6, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402698/subcortical-neurodegeneration-in-chorea-similarities-and-differences-between-chorea-acanthocytosis-and-huntington-s-disease
#11
Jia Liu, Helmut Heinsen, Lea T Grinberg, Eduardo Alho, Edson Amaro, Carlos A Pasqualucci, Udo Rüb, Wilfred den Dunnen, Thomas Arzberger, Christoph Schmitz, Maren Kiessling, Benedikt Bader, Adrian Danek
INTRODUCTION: Chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) and Huntington's disease (HD) are neurodegenerative conditions that share clinical and neuropathological features, despite their distinct genetic etiologies. METHODS: In order to compare these neuropathologies, serial gallocyanin-stained brain sections from three subjects with ChAc were analyzed and compared with our previous studies of eight HD cases, in addition to three hemispheres from two male controls. RESULTS: Astrogliosis was much greater in the ChAc striatum, as compared to that found in HD, with dramatic increase in total striatal glia numbers and the number of glia per striatal neuron...
January 10, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397865/the-role-of-purkinje-cell-derived-vegf-in-cerebellar-astrogliosis-in-niemann-pick-type-c-mice
#12
Min Hee Park, Ju Youn Lee, Min Seock Jeong, Hyung Sup Jang, Shogo Endo, Jae-Sung Bae, Hee Kyung Jin
Niemann-Pick type C disease (NP-C) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by a deficiency of NPC1 gene function, which leads to severe neuroinflammation such as astrogliosis. While reports demonstrating neuroinflammation are prevalent in NP-C, information about the onset and progression of cerebellar astrogliosis in this disorder is lacking. Using gene targeting, we generated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) conditional null mutant mice. Deletion of VEGF in cerebellar Purkinje neurons (PNs) led to a significant increase of astrogliosis in the brain of NP-C mice in addition to the loss of PNs, suggesting PN-derived VEGF as an important factor in NP-C pathology...
February 5, 2018: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397529/protein-energy-malnutrition-exacerbates-stroke-induced-forelimb-abnormalities-and-dampens-neuroinflammation
#13
Mariam Alaverdashvili, Sally Caine, Xue Li, Mark J Hackett, Michael P Bradley, Helen Nichol, Phyllis G Paterson
Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) pre-existing at stroke onset is believed to worsen functional outcome, yet the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Since brain inflammation is an important modulator of neurological recovery after stroke, we explored the impact of PEM on neuroinflammation in the acute period in relation to stroke-initiated sensori-motor abnormalities. Adult rats were fed a low-protein (LP) or normal protein (NP) diet for 28 days before inducing photothrombotic stroke (St) in the forelimb region of the motor cortex or sham surgery; the diets continued for 3 days after the stroke...
February 3, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396549/rgma-mediates-reactive-astrogliosis-and-glial-scar-formation-through-tgf%C3%AE-1-smad2-3-signaling-after-stroke
#14
Rongrong Zhang, Yanping Wu, Fei Xie, Yiliang Zhong, Yu Wang, Mengxue Xu, Jinzhou Feng, Jason Charish, Philippe P Monnier, Xinyue Qin
In response to stroke, astrocytes become reactive astrogliosis and are a major component of a glial scar. This results in the formation of both a physical and chemical (production of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans) barrier, which prevent neurite regeneration that, in turn, interferes with functional recovery. However, the mechanisms of reactive astrogliosis and glial scar formation are poorly understood. In this work, we hypothesized that repulsive guidance molecule a (RGMa) regulate reactive astrogliosis and glial scar formation...
February 2, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392519/luteolin-could-improve-cognitive-dysfunction-by-inhibiting-neuroinflammation
#15
Zhao-Hui Yao, Xiao-Li Yao, Yong Zhang, Shao-Feng Zhang, Ji-Chang Hu
Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress play an important role in cognition deficit following chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH). Luteolin, a natural flavonoid found in many plants, is known for a variety of pharmacological activities, such as its anti-inflammatory, anti-allergy, urate, anti-tumor, antibacterial, and antiviral effects. To assess whether luteolin could prevent CCH-induced cognitive dysfunction, through its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative-stress effects, we used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, enzyme activity assays, behavioral methods, immunohistochemistry, and electrophysiology to detect neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, cognition alterations, and long-term potential (LTP), in a bilateral common carotid arteries ligation (2VO) rat model...
