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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691439/reversal-of-memory-and-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-and-reduced-tau-pathology-by-selenium-in-3xtg-ad-mice
#1
Ann Van der Jeugd, Arnaldo Parra-Damas, Raquel Baeta-Corral, Carlos M Soto-Faguás, Tariq Ahmed, Frank M LaFerla, Lydia Giménez-Llort, Rudi D'Hooge, Carlos A Saura
Accumulation of amyloid-β plaques and tau contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but it is unclear whether targeting tau pathology by antioxidants independently of amyloid-β causes beneficial effects on memory and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Selenium, an essential antioxidant element reduced in the aging brain, prevents development of neuropathology in AD transgenic mice at early disease stages. The therapeutic potential of selenium for ameliorating or reversing neuropsychiatric and cognitive behavioral symptoms at late AD stages is largely unknown...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687323/investigation-of-cis-4-18-f-fluoro-d-proline-uptake-in-human-brain-tumors-after-multimodal-treatment
#2
Antoine Verger, Gabriele Stoffels, Norbert Galldiks, Philipp Lohmann, Antje Willuweit, Bernd Neumaier, Stefanie Geisler, Karl-Josef Langen
PURPOSE: Cis-4-[18 F]fluoro-D-proline (D-cis-[18 F]FPro) has been shown to pass the intact blood-brain barrier and to accumulate in areas of secondary neurodegeneration and necrosis in the rat brain while uptake in experimental brain tumors is low. This pilot study explores the uptake behavior of D-cis-[18 F]FPro in human brain tumors after multimodal treatment. PROCEDURES: In a prospective study, 27 patients with suspected recurrent brain tumor after treatment with surgery, radiotherapy, and/or chemotherapy (SRC) were investigated by dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) using D-cis-[18 F]FPro (22 high-grade gliomas, one unspecified glioma, and 4 metastases)...
April 23, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686592/detrimental-effects-of-paraquat-on-astrocytes-regulating-synaptic-functions
#3
Zheng Li, Jing Zheng, Xiao-Feng Zhang
Paraquat (PQ) exposure is known as a risk factor for developing neurodegenerative diseases. Astrocytes are implicated and affected in neurodegenerative diseases and brain injuries, so it is suspected that PQ may impose detrimental effects on astrocytes function. Here, we present a study of the effects of PQ on synaptic function of astrocytes. Human astrocytes (HA1800) were separately treated with PQ at 200, 400, and 800 µmol/L for 12, 24, and 48 hours, respectively. The concentrations of membrane cholesterol, intracellular glutamate, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were assessed by measuring changes with Kits after PQ treatment...
April 2018: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680773/changes-in-the-hippocampal-and-peripheral-phospholipid-profiles-are-associated-with-neurodegeneration-hallmarks-in-a-long-term-global-cerebral-ischemia-model-attenuation-by-linalool
#4
Angélica Maria Sabogal-Guáqueta, Rafael Posada-Duque, Natalie Charlotte Cortes, Julian D Arias-Londoño, Gloria Patricia Cardona-Gómez
Phospholipid alterations in the brain are associated with progressive neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment after acute and chronic injuries. Various types of treatments have been evaluated for their abilities to block the progression of the impairment, but effective treatments targeting long-term post-stroke alterations are not available. In this study, we analyzed changes in the central and peripheral phospholipid profiles in ischemic rats and determined whether a protective monoterpene, Linalool, could modify them...
April 19, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673307/the-pathology-of-wobbly-hedgehog-syndrome
#5
Josué Díaz-Delgado, Derick B Whitley, Ralph W Storts, Jill J Heatley, Sharman Hoppes, Brian F Porter
Wobbly hedgehog syndrome (WHS) is a leading cause of neurologic disease in African pygmy hedgehogs (APHs; Atelerix albiventris). This study describes the signalment, clinical signs, gross, microscopic, and ultrastructural lesions of WHS in a cohort of 12 pet APHs. Microscopically, lesions consisted of status spongiosus of the white matter, typically bilateral and symmetrical, with myelin degeneration and loss that was accompanied by neuronal/axonal degeneration plus reactive microgliosis and mild, focal astrocytosis and astrogliosis...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671042/hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-reduces-astrogliosis-and-helps-to-recovery-brain-damage-in-hydrocephalic-young-rats
#6
Stephanya Covas da Silva, Omar Feres, Pâmella da Silva Beggiora, Hélio Rubens Machado, Rafael Menezes-Reis, João Eduardo Araújo, Ricardo Andrade Brandão, Luiza da Silva Lopes
PURPOSE: We investigated the possible beneficial effects that hyperbaric oxygen therapy could offer in different brain structures affected by ventriculomegaly in pup rats submitted to experimental hydrocephalus. METHODS: Seven-day-old Wistar rats were submitted to hydrocephalus by intracisternal injection of 10% kaolin into the cisterna magna. The animals were divided into four groups: control (n = 5); control with HBOT (3ATA/2 h/day) (n = 5); untreated hydrocephalic (n = 10); hydrocephalic treated with HBOT (3ATA/2 h/day) (n = 10)...
