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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775454/in-vivo-and-in-vitro-studies-of-cry5b-and-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-agonist-anthelmintics-reveal-a-powerful-and-unique-combination-therapy-against-intestinal-nematode-parasites
#1
Yan Hu, Melanie Miller, Bo Zhang, Thanh-Thanh Nguyen, Martin K Nielsen, Raffi V Aroian
BACKGROUND: The soil-transmitted nematodes (STNs) or helminths (hookworms, whipworms, large roundworms) infect the intestines of ~1.5 billion of the poorest peoples and are leading causes of morbidity worldwide. Only one class of anthelmintic or anti-nematode drugs, the benzimidazoles, is currently used in mass drug administrations, which is a dangerous situation. New anti-nematode drugs are urgently needed. Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein Cry5B is a powerful, promising new candidate...
May 18, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774300/epidemiology-of-intestinal-parasite-infections-in-three-departments-of-south-central-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire-before-the-implementation-of-a-cluster-randomised-trial
#2
Gaoussou Coulibaly, Mamadou Ouattara, Kouassi Dongo, Eveline Hürlimann, Fidèle K Bassa, Naférima Koné, Clémence Essé, Richard B Yapi, Bassirou Bonfoh, Jürg Utzinger, Giovanna Raso, Eliézer K N'Goran
Hundreds of millions of people are infected with helminths and intestinal protozoa, particularly children in low- and middle-income countries. Preventive chemotherapy is the main strategy to control helminthiases. However, rapid re-infection occurs in settings where there is a lack of clean water, sanitation and hygiene. In August and September 2014, we conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological survey in 56 communities of three departments of south-central Côte d'Ivoire. Study participants were invited to provide stool and urine samples...
May 2018: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774289/high-prevalence-of-intestinal-worms-in-children-up-to-5-years-of-age-in-huaphan-province-lao-people-s-democratic-republic-pdr
#3
Naphavanh Nanthavong, Antony P Black, Phonepadith Khattignavong, Lavy Lorphachan, Keooudomphone Vilivong, Sylvie Goossens, Yves Buisson, Fabrice Quet, Claude P Muller, Satoshi Nakamura
Background: The prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infection is high in Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), reaching 62% among school-children. However, this prevalence presents wide regional variations, due to differences in healthcare access and environmental factors. Curiously, there are few studies on helminth infections in pre-school children - an age group targeted by the national de-worming campaign. Therefore, a preliminary study was conducted in a remote region of Huaphan Province, North Laos, to determine the prevalence of helminth infections in pre-school children...
August 2017: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774288/molecular-analysis-of-giardia-duodenalis-isolates-from-symptomatic-and-asymptomatic-children-from-la-habana-cuba
#4
Luis Enrique Jerez Puebla, Fidel A Núñez, Lissette Pérez Santos, Lázara Rojas Rivero, Isabel Martínez Silva, Lucía Ayllón Valdés, Iraís Atencio Millán, Norbert Müller
Giardiasis is considered the most common intestinal parasitic disease in humans worldwide. In Cuba, this infection has particularly a strong clinical impact on the child population. Giardia duodenalis is a highly diverse protozoan, which comprises a complex of eight morphologically identical genetic assemblages, further divided into sub-assemblages. The present study used triose phosphate isomerase ( tpi ) and small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) genes as genetic markers for the identification of G. duodenalis assemblages and sub-assemblages in correlation with clinical and epidemiological data in children attended at the Paediatric Hospital "William Soler" and at Pedro Kouri Institute, between 2015 and 2016...
