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Katarina Bačević, Gérald Lossaint, Thiziri Nait Achour, Virginie Georget, Daniel Fisher, Vjekoslav Dulić
Although cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) controls the G1/S transition and promotes DNA replication, it is dispensable for cell cycle progression due to redundancy with Cdk1. Yet Cdk2 also has non-redundant functions that can be revealed in certain genetic backgrounds and it was reported to promote the G2/M DNA damage response checkpoint in TP53 (p53)-deficient cancer cells. However, in p53-proficient cells subjected to DNA damage, Cdk2 is inactivated by the CDK inhibitor p21. We therefore investigated whether Cdk2 differentially affects checkpoint responses in p53-proficient and deficient cell lines...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Seo Ju Kim, Eun Shil Kim, Sujong Kim, Jieun Uhm, Young Woong Won, Byeong Bae Park, Jung Hye Choi, Young Yiul Lee
KML001 (sodium metaarsenite;NaAs2O3) is known to have antitumor activity against a variety of cancers. In this study, we examined its effect on multiple myeloma (MM). KML001 reduced the growth of all MM cell lines examined with an IC50 of 5x10‑8 M. Exposure to KML001 (5x10‑8 M) decreased levels of cyclins A/B1/D1/E1, CDK2/4/6 in U266 cells and increased the p21 and p27 levels. Furthermore, p21 became bound to CDK2/4/6, resulting in a reduction of CDK2/4/6 kinase activity. The cleaved forms of Bcl-2, and caspases‑3, ‑8 and ‑9 were detected, and the anti-apoptotic molecule, Bax, also increased...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
Yanan Guo, Yintao Zhao, Ling Li, Xiaoyun Wei, Pingjun Gao, Yanqiang Zhou, Yuan Liu, Haibo Yang
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are an important component of arterial walls, and their dysfunction may serve an important role in the development of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis and restenosis. Paeoniflorin (PF) is a principal component of the commonly used traditional Chinese medicine, peonies. To the best of our knowledge, the effects of PF on apoptosis and proliferation of VSMCs and its underlying molecular mechanisms have not been widely reported. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigated this phenomenon...
October 12, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
Zhichao Song, Azadeh Jadali, Bernd Fritzsch, Kelvin Y Kwan
Loss of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) significantly contributes to hearing loss. Otic progenitor cell transplantation is a potential strategy to replace lost SGNs. Understanding how key transcription factors promote SGN differentiation in otic progenitors accelerates efforts for replacement therapies. A pro-neural transcription factor, Neurogenin1 (Neurog1), is essential for SGN development. Using an immortalized multipotent otic progenitor (iMOP) cell line that can self-renew and differentiate into otic neurons, NEUROG1 was enriched at the promoter of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) and neurogenic differentiation 1 (NeuroD1) genes...
October 11, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
Shibo Sun, Fang Xie, Xiaoping Xu, Qing Cai, Qifan Zhang, Zhonglin Cui, Yujian Zheng, Jie Zhou
Liver regeneration has important clinical importance in the setting of partial hepatectomy (PH). Following PH, quiescent hepatocytes can reenter cell cycle to restore liver mass. Hepatocyte cell cycle progression, as the basic motivations of liver regeneration, can be disrupted by multiple pathological factors such as oxidative stress. This study aimed to evaluate the role of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) in S-phase arrest in hepatocytes. Serum AOPP level were measured during the perioperative period of PH in 33 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
October 6, 2017: Redox Biology
Xiaoxu Li, Ruiyu Ding, Zewen Han, Zeyun Ma, Yixiang Wang
The low median survival rate of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is associated with chemotherapeutic resistance. Niclosamide is an oral anti-helminthic drug, its anti-cancer effect has been reported in recent years. However, the effect of niclosamide on OSCC remains largely unknown. In this study, we, for the first time, investigated the underlying mechanisms from cell cycle arrest and let-7a/STAT3 axis through CCK-8, cell cycle, apoptosis, wound healing, Transwell invasion, generation of stable cell line, real-time PCR, and western blot assays using two OSCC cell lines WSU-HN6 and Tca83...
October 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Mauricio Boff de Ávila, Mariana Morrone Xavier, Val Oliveira Pintro, Walter Filgueira de Azevedo
Here we report the development of a machine-learning model to predict binding affinity based on the crystallographic structures of protein-ligand complexes. We used an ensemble of crystallographic structures (resolution better than 1.5 Å resolution) for which half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) data is available. Polynomial scoring functions were built using as explanatory variables the energy terms present in the MolDock and PLANTS scoring functions. Prediction performance was tested and the supervised machine learning models showed improvement in the prediction power, when compared with PLANTS and MolDock scoring functions...
