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Cognitive impairment in parkinson disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230630/update-on-the-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-and-its-relevance-to-schizophrenia
#1
Lily Van, Erik Boot, Anne S Bassett
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Schizophrenia occurs in ∼25% of individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), the strongest known molecular genetic risk factor for schizophrenia. This review highlights recent literature in 22q11.2DS as it pertains to psychosis and schizophrenia. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in noninvasive prenatal testing allow for early detection of 22q11.2DS in utero, whereas premature birth has been shown to be a significant risk factor for development of psychotic illness in 22q11...
February 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228714/narrative-organization-deficit-in-lewy-body-disorders-is-related-to-alzheimer-pathology
#2
Murray Grossman, David J Irwin, Charles Jester, Amy Halpin, Sharon Ash, Katya Rascovsky, Daniel Weintraub, Corey T McMillan
Background: Day-to-day interactions depend on conversational narrative, and we examine here the neurobiological basis for difficulty organizing narrative discourse in patients with Lewy body disorders (LBD). Method: Narrative organization was examined in 56 non-aphasic LBD patients, including a non-demented cohort (n = 30) with Parkinson's disease (PD) or PD-Mild Cognitive Impairment PD-MCI,) and a cohort with mild dementia (n = 26) including PD-dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), with similar age and education but differing in MMSE (p < 0...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227862/effects-of-high-frequency-rtms-on-sleep-deprivation-a-pilot-study
#3
D P Martinez-Cancino, J Azpiroz-Leehan, L Jimenez-Angeles, A Garcia-Quintanar, R Santana-Miranda, D P Martinez-Cancino, J Azpiroz-Leehan, L Jimenez-Angeles, A Garcia-Quintanar, R Santana-Miranda, A Garcia-Quintanar, L Jimenez-Angeles, R Santana-Miranda, J Azpiroz-Leehan, D P Martinez-Cancino
Transcranial magnetic stimulation is a neurostimulation technique which has the potential to serve as a unique research tool for investigating a wide variety of fields in cognitive neuroscience. TMS has been approved by the FDA to serve as a treatment to depression and has also been used to evaluate its effects among several conditions such as Alzheimer, Parkinson disease, chronic pain and stroke. High frequency TMS has been previously used with the intention to measure and modulate the negative effects of sleep deprivation in cognitive performance, but there is no consensus about the ideal protocol yet...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224328/the-parkinson-s-disease-cognitive-rating-scale-pd-crs-normative-values-from-268-healthy-italian-individuals
#4
Gabriella Santangelo, Giovanna Lagravinese, Valeria Battini, Carlo Chiorri, Mattia Siciliano, Giovanni Abbruzzese, Carmine Vitale, Paolo Barone
The Parkinson's Disease-Cognitive Rating Scale (PD-CRS) is a cognitive screening battery that includes subtests to assess cortical and subcortical functions. It is a valid screening tool for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Parkinson's disease (PD) and is recommended for diagnosing PD-MCI-Level I. Until now, no study has provided population-based norms for the Italian population. The aim of the present study was to collect normative values in a sample of Italian healthy subjects. Two hundred and sixty-eight (125 men) participants of different ages (age range 30-79 years) and educational levels (from primary school to university) underwent the PD-CRS...
February 21, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221082/partial-lesion-of-the-nigrostriatal-dopamine-pathway-in-rats-impairs-egocentric-learning-but-not-spatial-learning-or-behavioral-flexibility
#5
Katharine M Seip-Cammack, James J Young, Megan E Young, Matthew L Shapiro
Degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in Parkinson's disease (PD) causes motor dysfunction and cognitive impairment, but the etiology of the cognitive deficits remains unclear. The present study investigated the behavioral effects of partial lesions of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) pathway. Rats received bilateral infusions of either 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or vehicle into the dorsolateral striatum and were tested in spatial and procedural learning tasks. Compared with intact rats, DA-depleted rats were impaired when the first task they learned required egocentric responses...
February 20, 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220571/genetic-risk-factors-for-cognitive-decline-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-review-of-the-literature
#6
REVIEW
E S Fagan, L Pihlstrøm
Parkinson's disease is a highly heterogeneous disorder, where genetic factors are likely to contribute to clinical variability, including susceptibility to cognitive impairment and dementia. Monogenic forms of parkinsonism show distinct cognitive profiles, yet less is known about the impact of common genetic variants on cognition in sporadic Parkinson's disease. In a systematic review of the literature, the current results from genetic association studies of cognitive outcomes are summarized and prospects and challenges for future studies are discussed...
February 21, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219749/behavioral-phenotypes-associated-with-mptp-induction-of-partial-lesions-in-common-marmosets-callithrix-jacchus
#7
Kimberley A Phillips, Corinna N Ross, Jennifer Spross, Catherine J Cheng, Alyssa Izquierdo, K C Biju, Cang Chen, Senlin Li, Suzette D Tardif
Parkinson's disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder with the core motor features of resting tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, and postural instability. Non-motor symptoms also occur, and include cognitive dysfunction, mood disorders, anosmia (loss of smell), and REM sleep disturbances. As the development of medications and other therapies for treatment of non-motor symptoms is ongoing, it is essential to have animal models that aid in understanding the neural changes underlying non-motor PD symptoms and serve as a testing ground for potential therapeutics...
