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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222192/blastocystis-subtyping-and-its-association-with-intestinal-parasites-in-children-from-different-geographical-regions-of-colombia
#1
Juan David Ramírez, Carolina Flórez, Mario Olivera, María Consuelo Bernal, Julio Cesar Giraldo
Blastocystis is a common enteric protist colonizing probably more than 1 billion people with a large variety of non-human hosts. Remarkable genetic diversity has been observed, leading to the subdivision of the genus into multiple subtypes (ST), some of which are exclusively found in non-human hosts. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of Blastocystis STs/18S alleles in symptomatic (abdominal pain, anal pruritus, diarrhea, headache, nauseas and/or vomit) and asymptomatic children from nine geographical regions of Colombia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215875/occurrence-and-molecular-genotyping-of-giardia-duodenalis-and-cryptosporidium-spp-in-wild-mesocarnivores-in-spain
#2
Marta Mateo, Marta Hernández de Mingo, Aida de Lucio, Lucía Morales, Ana Balseiro, Alberto Espí, Marta Barral, José Francisco Lima Barbero, Miguel Ángel Habela, José L Fernández-García, Rafael Calero Bernal, Pamela C Köster, Guillermo A Cardona, David Carmena
There is a surprisingly scarce amount of epidemiological and molecular data on the prevalence, frequency, and diversity of the intestinal protozoan parasites Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in wildlife in general and mesocarnivore species in particular. Consequently, the extent of the cyst/oocyst environmental contamination attributable to these wild host species and their potential implications for public veterinary health remain largely unknown. In this molecular epidemiological survey a total of 193 individual faecal samples from badgers (Meles meles, n=70), ferrets (Mustela putorius furo, n=2), genets (Genetta genetta, n=6), Iberian lynxes (Lynx pardinus, n=6), beech martens (Martes foina, n=8), mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon, n=2), otters (Lutra lutra, n=2), polecats (Mustela putorius, n=2), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes, n=87), wildcats (Felis silvestris, n=2), and wolves (Canis lupus, n=6) were obtained from road-killed, hunted, and accidentally found carcasses, and from camera-trap surveys or animals entering rescue shelters, during the period December 2003-April 2016...
February 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213655/molecular-characterization-of-the-unique-mesostephanus-appendiculatus-trematoda-cyathocotylidae-by-small-ribosomal-rna-from-egypt
#3
Nasr M El-Bahy, Eman K Bazh, Shimaa S Sorour, Nagwa M Elhawary
M esostephanus appendiculatus (Family: Cyathocotylidae) is one of the unique trematodes that complete their cycles in human and animal intestines in many countries of the world. The main source of its transmission is eating raw or undercooked infected fish muscle. Earliest analyses of genes to different parasites supported the analysis of helminthes either biological or morphological. This paper detected M. appendiculatus sequence with GenBank accession number gb (KY026782). Comparison of M. appendiculatus with other helminthes using BioEdit 7 and MEGA7 program shows some similarity in different points along its sequence...
February 18, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202684/aging-parasites-produce-offspring-with-poor-fitness-prospects
#4
Cédric Lippens, Bruno Faivre, Clothilde Lechenault, Gabriele Sorci
Senescing individuals have poor survival prospects and low fecundity. They can also produce offspring with reduced survival and reproductive success. We tested the effect of parental age on the performance of descendants in the nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus, an intestinal parasite of rodents. We found that offspring of senescing worms had reduced within-host survival and reduced egg shedding over the first month post-infection compared with offspring produced by young parents. These results suggest that declining offspring quality is a component of senescence in parasitic nematodes and might have evolutionary consequences for the optimal schedule of age-dependent investment into reproductive effort...