October 7, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Lan Yang, Ya Wen, Guoqing Lv, Yuntao Lin, Junlong Tang, Jingxiao Lu, Manqiao Zhang, Wen Liu, Xiaojuan Sun
BACKGROUND: Alpha lipoic acid (α -LA) is a naturally occurring antioxidant and metabolic enzyme co-factor. Recently, α -LA has been reported to inhibit the growth of various cancer cells, but the precise signaling pathways that mediate the effects of α -LA on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) development remain unclear. METHODS: The CCK-8 assay was used to assess cell proliferation in NSCLC cell lines after α -LA treatment. The expression of growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2), cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-2, CDK4, CDK6, Cyclin D3, Cyclin E1, Ras, c-Raf, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), ERK1/2 and activated EGFR and ERK1/2 was evaluated by western blotting...
October 6, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Yan Shi, Zhi Rong Qian, Sui Zhang, Wanwan Li, Yohei Masugi, Tingting Li, Jennifer A Chan, Juhong Yang, Annacarolina Da Silva, Mancang Gu, Li Liu, Tsuyoshi Hamada, Keisuke Kosumi, Trevor Dutton, Lauren K Brais, Reiko Nishihara, Charles S Fuchs, Shuji Ogino, Matthew H Kulke
OBJECTIVES: Dysregulation of the cell cycle has been observed and implicated as an etiologic factor in a range of human malignancies, but remains relatively unstudied in neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). We evaluated expression of key proteins involved in cell cycle regulation in a large cohort of NETs. METHODS: We evaluated immunohistochemical expression of CDKN1B, CDKN1A, CDKN2A, CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, cyclin D1, cyclin E1, and phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein (phospho-RB1) in a cohort of 267 patients with NETs...
November 2017: Pancreas
J Zhang, D D Tong, M Xue, Q Y Jiang, X F Wang, P B Yang, L Ni, L Y Zhao, C Huang
Gastric cancer (GC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, but the mechanisms remain unknown. Here we report that family with sequence similarity 196 member B (FAM196B) is highly expressed in primary GC tissues and the expression level is correlated with the clinicopathologic characteristics of GC. In this experiment, knockdown of FAM196B suppressed GC cell proliferation and induced G1/G0 to S phase cell cycle arrest by regulating Cyclin D1, Cyclin A and CDK2 expressions. Furthermore, we investigated the molecular mechanism of FAM196B action in GC...
September 30, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Stav Sapoznik, Sarit Aviel-Ronen, Keren Bahar-Shany, Oranit Zadok, Keren Levanon
Delayed diagnosis of ovarian cancer, as well as high recurrence rates and lack of personalized therapy options, are among the causes for poor survival figures. Much effort is made towards developing new therapeutic possibilities, however predictive biomarkers are still unavailable. CCNE1 amplification, occurring in ∼20% of the high grade serous ovarian tumors, was previously proposed as a marker for platinum resistance and poor prognosis as well as for CDK2 inhibition. The current study aimed to examine the role of CCNE1 positive-immunostain as a predictor of first-line taxane-platinum chemoresistance...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
Jia Wang, Min-Zhi Yin, Ke-Wen Zhao, Fang Ke, Wen-Jie Jin, Xiao-Lin Guo, Tian-Hui Liu, Xiao-Ye Liu, Hao Gu, Xiao-Min Yu, Zhen Li, Li-Li Mu, Deng-Li Hong, Jing Chen, Guo-Qiang Chen
Anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is essential for cell cycle progression. Recently, its non-mitotic functions were also reported but less studied in several tissues including hematopoietic cells. Here, we developed an inducible Anapc2 (a core subunit of APC/C) knockout mice. The animals displayed a fatal bone marrow failure within 7 days after knockout induction. Their hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) demonstrated a sharp decline and could form little colony. Further, the results of BrdU label-retaining cell assay showed that the dormant HPSCs lost rapidly...
September 8, 2017: Oncotarget
Yiming Ma, Wei Yu, Anju Shrivastava, Farzad Alemi, Kamani Lankachandra, Rakesh K Srivastava, Sharmila Shankar
Sonic hedgehog pathway is highly activated in pancreatic cancer stem cells (CSC) which play crucial roles in cancer initiation, progression and metastasis. However, the molecular mechanisms by which sanguinarine regulates pancreatic CSC characteristics is not well understood. The objectives of this study were to examine the molecular mechanisms by which sanguinarine regulates pancreatic CSC characteristics. Sanguinarine inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation and induced apoptosis through oxidative damage...
September 5, 2017: Carcinogenesis
Vinay Jain, Divyalakshmi Saini, P R Vivek Kumar, G Jaikrishan, Birajalaxmi Das
High level natural radiation areas (HLNRA) of Kerala coastal strip (55km long and 0.5km wide) in southwest India exhibit wide variations in the level of background dose (< 1.0-45.0mGy/year) due to thorium deposits in the beach sand. The areas with ≤1.5mGy/year are considered as normal level natural radiation area (NLNRA), whereas areas with >1.5mGy/year are HLNRA. Individuals belonging to HLNRA were stratified into two groups, Low dose group (LDG: 1.51-5.0mGy/year) and high dose group (HDG: >5.0mGy/year)...
