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intestinal parasites

Jeremy Woodward, Effrossyni Gkrania-Klotsas, Dinakantha Kumararatne
Chronic infection with Norovirus is emerging as a significant risk for patients with immunodeficiency - either primary or secondary to therapeutic immunosuppression. Patients with primary immunodeficiency present a range of pathological responses to Norovirus infection. Asymptomatic infections occur and differentiating viral carriage or prolonged viral shedding after self-limiting infection from infection causing protracted diarrhoea can be challenging due to relatively mild pathological changes that may mimic other causes of diarrhoea in such patients (for instance pathogenic bacteria or parasites or graft-versus-host disease)...
October 18, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Janis C Weeks, William M Roberts, Kristin J Robinson, Melissa Keaney, Jon J Vermeire, Joseph F Urban, Shawn R Lockery, John M Hawdon
The screening of candidate compounds and natural products for anthelmintic activity is important for discovering new drugs against human and animal parasites. We previously validated in Caenorhabditis elegans a microfluidic device ('chip') that records non-invasively the tiny electrophysiological signals generated by rhythmic contraction (pumping) of the worm's pharynx. These electropharyngeograms (EPGs) are recorded simultaneously from multiple worms per chip, providing a medium-throughput readout of muscular and neural activity that is especially useful for compounds targeting neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels...
September 15, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Eliana Isac, Guaraciara de A Picanço, Tatiane L da Costa, Nayana F de Lima, Daniella de S M M Alves, Carolina M Fraga, Ruy de S Lino Junior, Marina C Vinaud
Nitazoxanide (NTZ) is a broad-spectrum anti-parasitic drug used against a wide variety of protozoans and helminthes. Albendazole, its active metabolite albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO), is one of the drugs of choice to treat both intestinal and tissue helminth and protozoan infections. However little is known regarding their impact on the metabolism of parasites. The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro effect of NTZ and ABZSO in the glycolysis of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci. The cysticerci were treated with 1...
October 14, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Andrew V Stachulski, Karl Swift, Mark Cooper, Stephen Reynolds, Daniel Norton, Steven D Slonecker, Jean-François Rossignol
Thiazolides are polypharmacology agents with at least three mechanisms of action against a broad spectrum of parasites, bacteria and viruses. In respiratory viruses they inhibit the replication of orthomyxoviridae and paramyxoviridae at a post-translational level. Nitazoxanide 1a, the prototype thiazolide, was originally developed as an antiparasitic agent and later repurposed for the treatment of viral respiratory infections. The second generation thiazolides following nitazoxanide, such as the 5-chloro analogue RM-5038 2a, are also broad-spectrum antiviral agents as we have reported...
September 26, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Pedro H O Cavalcante, Maralina T Silva, Everton G N Santos, Vanessa A Chagas-Moutinho, Claudia P Santos
The fish fauna in the State of Acre represents 10·7% of all fish species recorded from Brazil, but, despite this, there are few fish parasite studies in this area. The recent expansion of fish farming in Acre prompted a need for helminthological studies of the most commonly consumed fish species in the area, Pimelodus blochii (Pimelodidae). The aim of this study was to analyse the helminth fauna of P. blochii from the Acre and Xapuri Rivers in Northwestern Brazil. Numerous nematodes were collected from the intestine and two species of the family Atractidae were identified: Rondonia rondoni Travassos, 1920 and Orientatractis moraveci n...
October 17, 2016: Parasitology
İnci Arıkan, Aynur Gülcan, Saime Ergen Dıbeklıoğlu
AIM: The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of intestinal parasitic diseases (IPD) and associated factors in primary school students and to assess the knowledge and practices of mothers about these diseases. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study carried out in January-March 2014 in 471 students aged 5-11 years, studying at 3 schools randomly selected from the city centre regions with different socioeconomic levels. Stratified sampling method was used in the present study and the data were collected in two stages...