August 2017: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773890/intraperitoneal-administration-of-the-anti-il-23-antibody-prevents-the-establishment-of-intestinal-nematodes-in-mice
#5
M Gomez-Samblas, D Bernal, A Bolado-Ortiz, S Vilchez, F Bolás-Fernández, A M Espino, M Trelis, A Osuna
Previous studies have established that an increased Th-9 response creates a hostile environment for nematode parasites. Given that IL-23, a cytokine required for maintenance of the IL-17-secreting phenotype, has inhibitory effects on IL-9 production, we hypothesized that reducing circulating IL-23 by treatment with anti-IL-23 antibodies would reduce the establishment and development of parasitic intestinal nematodes. In this study, we show that animals treated with anti-IL-23 monoclonal antibodies showed a drastic reduction in the number of mouse pinworms (Aspiculuris tetraptera) recovered from the intestine (p < 0...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772478/bacillus-thuringiensis-cry5b-protein-as-a-new-pan-hookworm-cure
#6
Yan Hu, Thanh-Thanh Nguyen, Alice C Y Lee, Joseph F Urban, Melanie M Miller, Bin Zhan, David J Koch, Jason B Noon, Ambily Abraham, Ricardo Toshio Fujiwara, Dwight D Bowman, Gary R Ostroff, Raffi V Aroian
Hookworms are intestinal nematode parasites that infect nearly half a billion people and are globally one of the most important contributors to iron-deficiency anemia. These parasites have significant impacts in developing children, pregnant women and working adults. Of all the soil-transmitted helminths or nematodes (STNs), hookworms are by far the most important, with disease burdens conservatively estimated at four million DALYs (Disability-Adjusted Life Years) and with productivity losses of up to US$139 billion annually...
May 4, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771453/functionalization-of-lipid-based-nutrient-supplement-with-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-inclusions-of-oregano-essential-oil
#7
Shashank Gaur, Emely C Lopez, Ankur Ojha, Juan E Andrade
Intestinal parasitic infection is one of the main causes of acute undernutrition in children. Oral consumption of oregano essential oil (OEO) can reduce intestinal parasitic infections, however, its addition to therapeutic and supplementary foods is hampered by its undesirable flavor. The objective of this study was to develop a functional lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) containing OEO, which is stable, acceptable and provides targeted intestinal delivery of bioactive. β-cyclodextrin (β-CyD) inclusion complexes of OEO (β-CyD-OEO), and carvacrol (β-CyD-CV) (1:1 molar) were prepared using slurry complexation (-20 °C) method and characterized based on encapsulation efficiency, moisture content, morphology, and 2-phase in vitro digestion stability...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770664/-survey-and-analysis-of-major-human-parasitic-diseases-in-chongqing-city
#8
Li Shan-Shan, Luo Fei, Xie Jun, Yuan Yi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the epidemic of major human parasitic diseases in Chongqing City, so as to provide a reference for developing prevention and control strategies. METHODS: According to the unified methods formulated by the national investigation scheme and stratified cluster random sampling, 36 rural pilots and 50 urban pilots were selected in Chongqing City. The number of the objects investigated in individual pilot was defined over 250. RESULTS: Totally 22 263 residents were detected...
March 2, 2018: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768571/pterobothrium-crassicolle-parasitizing-paralichthys-orbignyanus-osteichthyes-paralichthyidae-in-brazil
#9
Nilza N Felizardo, Marcelo Knoff, Jessica B Diniz, Eduardo J L Torres, Flávia A A Calixto, Sérgio C São Clemente
From September 2014 to November 2015, 30 Paralichthys orbignyanus specimens were obtained from Sepetiba Bay in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The fishes were necropsied and cestode larvae were recovered from the abdominal cavity, mesentery, and serosas of the stomach, intestine, spleen, liver, kidney and gonads. Nineteen fish were parasitized by a total of 90 trypanorhynch plerocerci. Based on morphological characters, these were identified as Pterobothrium crassicolle...