September 20, 2017: Mutation Research
Ravi S Narayan, Ana Gasol, Paul L G Slangen, Fleur M G Cornelissen, Tonny Lagerweij, Hou Y Y E Veldman, Rogier Dik, Jaap van den Berg, Ben J Slotman, Thomas Wurdinger, Daphne Haas-Kogan, Lukas J A Stalpers, Brigitta G Baumert, Bart Westerman, Jan Theys, Peter Sminia
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly aggressive and lethal brain cancer type. PI3K and MAPK inhibitors have been studied pre-clinically in GBM as monotherapy, but not in combination with radiotherapy, which is a key component of the current standard treatment of GBM. In our study, GBM cell lines and patient representative primary cultures were grown as multicellular spheroids. Spheroids were treated with a panel of small molecule drugs including MK2206, RAD001, BEZ235, MLN0128 and MEK162, alone and in combination with irradiation...
September 27, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Haojie Jin, Cun Wang, Dishui Gu, Yurong Zhang, Shaohua Fan, Shunpeng Xing, Hui Wang, Haoyu Ruan, Cheng Yang, Yuanyuan Lv, Hugang Feng, Ming Yao, Wenxin Qin
The capacity of liver regeneration is critical for patients with liver diseases. However, cellular and molecular mechanisms of liver regeneration are still incompletely defined. Here, we assessed roles of LASS2 in liver regeneration following partial hepatectomy (PHx) in mice. Our results showed that protein level of LASS2 remarkably increased during liver regeneration after PHx in wildtype (WT) mice. Comparing to WT mice, liver regeneration index after PHx was significantly decreased from day 1 to day 5 in liver-specific LASS2 knockout (LASS2-LKO) mice...
September 25, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
V G Zilov, A A Khadartsev, I V Terekhov, S S Bondar'
The contents of cyclins A1, B1, E1, and D1, cyclin-dependent kinases 2 and 4 (CDK2 and CDK4), cyclin-dependent kinase 2C inhibitor (p18), and cyclin-dependent kinase 1C inhibitor (p57) in whole blood mononuclear cells of practically healthy donors and convalescents from community-acquired pneumonia were measured after cell exposure to low-intensity electromagnetic radiation of 1 GHz. The level of cyclins A1, D1, and B1, p57, and p18 proteins, and CDK2 was reduced in convalescents, while the content of cyclin B1 was elevated in both groups...
September 26, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Iman Doostan, Cansu Karakas, Mehrnooh Kohansal, Kwang Hui Low, Matthew J Ellis, John A Olson, Vera Suman, Kelly Hunt, Stacy Moulder-Thompson, Khandan Keyomarsi
PURPOSE: Preoperative aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy has demonstrated efficacy in hormone receptor (HR)-positive postmenopausal breast cancer. However, many patients have disease that is either intrinsically resistant to AIs or that responds initially but develops resistance after prolonged exposure. We have shown that patients with breast tumors expressing the deregulated forms of cyclin E (low molecular weight forms [LMW-E]) have poor overall survival. Herein, we hypothesize that LMW-E expression can identify HR-positive tumors that are unresponsive to neoadjuvant AI therapy due to the inability of AIs to induce a cytostatic effect...
September 25, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Ying Wang, Hui-Lan Lu, Yong-Dong Liu, Li-Yun Yang, Qing-Kun Jiang, Xiao-Jun Zhu, Hua-Nan Fan, Yong Qian
Cryptotanshinone, a natural compound isolated from the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge (Danshen), has been found to induce cancer cells apoptosis and impair cell migration and invasion in various malignancies, but its antiproliferation and chemosensitization effects of Cryptotanshinone on tongue squamous cell carcinoma(TSCC)still remain fully elucidated. In this study, the effects of Cryptotanshinone on the proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle of human TSCC cells, including CAL 27 and SCC 9 cells, were measured...
September 19, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Célio J C Fernandes, Fabio Bezerra, Maiara das D do Carmo, Georgia Feltran, Mariana C Rossi, Rodrigo A da Silva, Pedro de M Padilha, Willian F Zambuzzi
Significant health concerns have been raised by the high levels of Cr and Co ions into whole blood as resulted of corrosion process released from biomedical implants, but very little is known about their biological behavior in governing cell metabolism. Thus, we prompted to address this issue by exploring the effects of CoCr enriched medium on both fibroblast and pre-osteoblast (pre-Ob) cells. Firstly, we showed there is a significant difference in Co and Cr releasing dependent on engineered surface, it being even more released in dual acid-etching treating surface (named w/DAE) than the machined surfaces (named wo/DAE)...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
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