September 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
José Luis Muñoz-Carrillo, José Jesús Muñoz-Escobedo, Claudia H Maldonado-Tapia, Francisca Chávez-Ruvalcaba, María Alejandra Moreno-García
During the course of infection with Trichinella spiralis, an inflammatory response is triggered at the intestinal level in the host, playing a crucial role in the expulsion and elimination of the parasite. However, several studies have demonstrated that this inflammatory response is harmful to the host; hence the importance of studying molecules with therapeutic potential like resiniferatoxin, which is known to have an anti-inflammatory effect both in-vitro and in-vivo. In this article, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of resiniferatoxin during the intestinal phase of T...
October 15, 2016: Parasite Immunology
Fernando Salvador, Elena Sulleiro, Adrián Sánchez-Montalvá, Carmen Alonso, Javier Santos, Isabel Fuentes, Israel Molina
BACKGROUND: Blastocystis spp. are among the most frequently observed intestinal parasites in humans. Despite the discovery of Blastocystis approximately 100 years ago, limited information is available regarding its pathogenesis, genetic diversity, and available treatment options. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with Blastocystis sp. infections diagnosed at Vall d'Hebron University Hospital (Barcelona, Spain). METHODS: A retrospective observational study was performed which included all adult patients who attended Vall d'Hebron University Hospital from February 2009 to March 2014 that had Blastocystis sp...
October 14, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Xing-Quan Wang, Feng-Peng Wang, Wei Chen, Jun Huang, Kateryna Bazaka, Kostya Ken Ostrikov
Schistosoma japonicum is a widespread human and animal parasite that causes intestinal and hepatosplenic schistosomiasis linked to colon, liver and bladder cancers, and anemia. Estimated 230 million people are currently infected with Schistosoma spp, with 779 million people at risk of contracting the parasite. Infection occurs when a host comes into contact with cercariae, a planktonic larval stage of the parasite, and can be prevented by inactivating the larvae, commonly by chemical treatment. We investigated the use of physical non-equilibrium plasma generated at atmospheric pressure using custom-made dielectric barrier discharge reactor to kill S...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jenny Knapp, Benoît Combes, Gérald Umhang, Soufiane Aknouche, Laurence Millon
Echinococcus multilocularis, a cestode parasite responsible for alveolar echinococcosis in humans, is often reported in Europe. It involves red foxes, domestic dogs, and domestic and wild cats as definitive hosts. The parasite infects small mammals and accidentally humans as intermediate hosts and develops in a similar way to a tumor, usually in the liver. Domestic animals are suspected of playing a role in parasite transmission, but this is rarely proven. Moreover, the role of domestic cats is thought to be small, because of experimental studies showing incomplete development of the parasite observed in their intestines...
2016: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
Asifa Wali, Masood-Ul Hassan Balkhi, Rafia Maqbool, Mohammed Maqbool Darzi, Feroz Ahmad Shah, Farooz Ahmad Bhat, Bilal Ahmad Bhat
The present study was undertaken to determine the incidence of helminth parasites in fishes with special reference to water quality parameters in Dal Lake and River Jhelum and correlate the observations. Water, fish, and parasite samples were collected during different seasons from various sites and processed. Three fish species, namely, Schizothorax niger Heckel 1838, Schizothorax esocinus Heckel 1838, and Schizothorax curvifrons Heckel 1838, were recovered from these water bodies. The physicochemical parameters temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and free carbon dioxide showed variation vis-à-vis the season and location of the stations in water bodies...
2016: Journal of Parasitology Research
Jacques-Robert Christen, Marie Mura, Gwenaëlle Roudaut, Anne-Sophie Drogoul, Magalie Demar, Sébastien Briolant, Eric Garnotel, Fabrice Simon, Vincent Pommier De Santi
Two cross-sectional studies were performed 2 years apart in French military personnel deployed from France to French Guiana. In 2011, military medical centres in French Guiana reported 40 cases of intestinal parasitism in service members returning from illegal gold mining sites in the rainforest. In 2013, 48 out of 132 service members returning from French Guiana after a 4-month mission had eosinophilia and seven were infected with hookworm. A presumptive first-line treatment with albendazole could be the most pragmatic strategy...