February 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192466/descriptive-study-of-plant-resources-in-the-context-of-the-ethnomedicinal-relevance-of-indigenous-flora-a-case-study-from-toli-peer-national-park-azad-jammu-and-kashmir-pakistan
#5
Muhammad Shoaib Amjad, Mirza Faisal Qaeem, Israr Ahmad, Sami Ullah Khan, Sunbal Khalil Chaudhari, Nafeesa Zahid Malik, Humaira Shaheen, Arshad Mehmood Khan
BACKGROUND: This paper presents the first quantitative ethnobotanical study of the flora in Toli Peer National Park of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Being a remote area, there is a strong dependence by local people on ethnobotanical practices. Thus, we attempted to record the folk uses of the native plants of the area with a view to acknowledging and documenting the ethnobotanical knowledge. The aims of the study were to compile an inventory of the medicinal plants in the study area and to record the methods by which herbal drugs were prepared and administered...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191818/changes-in-protein-expression-after-treatment-with-ancylostoma-caninum-excretory-secretory-products-in-a-mouse-model-of-colitis
#6
Javier Sotillo, Ivana Ferreira, Jeremy Potriquet, Thewarach Laha, Severine Navarro, Alex Loukas, Jason Mulvenna
Different reports have highlighted the potential use of helminths and their secretions in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) conditions; however, no reports have investigated their effects at a proteome level. Herein, we characterise the protein expression changes that occur in lamina propria (LP) and the intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) of mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis treated with Ancylostoma caninum excretory/secretory (ES) products using a quantitative proteomic approach...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187989/economic-considerations-for-moving-beyond-the-kato-katz-technique-for-diagnosing-intestinal-parasites-as-we-move-towards-elimination
#7
REVIEW
Hugo C Turner, Alison A Bettis, Julia C Dunn, Jane M Whitton, T Déirdre Hollingsworth, Fiona M Fleming, Roy M Anderson
While the need for more sensitive diagnostics for intestinal helminths is well known, the cost of developing and implementing new tests is considered relatively high compared to the Kato-Katz technique. Here, we review the reported costs of performing the Kato-Katz technique. We also outline several economic arguments we believe highlight the need for further investment in alternative diagnostics, and considerations that should be made when comparing their costs. In our opinion, we highlight that, without new diagnostic methods, it will be difficult for policy makers to make the most cost-effective decisions and that the potentially higher unit costs of new methods can be outweighed by the long-term programmatic benefits they have (such as the ability to detect the interruption of transmission)...
February 7, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187600/-i-eimeria-i-i-atlapetesi-i-nom-nov-a-replacement-name-for-i-eimeria-i-i-pileata-i-soriano-vargas-et-al-2015-apicomplexa-eimeriidae-preoccupied-by-i-eimeria-i-i-pileata-i-straneva-and-kelley-1979-apicomplexa-eimeriidae-with-observations-on-histopathology-and
#8
Edgardo Soriano-Vargas, Celene Salgado-Miranda, Andrea Paloma Zepeda-Velázquez, Juan Pablo Medina, Mariusz Krzysztof Janczur, Maricruz González-Gómez, Izanami Tereira Flores-Valle, Bruno Pereira Berto, Carlos Wilson Gomes Lopes
Eimeria pileata Soriano-Vargas, Medina, Salgado-Miranda, García-Conejo, Galindo-Sánchez, Janczur, Berto and Lopes, 2015 is a junior homonym of Eimeria pileata Straneva and Kelley, 1979 and needs to be replaced. This coccidium was described from a rufous-capped brush finch Atlapetes pileatus Wagler in the Nevado de Toluca Natural Protected Area, Mexico. Thus, to maintain the original intent of the specific epithet derived from the scientific name of the type-host, the name Eimeria atlapetesi nom. nov. is proposed as a replacement name...
January 31, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185624/clinical-pathology-of-the-critically-endangered-gough-bunting-rowettia-goughensis
#9
M P Dagleish, P G Ryan, S Girling, A L Bond
The Gough bunting (Rowettia goughensis) is indigenous to Gough Island and critically endangered due to predation by invasive house mice (Mus musculus). A planned ecosystem restoration by eradication of house mice via aerially delivered rodenticide requires a reproductively balanced population of Gough buntings being held in captivity to avoid primary and secondary poisoning. To aid disease detection during the period of captivity, Gough buntings (n = 25; five adult females, 15 adult males and five juveniles) were captured, measured and sampled to determine reference ranges for routine haematological and biochemical parameters and to identify any faecal bacterial species and intestinal and haemoparasites...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185248/mastering-gut-permeability-new-roles-for-old-friends
#10
Michael Bramhall, Colby Zaph
Mast cells are innate immune cells that respond rapidly to infection in barrier tissues such as the skin and intestinal mucosa. Expulsion of parasitic worms in the gut involves a robust type 2 host response, and an acute mastocytosis is often generated at the site of infection. However, the role of mast cells in resistance to worm infections appears to be parasite specific. Mast cells are also involved in tissue repair, but the long-term contribution of mast cell activation after worm expulsion has not been definitively studied...