February 1, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384015/the-neuroprotective-effect-of-rat-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-conditioned-medium-on-cortical-neurons-using-an-in-vitro-model-of-sci-inflammation
#16
Eva Szekiova, Lucia Slovinska, Juraj Blasko, Jana Plsikova, Dasa Cizkova
Objectives In this study, a new approach was used with an in vitro model in which neural cells were exposed to conditioned media from the injured spinal cord (SCI-CM) mimicking a local inflammatory microenvironment . Subsequently, the neuroprotective effect of rat adipose tissue-derived msesenchymal stem cell-conditioned media (ATMSC-CM) was investigated through a cell-free based therapy, which was used to treat cortical neurons and astrocytes under inflammation. Methods Primary cell cultures isolated from postnatal day (P6) Wistar rat brain cortex were exposed to SCI-CM derived from the central lesion, rostral and caudal segments of injured spinal cord...
January 31, 2018: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382619/the-effects-of-memantine-on-glutamic-receptor-associated-nitrosative-stress-in-a-traumatic-brain-injury-rat-model
#17
Che-Chuan Wang, Hsiao-Yue Wee, Chiao-Ya Hu, Chung-Ching Chio, Jinn-Rung Kuo
BACKGROUND: The main aim of this study is to elucidate whether the neuroprotective effect of memantine, a non-competitive NMDA receptor 2B (NR2B) antagonist, affect neuronal nitrosative stress, apoptosis, and NR2B expression and ultimately improve functional outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Immediately after the onset of fluid percussion TBI, anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into sham-operated, TBI +vehicle, and TBI+Memantine groups. TBI rats were treated with a memantine intraperitoneal injection dose of 20 mg/kg i...
January 27, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380416/astrocytes-expressing-als-linked-mutant-fus-induce-motor-neuron-death-through-release-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha
#18
Azadeh Kia, Kevin McAvoy, Karthik Krishnamurthy, Davide Trotti, Piera Pasinelli
Mutations in fused in sarcoma (FUS) are linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting both upper and lower motor neurons. While it is established that astrocytes contribute to the death of motor neurons in ALS, the specific contribution of mutant FUS (mutFUS) through astrocytes has not yet been studied. Here, we used primary astrocytes expressing a N-terminally GFP tagged R521G mutant or wild-type FUS (WTFUS) and show that mutFUS-expressing astrocytes undergo astrogliosis, damage co-cultured motor neurons via activation of an inflammatory response and produce conditioned medium (ACM) that is toxic to motor neurons in isolation...
January 30, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379030/spk1-transfected-ucmsc-has-better-therapeutic-activity-than-ucmsc-in-the-treatment-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#19
Yun-Liang Wang, Peng Xue, Chun-Yang Xu, Zhen Wang, Xin-Shan Liu, Lin-Lin Hua, Hong-Ying Bai, Zhi-Lei Zeng, Hai-Feng Duan, Jin-Feng Li
Multiple Sclerosis (MS), is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system that leads to chronic demyelination with axonal damage and neuronal loss. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a promising therapeutic approach for MS. In the current study, we investigated the effects of MSCs derived from the human umbilical cord (UCMSC) transfected by sphingosine kinase 1 (SPK1) gene. All the results showed that transplantation of UCMSCs gene modified by SPK1 (UCMSC-SPK1) dramatically reduce the severity of neurological deficits of the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice, paralleling by reductions in demyelination, axonal loss, and astrogliosis...
January 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357731/medullary-astrogliosis-in-sudden-infant-death-syndrome-varies-with-sleeping-environment-evidence-for-different-mechanisms-of-death-in-alone-versus-co-sleepers
#20
Jade Spinelli, Roger W Byard, Corinna Van Den Heuvel, Lyndsey E Collins-Praino
Sudden infant death syndrome remains the leading cause of death in infants under 1 year, and underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are poorly understood. The current study investigated the hypothesis that co-sleepers die more rapidly from causes such as suffocation from overlaying by comparing levels of reactive astrogliosis in the medulla of infants who died sleeping alone to those who died co-sleeping. The amount of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) staining in alone sleepers was significantly higher than shared sleepers in 3 specific areas of the medulla, the inferior vestibular nucleus, the medial vestibular nucleus and the cochlear nucleus...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
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