April 18, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665077/gliovascular-changes-precede-white-matter-damage-and-long-term-disorders-in-juvenile-mild-closed-head-injury
#7
Beatriz Rodriguez-Grande, Andre Obenaus, Aleksandra Ichkova, Justine Aussudre, Thomas Bessy, Elodie Barse, Bassem Hiba, Gwénaëlle Catheline, Grégory Barrière, Jerome Badaut
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of hospital visits in pediatric patients and often leads to long-term disorders even in cases of mild severity. White matter (WM) alterations are commonly observed in patients months or years after the injury assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but little is known about WM pathophysiology early after mild pediatric TBI. To evaluate the status of the gliovascular unit in this context, mild TBI was induced in postnatal-day 17 mice using a closed head injury model with two grades of severity (G1, G2)...
April 17, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653194/chronic-agomelatine-treatment-prevents-comorbid-depression-in-the-post-status-epilepticus-model-of-acquired-epilepsy-through-suppression-of-inflammatory-signaling
#8
Jana Tchekalarova, Dimitrinka Atanasova, Lidia Kortenska, Milena Atanasova, Nikolai Lazarov
Inflammatory signal molecules are suggested to be involved in the mechanism underlying comorbid depression in epilepsy. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the novel antidepressant agomelatine, a potent melatonin MT1 and MT2 receptor agonist and serotonin 5HT2C receptor antagonist, can prevent depressive symptoms developed during the chronic epileptic phase by suppressing an inflammatory response. Chronic treatment with agomelatine (40 mg/kg, i.p.) was initiated an hour after the kainate acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus (SE) and maintained for a period of 10 weeks in Wistar rats...
April 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648443/shedding-light-on-the-molecular-pathology-of-amyloid-plaques-in-transgenic-alzheimer-s-disease-mice-using-multimodal-maldi-imaging-mass-spectrometry
#9
Ibrahim Kaya, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Jörg Hanrieder
Senile plaques formed by aggregated amyloid β peptides are one of the major pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) which have been suggested to be the primary influence triggering the AD pathogenesis and the rest of the disease process. However, neurotoxic Aβ aggregation and progression are associated with a wide range of enigmatic biochemical, biophysical and genetic processes. MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is a label-free method to elucidate the spatial distribution patterns of intact molecules in biological tissue sections...
