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Multielectrode array

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087767/trial-by-trial-motor-cortical-correlates-of-a-rapidly-adapting-visuomotor-internal-model
#1
Sergey D Stavisky, Jonathan C Kao, Stephen I Ryu, Krishna V Shenoy
: Accurate motor control is mediated by internal models of how neural activity generates movement. We examined neural correlates of an adapting internal model of visuomotor gain in motor cortex while two macaques performed a reaching task in which the gain scaling between the hand and a presented cursor was varied. Previous studies of cortical changes during visuomotor adaptation focused on preparatory and peri-movement epochs and analyzed trial-averaged neural data. Here, we recorded simultaneous neural population activity using multielectrode arrays and focused our analysis on neural differences in the period before the target appeared...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079886/hiv-1-nef-is-released-in-extracellular-vesicles-derived-from-astrocytes-evidence-for-nef-mediated-neurotoxicity
#2
A Sami Saribas, Stephanie Cicalese, Taha Mohseni Ahooyi, Kamel Khalili, Shohreh Amini, Ilker Kudret Sariyer
Human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurological disorders (HANDs) affect the majority of AIDS patients and are a significant problem among HIV-1-infected individuals who live longer because of combined anti-retroviral therapies. HIV-1 utilizes a number of viral proteins and subsequent cytokine inductions to unleash its toxicity on neurons. Among HIV-1 viral proteins, Nef is a small protein expressed abundantly in astrocytes of HIV-1-infected brains and has been suggested to have a role in the pathogenesis of HAND...
January 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045002/topographic-prominence-discriminator-for-the-detection-of-short-latency-spikes-of-retinal-ganglion-cells
#3
Myoung-Hwan Choi, Jungryul Ahn, Daejin Park, Sang Min Lee, Kwangsoo Kim, Dong-Il Cho, Solomon Senok, Kyo-In Koo, Yongsook Goo
<i>Objective</i>: Direct stimulation of retinal ganglion cells in degenerate retinas by implanting epi-retinal prostheses is a recognized strategy for restoration of visual perception in patients with retinitis pigmentosa or age-related macular degeneration. Elucidating the best stimulus-response paradigms in the laboratory using multielectrode arrays (MEA) is complicated by the fact that the short-latency spikes (within 10 ms) elicited by direct retinal ganglion cell (RGC) stimulation are obscured by the stimulus artifact which is generated by the electrical stimulator...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025564/versatile-flexible-graphene-multielectrode-arrays
#4
Dmitry Kireev, Silke Seyock, Mathis Ernst, Vanessa Maybeck, Bernhard Wolfrum, Andreas Offenhäusser
Graphene is a promising material possessing features relevant to bioelectronics applications. Graphene microelectrodes (GMEAs), which are fabricated in a dense array on a flexible polyimide substrate, were investigated in this work for their performance via electrical impedance spectroscopy. Biocompatibility and suitability of the GMEAs for extracellular recordings were tested by measuring electrical activities from acute heart tissue and cardiac muscle cells. The recordings show encouraging signal-to-noise ratios of 65 ± 15 for heart tissue recordings and 20 ± 10 for HL-1 cells...