February 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215728/domain-specific-accuracy-of-the-montreal-cognitive-assessment-subsections-in-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Taylor R Hendershott, Delphine Zhu, Seoni Llanes, Kathleen L Poston
OBJECTIVE: The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is among the most widely adopted screening tools for cognitive impairment because it includes tests in multiple domains and is available in 55 languages. The MoCA is often the only formal cognitive assessment available when comprehensive neuropsychological testing is not practical, such as rural clinical settings or large retrospective and multi-lingual research settings. However, the MoCA domain-specific subsections have never been formally assessed for sensitivity or specificity...
February 7, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215142/small-molecule-modulation-of-hdac6-activity-the-propitious-therapeutic-strategy-to-vanquish-neurodegenerative-disorders
#9
Shabir Ahmad Ganai
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are epigenetic enzymes creating the transcriptionally inactive state of chromatin by erasing acetyl moiety from histone and non-histone substrates. HDAC6 modulates several biological pathways in dividing cells as well as in post-mitotic neurons, and has been implicated in the pathophysiology of neurodegeneration. The distinct cellular functions and survival in these cells are reliant on HDAC6-mediated processes including intracellular trafficking, chaperone-mediated stress responses, anti-oxidation and protein degradation...
8, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213762/association-between-cognitive-impairment-and-urinary-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Zuzanna Tkaczynska, Andrea Pilotto, Sara Becker, Susanne Gräber-Sultan, Daniela Berg, Inga Liepelt-Scarfone
Urinary dysfunction (UD) is a common non-motor feature of Parkinson's disease (PD), and might be secondary to neurodegeneration involving cortical and subcortical brain areas. The possible link between UD and cognitive deficits has never been examined in frontal cortex impairment, and is still not completely understood in PD. In the present study, 94 PD patients underwent a comprehensive motor, cognitive and non-motor assessment. It was shown that 55.3% of patients reported UD, of which 17% needed specific urological treatment...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212408/prevalence-and-associated-comorbidities-of-restless-legs-syndrome-rls-data-from-a-large-population-based-door-to-door-survey-on-19176-adults-in-tehran-iran
#11
Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Arash Rahmani, Mahdiyeh Shafieesabet, Mahshid Soori, Ahmad Delbari, Mohammad Reza Motamed, Johan Lökk
BACKGROUND: Discrepancies have been reported in the prevalence rate of restless legs syndrome (RLS) among different ethnic groups and geographic populations. Furthermore, there are disagreements on determinant factors and associated comorbidities of RLS. We aimed to estimate prevalence of RLS and investigate its associated comorbid conditions and risk factors in a large population-based door-to-door survey. METHODS: Following a multistage random sampling from the households lived in 22 urban districts of Tehran, Iran, 19176 participants with ≥30 years of age were recruited...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210978/future-directions-in-imaging-neurodegeneration
#12
REVIEW
Joseph C Masdeu
Neuroimaging comprises a powerful set of instruments to diagnose various neurodegenerative disorders, clarifies their neurobiology, and monitors their treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging depicts volume changes, as well as abnormalities in functional and structural connectivity. Positron emission tomography (PET) allows for the quantification of regional cerebral metabolism, characteristically altered in Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, diffuse Lewy-body disease, and the frontotemporal dementias...
