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Parkinson disease and resting connectivity

Jonathan Boyd, Alice Han
Deguelin is one of four major naturally occurring rotenoids isolated from root extracts and is best recognized as a NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) inhibitor, resulting in significant alterations in mitochondrial function. Deguelin has also been implicated as a regulator of apoptosis through signaling pathways, such as the (PI3K)/Akt pathway, as well as an initiator of cell cycle arrest. Consequently, this compound has accrued great interest as a potential chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic. Additionally, deguelin exposure has been linked to Parkinson's disease (PD)...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
María Díez-Cirarda, Natalia Ojeda, Javier Peña, Alberto Cabrera-Zubizarreta, Olaia Lucas-Jiménez, Juan Carlos Gómez-Esteban, Maria Ángeles Gómez-Beldarrain, Naroa Ibarretxe-Bilbao
Cognitive rehabilitation programs have demonstrated efficacy in improving cognitive functions in Parkinson's disease (PD), but little is known about cerebral changes associated with an integrative cognitive rehabilitation in PD. To assess structural and functional cerebral changes in PD patients, after attending a three-month integrative cognitive rehabilitation program (REHACOP). Forty-four PD patients were randomly divided into REHACOP group (cognitive rehabilitation) and a control group (occupational therapy)...
October 18, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Yanbing Hou, Chunyan Luo, Jing Yang, Wei Song, Ruwei Ou, Wanglin Liu, Qiyong Gong, Huifang Shang
OBJECTIVE: Drooling is a common symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD). This study used resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) to evaluate the brain connectivity of cortico-striatal circuits in PD patients with drooling. METHOD: We enrolled 30 early-stage drug-naïve PD patients and 30 matched normal controls. Among the PD patients, 15 patients were classified as "droolers" with the presence of drooling and 15 patients as "non-droolers" with the absence of drooling. All participants underwent resting-state fMRI scans on a 3-T MR system, focusing on the functional connectivity of striatum subregions...
October 4, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Andrea Polli, Luca Weis, Roberta Biundo, Michael Thacker, Andrea Turolla, Kostantinos Koutsikos, K Ray Chaudhuri, Angelo Antonini
BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of pain in Parkinson's disease (PD) is still poorly understood, although it is conceivable that supraspinal mechanisms may be responsible for pain generation and maintenance. METHODS: We examined brain functional and anatomical changes associated with persistent pain in 40 PD patients, 20 with persistent pain and 20 without pain. We also examined 15 pain-free healthy participants of similar age, gender, and cognitive state as a control group...
October 5, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Sheng-Han Kuo, Chi-Ying Lin, Jie Wang, Peter A Sims, Ming-Kai Pan, Jyun-You Liou, Danielle Lee, William J Tate, Geoffrey C Kelly, Elan D Louis, Phyllis L Faust
Changes in climbing fiber-Purkinje cell (CF-PC) synaptic connections have been found in the essential tremor (ET) cerebellum, and these changes are correlated with tremor severity. Whether these postmortem changes are specific to ET remains to be investigated. We assessed CF-PC synaptic pathology in the postmortem cerebellum across a range of degenerative movement disorders [10 Parkinson's disease (PD) cases, 10 multiple system atrophy (MSA) cases, 10 spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) cases, and 20 ET cases] and 25 controls...
October 4, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Lin-Lin Gao, Jiarong Zhang, Piu Chan, Tao Wu
AIMS: To investigate the effects of levodopa on the basal ganglia motor circuit (BGMC) in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: Thirty PD patients with asymmetrical bradykinesia and 30 control subjects were scanned using resting-state functional MRI. Functional connectivity of the BGMC was measured and compared before and after levodopa administration in patients with PD. The correlation between improvements in bradykinesia and changes in BGMC connectivity was examined...
September 24, 2016: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Olaia Lucas-Jiménez, Natalia Ojeda, Javier Peña, María Díez-Cirarda, Alberto Cabrera-Zubizarreta, Juan Carlos Gómez-Esteban, María Ángeles Gómez-Beldarrain, Naroa Ibarretxe-Bilbao
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether functional neural connectivity is disrupted between the regions of the default mode network (DMN) in Parkinson's disease (PD) and how this connectivity is related to cognition, brain gray matter structure and white matter integrity and diffusivity. METHODS: Thirty-seven PD patients and 16 healthy controls were evaluated, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), T1-weighted MRI, diffusion-weighted imaging and a battery of cognitive tests...