May 14, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759087/antechiniella-septentrionalis-n-sp-spirurida-acuariidae-a-new-intestinal-nematode-parasite-of-the-tundra-vole-microtus-oeconomus-pallas-rodentia-muridae-in-the-north-east-of-russia
#10
E S Ivanova, N E Dokuchaev, S E Spiridonov
Antechiniella septentrionalis n. sp. (Spirurida: Acuariidae) is described from the duodenum of a tundra vole, Microtus oeconomus (Pallas), collected in the Magadan region in the north-east part of Russia. It differs from A. suffodiax (Beveridge & Barker, 1975) and A. sertatum Smales, 1991 mainly in having a larger number of postcloacal papillae (5-6 pairs vs 4 pairs), a differently shaped left spicule, the disposition of precloacal papillae in two rows vs one, and oblong vs oval eggs. Other differences include the different disposition of ovaries in A...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755893/policing-the-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-innate-immune-functions-of-intraepithelial-lymphocytes
#11
Madeleine D Hu, Luo Jia, Karen L Edelblum
Purpose of review: This review will explore the contribution of IELs to mucosal innate immunity and highlight the similarities in IEL functional responses to bacteria, viruses and protozoan parasite invasion. Recent findings: IELs rapidly respond to microbial invasion by activating host defense responses, including the production of mucus and antimicrobial peptides to prevent microbes from reaching the epithelial surface. During active infection, IELs promote epithelial cytolysis, cytokine and chemokine production to limit pathogen invasion, replication and dissemination...
March 2018: Current Pathobiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753341/human-parasitology-and-parasitic-diseases-heading-towards-2050
#12
Peter J Hotez
By 2050 our civilized planet may be comprised predominantly of networked megacities embedded in warm subtropical and tropical climates, and under stress from climate change and catastrophic weather events. Urban slum areas in these cities, including those found in wealthier middle- and high-income nations (blue marble health), will be especially vulnerable to disease. Moreover, regional conflicts fought over shifting and limited resources, including water, will collapse health systems infrastructures to further promote disease emergence and reemergence...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752275/whole-genomic-analysis-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-revealing-partial-genes-as-a-source-of-novel-cry-toxins
#13
Muhammad Sajid, Ce Geng, Miaomiao Li, Yueying Wang, Hualin Liu, Jinshui Zheng, Donghai Peng, Ming Sun
Despite the successful application of Crystal proteins (Cry) from Bacillus thuringiensis as biological control agents against insects, there is an increasing demand to identify new Cry toxins having higher toxicity and broad spectrum activity against insects and plant parasitic nematodes. To find novel Cry toxins, we screened 100 whole genome sequences of B. thuringiensis. Surprisingly, in addition to full Cry toxins, we found partial sequences, such as typical N-terminal or C-terminal with conserved domains, widely distributed among 20 strains of B...
May 11, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743881/host-defense-versus-immunosuppression-unisexual-infection-with-male-or-female-schistosoma-mansoni-differentially-impacts-the-immune-response-against-invading-cercariae
#14
Martina Sombetzki, Nicole Koslowski, Anne Rabes, Sonja Seneberg, Franziska Winkelmann, Carlos Fritzsche, Micha Loebermann, Emil C Reisinger
Infection with the intravascular diecious trematode Schistosoma spp . remains a serious tropical disease and public health problem in the developing world, affecting over 258 million people worldwide. During chronic Schistosoma mansoni infection, complex immune responses to tissue-entrapped parasite eggs provoke granulomatous inflammation which leads to serious damage of the liver and intestine. The suppression of protective host immune mechanisms by helminths promotes parasite survival and benefits the host by reducing tissue damage...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739483/risk-factors-for-sporadic-giardia-infection-in-the-usa-a-case-control-study-in-colorado-and-minnesota
#15
H E Reses, J W Gargano, J L Liang, A Cronquist, K Smith, S A Collier, S L Roy, J Vanden Eng, A Bogard, B Lee, M C Hlavsa, E S Rosenberg, K E Fullerton, M J Beach, J S Yoder
Giardia duodenalis is the most common intestinal parasite of humans in the USA, but the risk factors for sporadic (non-outbreak) giardiasis are not well described. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Colorado and Minnesota public health departments conducted a case-control study to assess risk factors for sporadic giardiasis in the USA. Cases (N = 199) were patients with non-outbreak-associated laboratory-confirmed Giardia infection in Colorado and Minnesota, and controls (N = 381) were matched by age and site...