December 23, 2016: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018182/mapping-horizontal-spread-of-activity-in-monkey-motor-cortex-using-single-pulse-microstimulation
#5
Yaoyao Hao, Alexa Riehle, Thomas G Brochier
Anatomical studies have demonstrated that distant cortical points are interconnected through long range axon collaterals of pyramidal cells. However, the functional properties of these intrinsic synaptic connections, especially their relationship with the cortical representations of body movements, have not been systematically investigated. To address this issue, we used multielectrode arrays chronically implanted in the motor cortex of two rhesus monkeys to analyze the effects of single-pulse intracortical microstimulation (sICMS) applied at one electrode on the neuronal activities recorded at all other electrodes...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986923/nonlinear-y-like-receptive-fields-in-the-early-visual-cortex-an-intermediate-stage-for-building-cue-invariant-receptive-fields-from-subcortical-y-cells
#6
Amol Gharat, Curtis L Baker
: Many of the neurons in early visual cortex are selective for orientation of boundaries defined by first-order (luminance) as well as second-order (contrast, texture) cues. The neural circuit mechanism underlying this selectivity is still unclear, but some studies have proposed that it emerges from spatial nonlinearities of subcortical Y cells.In order to understand how inputs from the Y cell pathway might be pooled to generate cue-invariant receptive fields, we recorded visual responses from single neurons in cat Area 18 using linear multi-electrode arrays...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984182/contribution-of-nav1-8-sodium-channels-to-retinal-function
#7
Benjamin J Smith, Patrice D Côté, François Tremblay
We examined the contribution of the sodium channel isoform Nav1.8 to retinal function using the specific blocker A803467. We found that A803467 has little influence on the electroretinographic (ERG) a- and b-waves, but significantly reduces the oscillatory potentials to 40-60% of their original amplitude, with significant changes in implicit time in the rod-driven range. To date, only two cell types were found in mouse to express Nav1.8; the starburst amacrine cells (SBAC), and a subtype of retinal ganglion cells (RGC)...
October 28, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921066/review-of-imaging-network-activities-in-developing-rodent-cerebral-cortex-in-vivo
#8
REVIEW
Heiko J Luhmann
The combination of voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDI) with multielectrode array (MEA) recordings in the rodent cerebral cortex in vivo allows the simultaneous analysis of large-scale network interactions and electrophysiological single-unit recordings. Using this approach, distinct patterns of spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity can be recorded in the primary somatosensory (S1) and motor cortex (M1) of newborn rats. Already at the day of birth, gamma oscillations and spindle bursts in the barrel cortex synchronize the activity of a local columnar ensemble, thereby generating an early topographic representation of the sensory periphery...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918823/short-term-alteration-of-developmental-neural-activity-enhances-neurite-outgrowth-of-retinal-explants
#9
Meng-Jung Lee, Chuan-Chin Chiao
Purpose: It is well known that the gradual loss of axon growth ability of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) during development is largely determined by extrinsic signals rather than being programmed intrinsically. Spontaneous retinal waves are the major neural activity during retinal development. Thus restoring the developmental environment by providing the proper neural activity may be able to help axon regeneration of RGCs. Methods: Retinal explants from P5 and P11 C57BL/6 mice were treated pharmacologically or stimulated electrically, and cultured with or without brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on coverslips or a multielectrode array for 5 days to examine the neurite outgrowth capacity of RGCs...
December 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819256/long-term-stability-of-intracortical-recordings-using-perforated-and-arrayed-parylene-sheath-electrodes
#10
Seth A Hara, Brian J Kim, Jonathan T W Kuo, Curtis D Lee, Ellis Meng, Victor Pikov
OBJECTIVE: Acquisition of reliable and robust neural recordings with intracortical neural probes is a persistent challenge in the field of neuroprosthetics. We developed a multielectrode array technology to address chronic intracortical recording reliability and present in vivo recording results. APPROACH: The 2 × 2 Parylene sheath electrode array (PSEA) was microfabricated and constructed from only Parylene C and platinum. The probe includes a novel three-dimensional sheath structure, perforations, and bioactive coatings that improve tissue integration and manage immune response...
December 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726011/analysis-of-spontaneous-activity-of-superficial-dorsal-horn-neurons-in-vitro-neuropathy-induced-changes
#11
Carolina Roza, Irene Mazo, Iván Rivera-Arconada, Elsa Cisneros, Ismel Alayón, José A López-García
The superficial dorsal horn contains large numbers of interneurons which process afferent and descending information to generate the spinal nociceptive message. Here, we set out to evaluate whether adjustments in patterns and/or temporal correlation of spontaneous discharges of these neurons are involved in the generation of central sensitization caused by peripheral nerve damage. Multielectrode arrays were used to record from discrete groups of such neurons in slices from control or nerve damaged mice. Whole-cell recordings of individual neurons were also obtained...