January 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202615/il-13-mediated-regulation-of-learning-and-memory
#13
Tiroyaone M Brombacher, Justin K Nono, Keisha S De Gouveia, Nokuthula Makena, Matthew Darby, Jacqueline Womersley, Ousman Tamgue, Frank Brombacher
The role of proinflammatory cytokines in cognitive function has been investigated with both beneficial and possible detrimental effects, depending on the cytokine. More recently, the type 2 IL-4 has been demonstrated to play a role in cognition. In this study, using the Morris water maze task, we demonstrate that IL-13-deficient mice are significantly impaired in working memory as well as attenuated reference memory, both functions essential for effective complex learning. During the learning process, wild-type mice increased the number of CD4(+) T cells in the meninges and production of IL-13, whereas neither Morris water maze-trained IL-4 nor trained IL-13-deficient mice were able to increase CD4(+) T cells in the meninges...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197328/family-functioning-and-communication-in-spouses-of-patients-with-parkinsonism
#14
Seo Young Kang, Myung Hwa Yang, Jung Ah Lee, Wooyoung Jang, Chong Sik Lee, Young Sik Kim
BACKGROUND: Patients with parkinsonism exhibit motor symptoms, cognitive impairment, and neuropsychiatric changes, and these symptoms increase caregiver burden. Family dynamics can be influenced by the presence of comorbidities, which is especially important in diseases causing caregiver burden. We investigated the effects of spousal parkinsonism on family functioning and communication. METHODS: Couples without parkinsonism, who visited hospital-based family practices, were recruited by 28 family physicians from 22 hospitals between April 2009 and June 2011; patients with parkinsonism and their spouses were recruited from a single institution...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193696/astrocytic-orosomucoid-2-modulates-microglial-activation-and-neuroinflammation
#15
Myungjin Jo, Jong-Heon Kim, Gyunjee Song, Minchul Seo, Eun Mi Hwang, Kyoungho Suk
Orosomucoid (ORM) is an acute-phase protein that belongs to the immunocalin subfamily, a group of small-molecule binding proteins with immunomodulatory functions. Little is known about the role of ORM proteins in the central nervous system. The aim of the present study was to investigate the brain expression of ORM and its role in neuroinflammation. Expression of Orm2, but not Orm1 or Orm3, was highly induced in the mouse brain after systemic injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Plasma levels of ORM2 were also significantly higher in patients with cognitive impairment than in normal subjects...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176003/assessment-of-individual-cognitive-changes-after-deep-brain-stimulation-surgery-in-parkinson-s-disease-using-the-neuropsychological-test-battery-vienna-short-version
#16
Thomas Foki, Daniela Hitzl, Walter Pirker, Klaus Novak, Gisela Pusswald, Eduard Auff, Johann Lehrner
Long-term therapy of Parkinson's disease with L‑DOPA is associated with a high risk of developing motor fluctuations and dyskinesia. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) can improve these motor complications. Although the positive effect on motor symptoms has been proven, postoperative cognitive decline has been documented. To tackle the impact of DBS on cognition, 18 DBS patients were compared to 25 best medically treated Parkinson's patients, 24 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 12 healthy controls using the Neuropsychological Test Battery Vienna short version (NTBV-short) for cognitive outcome 12 months after the first examination...
February 7, 2017: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174514/associations-among-cognitive-functions-plasma-dna-and-white-matter-integrity-in-patients-with-early-onset-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Yueh-Sheng Chen, Meng-Hsiang Chen, Cheng-Hsien Lu, Pei-Chin Chen, Hsiu-Ling Chen, I-Hsiao Yang, Nai-Wen Tsai, Wei-Che Lin
Early-onset Parkinson's disease (EOPD) patients are symptomatic at a relatively young age, and the impacts of the disease on both the patients and their caregivers are dramatic. Few studies have reported on the cognitive impairments seen in EOPD, and the results of these studies have been diverse. Furthermore, it is still unclear what microstructural white matter (WM) changes are present in EOPD patients. As such, we conducted this study to investigate the microstructural WM changes experienced by EOPD patients and their association with cognitive function and plasma DNA levels...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170111/the-effects-of-lifelong-cognitive-lifestyle-on-executive-function-in-older-people-with-parkinson-s-disease
#18
John V Hindle, Pamela A Martin-Forbes, Anthony Martyr, Alexandra J M Bastable, Kirstie L Pye, Virginia C Mueller Gathercole, Enlli M Thomas, Linda Clare
OBJECTIVE: Active lifelong cognitive lifestyles increase cognitive reserve and have beneficial effects on global cognition, cognitive decline and dementia risk in Parkinson's disease (PD). Executive function is particularly impaired even in early PD, and this impacts on quality of life. The effects of lifelong cognitive lifestyle on executive function in PD have not been studied previously. This study examined the association between lifelong cognitive lifestyle, as a proxy measure of cognitive reserve, and executive function in people with PD...
February 7, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167911/quantitative-eeg-qeeg-measures-differentiate-parkinson-s-disease-pd-patients-from-healthy-controls-hc
#19
Menorca Chaturvedi, Florian Hatz, Ute Gschwandtner, Jan G Bogaarts, Antonia Meyer, Peter Fuhr, Volker Roth
Objectives: To find out which Quantitative EEG (QEEG) parameters could best distinguish patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) with and without Mild Cognitive Impairment from healthy individuals and to find an optimal method for feature selection. Background: Certain QEEG parameters have been seen to be associated with dementia in Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Studies have also shown some parameters to be dependent on the stage of the disease. We wanted to investigate the differences in high-resolution QEEG measures between groups of PD patients and healthy individuals, and come up with a small subset of features that could accurately distinguish between the two groups...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163919/therapeutic-effects-of-intensive-inpatient-rehabilitation-in-advanced-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Yumiko Kaseda, Junko Ikeda, Katsunobu Sugihara, Takemori Yamawaki, Tatsuo Kohriyama, Masayasu Matsumoto
BACKGROUND: The importance of rehabilitation therapy in Parkinson's disease is well recognized. However, the effects of an inpatient rehabilitation program for advanced Parkinson's disease have not been fully investigated. AIM: To assess the effects of intensive inpatient rehabilitation. METHODS: We enrolled 31 patients (mean age 69.5 ± 9.4 years; mean disease duration 8.8 ± 6.4 years) with advanced Parkinson's disease, without severe cognitive impairment...
January 2017: Neurology and Clinical Neuroscience
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