May 9, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739357/serological-evaluation-for-chagas-disease-in-migrants-from-latin-american-countries-resident-in-rome-italy
#16
Stefania Pane, Maria Letizia Giancola, Pierluca Piselli, Angela Corpolongo, Ernestina Repetto, Rita Bellagamba, Claudia Cimaglia, Stefania Carrara, Piero Ghirga, Alessandra Oliva, Nazario Bevilacqua, Ahmad Al Rousan, Carla Nisii, Giuseppe Ippolito, Emanuele Nicastri
BACKGROUND: Chagas disease (CD) is a systemic parasitic infection caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, whose chronic phase may lead to cardiac and intestinal disorders. Endemic in Latin America where it is transmitted mainly by vectors, large-scale migrations to other countries have turned CD into a global health problem because of its alternative transmission routes through blood transfusion, tissue transplantation, or congenital. Aim of this study was to compare the performance of two commercially available tests for serological diagnosis of CD in a group of Latin American migrants living in a non-endemic setting (Rome, Italy)...
May 8, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737935/amoebic-colitis-presenting-with-hypo-albuminaemia-in-an-eight-month-old-breastfed-girl
#17
Asuman Nur Karhan, Ersin Gümüş, Hülya Demir, İnci Nur Saltik Temizel, Aysel Yüce, Hasan Özen
Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite that affects a large proportion of the world's population and causes amoebic dysentery and extra-intestinal disease. Many individuals remain asymptomatic during colonisation; in 10% of individuals, the parasite breaks through the mucosal barrier and leads to invasive disease. An eight-month-old girl who was evaluated for hypo-albuminaemia and was diagnosed with amoebic colitis is reported. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of hypo-albuminaemia owing to amoebic colitis in any age group...
May 8, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737264/what-are-hidden-facts-behind-intestinal-parasitic-infections-in-ilam-city
#18
Jahangir Abdi, Soghra Viesy, Zahra Rezaei
Intestinal parasitic infections are the one of the most common health problems in developing countries. A number of patients die annually due to complications caused by these parasites.Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the rate and type of parasitic infections, determine the factors affecting them in Ilam city and also provide strategies to prevent them. In this descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in one of the Ilam labs in 2016, 417 stool specimens were randomly collected. All specimens were examined using direct and ethanol formaldehyde...
May 8, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736255/addition-of-capsicum-oleoresin-carvacrol-cinnamaldehyde-and-their-mixtures-to-the-broiler-diet-ii-effects-on-meat-quality
#19
Hasan Hüseyin İpçak, Ahmet Alçiçek
Background: In recent years, with the prohibition of antibiotics used as growth stimulants in the nutrition of farm animals, researchers have searched for alternative natural and reliable products in order to be able to sustain the developments experienced during the use of antibiotics and to overcome the possible inconveniences. In this context, studies on evaluation of essential oils in poultry nutrition have been reported to improve the utilization of feed, stimulate the release of digestive enzymes, increase absorption in the stomach and intestines, antimicrobial and anti-parasitic effects and thus, can be an alternative to antibiotics and improve meat quality as well...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735652/activation-of-intestinal-tuft-cell-expressed-sucnr1-triggers-type-2-immunity-in-the-mouse-small-intestine
#20
Weiwei Lei, Wenwen Ren, Makoto Ohmoto, Joseph F Urban, Ichiro Matsumoto, Robert F Margolskee, Peihua Jiang
The hallmark features of type 2 mucosal immunity include intestinal tuft and goblet cell expansion initiated by tuft cell activation. How infectious agents that induce type 2 mucosal immunity are detected by tuft cells is unknown. Published microarray analysis suggested that succinate receptor 1 ( Sucnr1 ) is specifically expressed in tuft cells. Thus, we hypothesized that the succinate-Sucnr1 axis may be utilized by tuft cells to detect certain infectious agents. Here we confirmed that Sucnr1 is specifically expressed in intestinal tuft cells but not in other types of intestinal epithelial cells, and demonstrated that dietary succinate induces tuft and goblet cell hyperplasia via Sucnr1 and the tuft cell-expressed chemosensory signaling elements gustducin and Trpm5...
May 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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