April 12, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629902/humanized-mouse-model-of-rasmussen-s-encephalitis-supports-the-immune-mediated-hypothesis
#10
Hania Kebir, Lionel Carmant, François Fontaine, Kathie Béland, Ciprian M Bosoi, Nathalie T Sanon, Jorge I Alvarez, Sébastien Desgent, Camille L Pittet, David Hébert, Marie-Josée Langlois, Rose-Marie Rébillard, Dang K Nguyen, Cécile Cieuta-Walti, Gregory L Holmes, Howard P Goodkin, John R Mytinger, Mary B Connolly, Alexandre Prat, Elie Haddad
Rasmussen's encephalitis (RE) is a chronic inflammatory brain disorder that causes frequent seizures and unilateral hemispheric atrophy with progressive neurological deficits. Hemispherectomy remains the only treatment that leads to seizure freedom for this refractory epileptic syndrome. The absence of an animal model of disease has been a major obstacle hampering the development of effective therapies. Here, we describe an experimental mouse model that shares several clinical and pathological features with the human disease...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628876/korean-red-ginseng-pretreatment-protects-against-long-term-sensorimotor-deficits-after-ischemic-stroke-likely-through-nrf2
#11
Lei Liu, Mary K Vollmer, Victoria M Fernandez, Yasmin Dweik, Hocheol Kim, Sylvain Doré
Endogenous neuroprotective mechanisms by which the brain protects itself against noxious stimuli and recovers from ischemic damage are key targets of stroke research, ultimately facilitating functional recovery. Transcriptional factor Nrf2, enriched in astrocytes, is a master regulator of endogenous defense systems against oxidative stress and inflammation. Korean Red Ginseng (Ginseng), one most widely used herbal medicine, has exhibited promising potentials in neuroprotection. Our study aimed to determine whether the standardized Ginseng extract pretreatment could attenuate acute sensorimotor deficits and improve long-term functional recovery after ischemic stroke though Nrf2 pathway and whether reactive astrogliosis is associated with such effect...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627579/genetic-detection-of-sonic-hedgehog-shh-expression-and-cellular-response-in-the-progression-of-acute-through-chronic-demyelination-and-remyelination
#12
Maria A Sanchez, Genevieve M Sullivan, Regina C Armstrong
Multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating disease in which neurological deficits result from damage to myelin, axons, and neuron cell bodies. Prolonged or repeated episodes of demyelination impair remyelination. We hypothesized that augmenting Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling in chronically demyelinated lesions could enhance oligodendrogenesis and remyelination. Shh regulates oligodendrocyte development during postnatal myelination, and maintains adult neural stem cells. We used genetic approaches to detect Shh expression and Shh responding cells in vivo...
April 6, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623941/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-transducer-old-astrocyte-specifically-induced-substance-contributes-to-astrogliosis-after-spinal-cord-injury
#13
Atsushi Takazawa, Naosuke Kamei, Nobuo Adachi, Mitsuo Ochi
Old astrocyte specifically induced substance (OASIS) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress transducer specifically expressed in astrocytes and osteoblasts. OASIS regulates the differentiation of neural precursor cells into astrocytes in the central nervous system. This study aimed to elucidate the involvement of ER stress responses stimulated via OASIS in astrogliosis following spinal cord injury. In a mouse model of spinal cord contusion injury, OASIS mRNA and protein expression were evaluated at days 7 and 14...
March 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618564/postnatal-zika-virus-infection-is-associated-with-persistent-abnormalities-in-brain-structure-function-and-behavior-in-infant-macaques
#14
Maud Mavigner, Jessica Raper, Zsofia Kovacs-Balint, Sanjeev Gumber, Justin T O'Neal, Siddhartha K Bhaumik, Xiaodong Zhang, Jakob Habib, Cameron Mattingly, Circe E McDonald, Victoria Avanzato, Mark W Burke, Diogo M Magnani, Varian K Bailey, David I Watkins, Thomas H Vanderford, Damien Fair, Eric Earl, Eric Feczko, Martin Styner, Sherrie M Jean, Joyce K Cohen, Guido Silvestri, R Paul Johnson, David H O'Connor, Jens Wrammert, Mehul S Suthar, Mar M Sanchez, Maria C Alvarado, Ann Chahroudi
The Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic is associated with fetal brain lesions and other serious birth defects classified as congenital ZIKV syndrome. Postnatal ZIKV infection in infants and children has been reported; however, data on brain anatomy, function, and behavioral outcomes following infection are absent. We show that postnatal ZIKV infection of infant rhesus macaques (RMs) results in persistent structural and functional alterations of the central nervous system compared to age-matched controls. We demonstrate ZIKV lymphoid tropism and neurotropism in infant RMs and histopathologic abnormalities in the peripheral and central nervous systems including inflammatory infiltrates, astrogliosis, and Wallerian degeneration...
April 4, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610530/nanoparticle-induced-neuronal-toxicity-across-placental-barriers-is-mediated-by-autophagy-and-dependent-on-astrocytes
#15
Simon J Hawkins, Lucy A Crompton, Aman Sood, Margaret Saunders, Noreen T Boyle, Amy Buckley, Aedín M Minogue, Sarah F McComish, Natalia Jiménez-Moreno, Oscar Cordero-Llana, Petros Stathakos, Catherine E Gilmore, Stephen Kelly, Jon D Lane, C Patrick Case, Maeve A Caldwell
The potential for maternal nanoparticle (NP) exposures to cause developmental toxicity in the fetus without the direct passage of NPs has previously been shown, but the mechanism remained elusive. We now demonstrate that exposure of cobalt and chromium NPs to BeWo cell barriers, an in vitro model of the human placenta, triggers impairment of the autophagic flux and release of interleukin-6. This contributes to the altered differentiation of human neural progenitor cells and DNA damage in the derived neurons and astrocytes...