February 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177963/cytology-preparations-of-formalin-fixative-aid-detection-of-giardia-in-duodenal-biopsy-samples
#11
Nicole C Panarelli, Nariman Gobara, Rana S Hoda, Michael Chaump, Jose Jessurun, Rhonda K Yantiss
Giardiasis is the most common intestinal parasitic infection in the United States. The organism elicits no, or minimal, inflammatory changes in duodenal biopsy samples, so it can be easily overlooked. We performed this study to determine whether Giardia could be isolated from the formalin fixative of biopsy samples, and to evaluate the value of fluid analysis in the assessment for potential infection. We prospectively evaluated duodenal biopsy samples from 92 patients with a clinical suspicion of giardiasis or symptoms compatible with that diagnosis (ie, diarrhea, bloating, or abdominal pain) Biopsy samples were routinely processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin...
February 7, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177292/intestinal-helminth-fauna-of-the-shortfin-mako-isurus-oxyrinchus-elasmobranchii-lamnidae-in-the-northeast-atlantic-ocean
#12
Jaime Penadés-Suay, Jesús Tomás, Manuel Merchán, Francisco Javier Aznar
Large oceanic sharks represent a suitable model to investigate the influence of a host's oceanic conditions on the structure of its helminth communities. In this study, we describe the intestinal helminth fauna, and investigate determinants of infracommunity structure, in 39 specimens of shortfin mako Isurus oxyrinchus collected in the NE Atlantic. Six cestode species were found in the spiral valve of makos: 3 are typical from lamnid sharks, namely, gravid specimens of Clistobothrium montaukensis, Gymnorhynchus isuri and Ceratobothrium xanthocephalum, and 3 are immature specimens of cestode species common to several elasmobranchs, namely, Dinobothrium septaria, Nybelinia lingualis, and Phyllobothrium cf...
February 8, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171818/a-novel-in%C3%A2-vitro-image-based-assay-identifies-new-drug-leads-for-giardiasis
#13
Christopher J S Hart, Taylah Munro, Katherine T Andrews, John H Ryan, Andrew G Riches, Tina S Skinner-Adams
Giardia duodenalis is an intestinal parasite that causes giardiasis, a widespread human gastrointestinal disease. Treatment of giardiasis relies on a small arsenal of compounds that can suffer from limitations including side-effects, variable treatment efficacy and parasite drug resistance. Thus new anti-Giardia drug leads are required. The search for new compounds with anti-Giardia activity currently depends on assays that can be labour-intensive, expensive and restricted to measuring activity at a single time-point...
January 27, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167597/epidemiology-of-soil-transmitted-helminth-and-intestinal-protozoan-infections-in-preschool-aged-children-in-the-amhara-region-of-ethiopia
#14
Kristen Aiemjoy, Sintayehu Gebresillasie, Nicole E Stoller, Ayalew Shiferaw, Zerihun Tadesse, Melsew Chanyalew, Solomon Aragie, Kelly Callahan, Jeremy D Keenan
Intestinal parasites are important contributors to global morbidity and mortality and are the second most common cause of outpatient morbidity in Ethiopia. This cross-sectional survey describes the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa in preschool children 0-5 years of age in seven communities in the Amhara region of Ethiopia, and investigates associations between infection, household water and sanitation characteristics, and child growth. Stool samples were collected from children 0-5 years of age, 1 g of sample was preserved in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, and examined for intestinal helminth eggs and protozoa cysts ether-concentration method...
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167596/epidemiology-and-prevalence-of-blastocystis-spp-in-north-cyprus
#15
Ayse Seyer, Djursun Karasartova, Emrah Ruh, Ayse Semra Güreser, Ebru Turgal, Turgut Imir, Aysegul Taylan Ozkan
This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Blastocystis spp. and its subtypes (STs) in North Cyprus; and to evaluate the presence of this parasite and its STs with respect to demographic, socioeconomic, and epidemiological factors, as well as gastrointestinal symptoms. Stool samples were collected from 230 volunteers. Each participant also filled out a questionnaire. The samples were examined microscopically by native-Lugol and trichrome methods and further tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing...