September 10, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Paul J Kemp, David J Rushton, Polina L Yarova, Christian Schnell, Charlene Geater, Jane M Hancock, Annalena Wieland, Alis Hughes, Luned Badder, Emma Cope, Daniela Riccardi, Andrew D Randall, Jonathan T Brown, Nicholas D Allen, Vsevolod Telezhkin
Neurons differentiated from pluripotent stem cells using established neural culture conditions often exhibit functional deficits. Recently, we have developed enhanced media which both synchronise the neurogenesis of pluripotent stem cell-derived neural progenitors and accelerate their functional maturation; together these media are termed SynaptoJuice. This pair of media are pro-synaptogenic and generate authentic, mature synaptic networks of connected forebrain neurons from a variety of induced pluripotent and embryonic stem cell lines...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Wanqun Yang, Bin Liu, Biao Huang, Ruiwang Huang, Lijuan Wang, Yuhu Zhang, Xiong Zhang, Kai Wu
BACKGROUND: Despite improvement in motor symptoms, the effect of dopaminergic medications on cognition in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) is less clear. The purpose of this study was to reveal levodopa-induced acute changes in the functional connectivity of the striatum in patients with PD compared with matched untreated patients and healthy volunteers. METHODS: Twenty-two patients with PD underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging both ON and OFF dopamine-replacement therapy on two consecutive days...
2016: PloS One
Antonio Cerasa, Fabiana Novellino, Aldo Quattrone
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive movement disorder of the central nervous system characterized by widespread alterations in several non-motor aspects such as mood, sleep, olfactory, and cognition in addition to motor dysfunctions. Advanced neuroimaging using functional connectivity reconstruction of the human brain has provided a vast knowledge on the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disorder, but this, however, does not cover the overall inter-/intra-individual variability of PD phenotypes...
October 2016: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Armando De Virgilio, Antonio Greco, Giovanni Fabbrini, Maurizio Inghilleri, Maria Ida Rizzo, Andrea Gallo, Michela Conte, Chiara Rosato, Mario Ciniglio Appiani, Marco de Vincentiis
Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease that causes the death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. The resulting dopamine deficiency in the basal ganglia leads to a movement disorder that is characterized by classical parkinsonian motor symptoms. Parkinson's disease is recognized as the most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease. PD ethiopathogenesis remains to be elucidated and has been connected to genetic, environmental and immunologic conditions. The past decade has provided evidence for a significant role of the immune system in PD pathogenesis, either through inflammation or an autoimmune response...
October 2016: Autoimmunity Reviews
Peipeng Liang, Gopikrishna Deshpande, Sinan Zhao, Jiangtao Liu, Xiaoping Hu, Kuncheng Li
Depression is common in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), which can make all the other symptoms of PD much worse. It is thus urgent to differentiate depressed PD (DPD) patients from non-depressed PD (NDPD).The purpose of the present study was to characterize alterations in directional brain connectivity unique to Parkinson's disease with depression, using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI).Sixteen DPD patients, 20 NDPD patients, 17 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 21 healthy control subjects (normal controls [NC]) underwent structural MRI and rs-fMRI scanning...
July 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Brian D Berman, Jason Smucny, Korey P Wylie, Erika Shelton, Eugene Kronberg, Maureen Leehey, Jason R Tregellas
BACKGROUND: PD is associated with disrupted connectivity to a large number of distributed brain regions. How the disease alters the functional topological organization of the brain, however, remains poorly understood. Furthermore, how levodopa modulates network topology in PD is largely unknown. The objective of this study was to use resting-state functional MRI and graph theory to determine how small-world architecture is altered in PD and affected by levodopa administration. METHODS: Twenty-one PD patients and 20 controls underwent functional MRI scanning...