April 2, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607930/isosteviol-sodium-inhibits-astrogliosis-after-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats
#16
Hao Zhang, Xiaoou Sun, Yanxiang Xie, Fang Tian, Hui Hu, Wen Tan
Previous reports have indicated that isosteviol sodium (STVNa) has neuroprotective effects against acute focal cerebral ischemia in rats; however, the exact underlying mechanisms and ideal treatment paradigm are not known. To find a reasonable method for STVNa administration and to determine its possible therapeutic mechanisms, we characterized the protective effects of single-dose and multiple-dose STVNa in cerebral ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. Single and multiple treatments with 10 mg/kg STVNa were administered intraperitoneally after injury to investigate its neuroprotective effects...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29598822/dimethyl-fumarate-attenuates-reactive-microglia-and-long-term-memory-deficits-following-systemic-immune-challenge
#17
Hallel C Paraiso, Ping-Chang Kuo, Eric T Curfman, Haley J Moon, Robert D Sweazey, Jui-Hung Yen, Fen-Lei Chang, I-Chen Yu
BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammation is associated with increased cognitive decline and risk for Alzheimer's disease. Microglia (MG) activated during systemic inflammation can cause exaggerated neuroinflammatory responses and trigger progressive neurodegeneration. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is a FDA-approved therapy for multiple sclerosis. The immunomodulatory and anti-oxidant properties of DMF prompted us to investigate whether DMF has translational potential for the treatment of cognitive impairment associated with systemic inflammation...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596541/association-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-of-central-nervous-system-injury-with-neurocognitive-and-brain-imaging-outcomes-in-children-receiving-chemotherapy-for-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#18
Yin Ting Cheung, Raja B Khan, Wei Liu, Tara M Brinkman, Michelle N Edelmann, Wilburn E Reddick, Deqing Pei, Angela Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Deokumar Srivastava, Cheng Cheng, Leslie L Robison, Melissa M Hudson, Ching-Hon Pui, Kevin R Krull
Importance: Little is known about treatment-related neurotoxic mechanisms in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated with chemotherapy only. Objective: To examine concentration of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of brain injury at ALL diagnosis and during cancer therapy and to evaluate associations with long-term neurocognitive and neuroimaging outcomes and relevant genetic polymorphisms. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study included 235 patients with ALL who received a chemotherapy-only protocol...
March 29, 2018: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593498/reactive-neuroblastosis-in-huntington-s-disease-a-putative-therapeutic-target-for-striatal-regeneration-in-the-adult-brain
#19
Mahesh Kandasamy, Ludwig Aigner
The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the reciprocal relationship between adult neurogenesis, cognitive and motor functions have been an important focus of investigation in the establishment of effective neural replacement therapies for neurodegenerative disorders. While neuronal loss, reactive gliosis and defects in the self-repair capacity have extensively been characterized in neurodegenerative disorders, the transient excess production of neuroblasts detected in the adult striatum of animal models of Huntington's disease (HD) and in post-mortem brain of HD patients, has only marginally been addressed...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590625/leucine-zipper-bearing-kinase-is-a-critical-regulator-of-astrocyte-reactivity-in-the-adult-mammalian-cns
#20
Meifan Chen, Cédric G Geoffroy, Jessica M Meves, Aarti Narang, Yunbo Li, Mallorie T Nguyen, Vung S Khai, Xiangmei Kong, Christopher L Steinke, Krislyn I Carolino, Lucie Elzière, Mark P Goldberg, Yishi Jin, Binhai Zheng
Reactive astrocytes influence post-injury recovery, repair, and pathogenesis of the mammalian CNS. Much of the regulation of astrocyte reactivity, however, remains to be understood. Using genetic loss and gain-of-function analyses in vivo, we show that the conserved MAP3K13 (also known as leucine zipper-bearing kinase [LZK]) promotes astrocyte reactivity and glial scar formation after CNS injury. Inducible LZK gene deletion in astrocytes of adult mice reduced astrogliosis and impaired glial scar formation, resulting in increased lesion size after spinal cord injury...
March 27, 2018: Cell Reports
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