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166831/characterization-and-function-analysis-of-a-novel-gene-hc-maoc-1-in-the-parasitic-nematode-haemonochus-contortus
#16
Haojie Ding, Hengzhi Shi, Yu Shi, Xiaolu Guo, Xiuping Zheng, Xueqiu Chen, Qianjin Zhou, Yi Yang, Aifang Du
BACKGROUND: Enoyl-CoA hydratase (MAOC) is required for the biosynthesis of the fatty acid-derive side chains of the ascaroside via peroxisome β-oxidation in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The derivative of dideoxy-sugar, ascarylose is used as dauer pheromones or daumones to induce development of the stress-resistant dauer larvae stage. METHODS: Hc-maoc-1 gene was obtained by searching the Wellcome Trusts Sanger Institute's H. contortus genomic database...
February 6, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166387/toxoplasma-gondii-laboratory-maintenance-and-growth
#17
Asis Khan, Michael E Grigg
Toxoplasma gondii is a highly successful apicomplexan protozoan capable of infecting any warm-blooded animal worldwide. In humans, Toxoplasma infections are life-long, with approximately one-third of the world's population chronically infected. Although normally controlled by the host immune system, T. gondii infection can lead to a variety of clinical outcomes in individuals with immature or suppressed immune systems. After penetrating the intestine, parasites rapidly disseminate throughout the body and stimulate production of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-12, IL-18, and interferon (IFN)-γ by immune cells...
February 6, 2017: Current Protocols in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158186/a-high-throughput-phenotypic-screen-identifies-clofazimine-as-a-potential-treatment-for-cryptosporidiosis
#18
Melissa S Love, Federico C Beasley, Rajiv S Jumani, Timothy M Wright, Arnab K Chatterjee, Christopher D Huston, Peter G Schultz, Case W McNamara
Cryptosporidiosis has emerged as a leading cause of non-viral diarrhea in children under five years of age in the developing world, yet the current standard of care to treat Cryptosporidium infections, nitazoxanide, demonstrates limited and immune-dependent efficacy. Given the lack of treatments with universal efficacy, drug discovery efforts against cryptosporidiosis are necessary to find therapeutics more efficacious than the standard of care. To date, cryptosporidiosis drug discovery efforts have been limited to a few targeted mechanisms in the parasite and whole cell phenotypic screens against small, focused collections of compounds...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151567/first-molecular-epidemiology-of-entamoeba-histolytica-e-dispar-and-e-moshkovskii-infections-in-yemen-different-species-specific-associated-risk-factors
#19
Mona A Al-Areeqi, Hany Sady, Hesham M Al-Mekhlafi, Tengku Shahrul Anuar, Abdulelah H Al-Adhroey, Wahib M Atroosh, Salwa Dawaki, Fatin Nur Elyana, Nabil A Nasr, Init Ithoi, Yee-Ling Lau, Johari Surin
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the molecular epidemiology of Entamoeba histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii infections among rural communities in Yemen. METHODS: In a community-based study, faecal samples were collected from 605 participants and examined by wet mount, formalin-ether sedimentation, trichrome staining and nested multiplex PCR techniques. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information was collected by using a pre-tested questionnaire. RESULTS: Overall, 324 (53...
February 2, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148906/myxobolus-taibaiensis-sp-n-myxozoa-myxosporea-infecting-the-intestinal-wall-of-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio-linnaeus-in-china
#20
Xinhua Liu, Congjie Hua, Qianqian Zhang, Yuanli Zhao, Dong Zhang, Jinyong Zhang
Myxobolus taibaiensis sp. n. was found in the inner intestinal wall of common carp, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, during the investigation of fish parasite fauna in Lake Taibai, located in the middle reach of the Yangtze River, China. The whitish ellipsoidal plasmodia, up to 2.9 mm long and 1.7 mm wide, developed in the circular muscle layer of the intestinal wall and produced significant compression into adjacent tissues, but no significant inflammatory responses were observed against this infection. Mature spores are oval in frontal view and lemon-like in lateral and apical view, averaging 10...
January 10, 2017: Folia Parasitologica
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