July 27, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Hiroko Teramoto, Akihiko Morita, Satoko Ninomiya, Takayoshi Akimoto, Hiroshi Shiota, Satoshi Kamei
Objective. To assess the relation between executive dysfunction (ED) in Parkinson's disease (PD) and resting state functional connectivity evaluated using electroencephalography (EEG) coherence. Methods. Sixty-eight nondemented sporadic PD patients were assessed using the Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS) to evaluate executive function. EEG coherence in the left frontoparietal electrode pair (F3-P3) and the right frontoparietal electrode pair (F4-P4) was analyzed in the alpha and theta range...
2016: BioMed Research International
A Jon Stoessl, Martin J Mckeown
Movement disorders can be hypokinetic (e.g., parkinsonism), hyperkinetic, or dystonic in nature and commonly arise from altered function in nuclei of the basal ganglia or their connections. As obvious structural changes are often limited, standard imaging plays less of a role than in other neurologic disorders. However, structural imaging is indicated where clinical presentation is atypical, particularly if the disorder is abrupt in onset or remains strictly unilateral. More recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may allow for differentiation between Parkinson's disease and atypical forms of parkinsonism...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
V Dunet, J Deverdun, C Charroud, E Le Bars, F Molino, S Menjot de Champfleur, F Maury, M Charif, X Ayrignac, P Labauge, G Castelnovo, F Pinna, A Bonafe, C Geny, N Menjot de Champfleur
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients with vascular parkinsonism have higher cognitive decline and more basal ganglia lesions. We aimed to evaluate the relationship of cognitive impairment with functional connectivity between the basal ganglia and cingulate cortex in vascular parkinsonism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty patients (8 with vascular parkinsonism and 22 with Parkinson disease) and 23 controls were enrolled. The Mattis Dementia Rating Scale and the Stroop Task were used to assess cognitive decline...
July 14, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Yanbing Hou, Jing Yang, Chunyan Luo, Ruwei Ou, Wei Song, Wanglin Liu, Qiyong Gong, Huifang Shang
To map functional connectivity (FC) patterns of early onset Parkinson's disease (EOPD) and late onset PD (LOPD) in drug-naïve early stage. MRI was used to assess atrophy and resting-state FC focusing on striatal subregions of EOPD and LOPD in two subgroups of 18 patients matched for disease duration and severity, relative to age- and sex- matched healthy controls. Compared with controls, both PD subgroups showed FC alterations in cortico-striatal and cerebello-striatal loops but with different patterns in resting state...
October 2016: Journal of Neurology
Michal Rolinski, Ludovica Griffanti, Paola Piccini, Andreas A Roussakis, Konrad Szewczyk-Krolikowski, Ricarda A Menke, Timothy Quinnell, Zenobia Zaiwalla, Johannes C Klein, Clare E Mackay, Michele T M Hu
SEE POSTUMA DOI101093/AWW131 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging dysfunction within the basal ganglia network is a feature of early Parkinson's disease and may be a diagnostic biomarker of basal ganglia dysfunction. Currently, it is unclear whether these changes are present in so-called idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, a condition associated with a high rate of future conversion to Parkinson's disease. In this study, we explore the utility of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging to detect basal ganglia network dysfunction in rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder...
August 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Yajing Zhu, Xiaopeng Song, Mingze Xu, Xiao Hu, Erfeng Li, Jiajia Liu, Yonggui Yuan, Jia-Hong Gao, Weiguo Liu
The alterations of interhemispheric resting-state functional connectivity (FC) in Parkinson's disease (PD) with depression remain unclear, so we aimed to explore the differences of interhemispheric FC between PD with and without depression. Twenty-one depressed PD (DPD) patients, 49 non-depressed PD (NDPD) patients and 50 matched healthy controls (HC) participated in this study. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were analyzed with the voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) approach...
2016: Scientific Reports
Min Wang, Siming Jiang, Yongsheng Yuan, Li Zhang, Jian Ding, Jianwei Wang, Jiejin Zhang, Kezhong Zhang, Jie Wang
This study assessed the patterns of functional and structural connectivity abnormalities in patients with Parkinson's disease with freezing of gait (PD FOG+) compared with those without freezing (PD FOG-) and healthy controls (HCs). Resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scans were obtained from 14 PD FOG+, 16 PD FOG- and 16HCs. Between-group difference in pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) functional connectivity (FC) was performed to assess FC dysfunction. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) was applied to compare white matter (WM) impairment across the whole brain between groups...
August 2016: Journal of Neurology
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