July 2016: Journal of Travel Medicine
Whitni K Redman, Jay E Bryant, Gul Ahmad
AIM: This survey was carried out on the carcasses of 29 coyotes from Southeastern Nebraska and Shenandoah area of Iowa to document the helminths present in the intestinal track of these carnivorous animals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 29 adult coyote carcasses were generously donated in the autumn and winter (November-February) of 2014-2015 by trappers, fur buyers and hunters of Southeast Nebraska and Shenandoah area of Iowa. The intestine of individual animals were examined for the recovery of helminth parasites as per the established procedures...
September 2016: Veterinary World
Marie-Agnès Travers, Cissé Sow, Séverine Zirah, Christiane Deregnaucourt, Soraya Chaouch, Rayner M L Queiroz, Sébastien Charneau, Thibault Allain, Isabelle Florent, Philippe Grellier
Giardiasis, currently considered a neglected disease, is caused by the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis and is widely spread in human as well as domestic and wild animals. The lack of appropriate medications and the spread of resistant parasite strains urgently call for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Host microbiota or certain probiotic strains have the capacity to provide some protection against giardiasis. By combining biological and biochemical approaches, we have been able to decipher a molecular mechanism used by the probiotic strain Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 to prevent Giardia growth in vitro...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Matthieu Le Bailly, Adauto Araújo
This chapter aims to provide some key points for researchers interested in the study of ancient gastrointestinal parasites. These few pages are dedicated to my colleague and friend, Prof. Adauto Araújo (1951-2015), who participated in the writing of this chapter. His huge efforts in paleoparasitology contributed to the development and promotion of the discipline during more than 30 years.
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
C M Pender, S Kim, T D Potter, M M Ritzi, M Young, R A Dalloul
Coccidiosis is regarded as the parasitic disease with the greatest economic impact on the poultry industry due to reduced performance and increased mortality. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of in ovo administration of probiotics on hatchability, performance, immune organ weights, and lesion scores in broiler chicks during a mixed Eimeria infection. At embryonic day 18, 210 eggs were injected with either sterile water or 1×10(6) cfu probiotic bacteria. On day 3 post-hatch, half of the chicks from each treatment group were challenged with a mixed inoculum of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella...
October 11, 2016: Beneficial Microbes
Samuel Fuhrimann, Mirko S Winkler, Phuc Pham-Duc, Dung Do-Trung, Christian Schindler, Jürg Utzinger, Guéladio Cissé
BACKGROUND: Infections with intestinal parasites (helminths and intestinal protozoa) are endemic in Southeast Asia and inappropriate management and reuse of wastewater might exacerbate the risk of human infections. In rapidly growing urban settings, little is known about the extent of intestinal parasite infections. We assessed the point-prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasite infections in population groups differently exposed to wastewater in urban and peri-urban transition zones in Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam...
October 10, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Didier Bouchon, Martin Zimmer, Jessica Dittmer
Bacterial symbionts represent essential drivers of arthropod ecology and evolution, influencing host traits such as nutrition, reproduction, immunity, and speciation. However, the majority of work on arthropod microbiota has been conducted in insects and more studies in non-model species across different ecological niches will be needed to complete our understanding of host-microbiota interactions. In this review, we present terrestrial isopod crustaceans as an emerging model organism to investigate symbiotic associations with potential relevance to ecosystem functioning...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Adane Derso, Endalkachew Nibret, Abaineh Munshea
BACKGROUND: Parasitic infections affect tens of millions of pregnant women worldwide, and directly or indirectly lead to a spectrum of adverse maternal and fetal/placental effects. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care center in Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar city, northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional hospital based study was conducted from November 2013 to January 2014 among 384 pregnant women...
September 30, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
D Carrillo-Quintero, L Del Otero Sanz, S Hernández-Egido, A M Martín Sánchez
OBJECTIVE: Enterobius vermicularis, also known as pinworn, is the responsible agent for Human Enterobiasis. It is one of the most prevalent, but underrated, parasitic disease in children population. Diagnosis involves demonstration of either eggs or adult worms by Graham test. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical, demographic and microbiological features of patients with suspected diagnosis of Enterobiasis in southern Gran Canaria. METHODS: Descriptive and prospective study of perianal samples evaluated by Graham test in the Microbiology Department of `Insular de Gran Canaria´ University Hospital between November 2014 and November 2015...
October 7, 2016: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
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