November 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703279/an-electrically-resistive-sheet-of-glial-cells-for-amplifying-signals-of-neuronal-extracellular-recordings
#12
R Matsumura, H Yamamoto, M Niwano, A Hirano-Iwata
Electrical signals of neuronal cells can be recorded non-invasively and with a high degree of temporal resolution using multielectrode arrays (MEAs). However, signals that are recorded with these devices are small, usually 0.01%-0.1% of intracellular recordings. Here, we show that the amplitude of neuronal signals recorded with MEA devices can be amplified by covering neuronal networks with an electrically resistive sheet. The resistive sheet used in this study is a monolayer of glial cells, supportive cells in the brain...
January 11, 2016: Applied Physics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659846/15-th-annual-meeting-of-the-safety-pharmacology-society-focus-on-traditional-sensory-systems
#13
Icilio Cavero, Henry Holzgrefe
INTRODUCTION: This report summarizes and comments key talks on the five traditional senses (ear, vestibular system, vision, taste, olfaction, and touch) which were delivered during the 2015 Annual Meeting of the Safety Pharmacology (SP) Society. AREAS COVERED: The functional observational battery (FOB) can detect major candidate drug liabilities only on ear, touch and vision. Anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, and pathology notions on each sensory system introduce speaker talks...
January 2017: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634341/electrophysiological-approaches-to-unravel-the-neurobiological-basis-of-appetite-and-satiety-use-of-the-multielectrode-array-as-a-screening-strategy
#14
REVIEW
Hamdy Shaban, Rory O'Connor, Saak V Ovsepian, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan, Harriët Schellekens
Hypothalamic neural circuits are recognised as primary sites of the neuromodulator effect of homeostatic food intake, whereas changes in ventral tegmental area (VTA), hippocampus and amygdala have been implicated in the hedonic, cognitive and emotional aspects of eating. Here, we discuss synaptic transmission and plasticity within brain circuits governing appetite and food intake behaviour, focusing on the metabolic hormones ghrelin and leptin. We discuss functional changes within these circuitries and critically assess the applicability of electrophysiological measurements using in vitro multielectrode array (MEA) systems to identify novel appetite modulators...
September 12, 2016: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615033/first-and-second-generation-antipsychotics-differentially-affect-structural-and-functional-properties-of-rat-hippocampal-neuron-synapses
#15
Christine Gottschling, Maren Geissler, Gianna Springer, Rainer Wolf, Georg Juckel, Andreas Faissner
The therapy of patients suffering the psychiatric disorder schizophrenia requires the usage of antipsychotic drugs that are classified into two different groups, the first-generation (FGAs) and the second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs). This study compares the effects of the two FGAs haloperidol and flupentixol with those of the SGA olanzapine on synapse formation and synaptic activity of embryonic rat hippocampal neurons. To this end, the development of perineuronal nets (PNNs), the formation of synapses and the resulting spontaneous network activity under control and treatment conditions were studied using an indirect co-culture system of neurons and astrocytes in completely defined media...
September 8, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599023/topographic-quantification-of-the-transcorneal-electrical-stimulation-tes-induced-protective-effects-on-n-methyl-n-nitrosourea-treated-retinas
#16
Ye Tao, Tao Chen, Zhong-Yu Liu, Li-Qiang Wang, Wei-Wei Xu, Li-Min Qin, Guang-Hua Peng, Huang Yi-Fei
PURPOSE: To quantify the transcorneal electrical stimulation (TES)-induced effects on regional photoreceptors and visual signal pathway of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-treated retinas via topographic measurements. METHODS: N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-administered mice received TES or sham stimulations and were subsequently subjected to electroretinography (ERG), multielectrode array (MEA), and histologic and immunohistochemistry examinations. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analyses were also performed to determine the mRNA levels of Bax, Bcl-2, Calpain-2, Caspase-3, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF)...
September 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581463/selective-vulnerability-of-specific-retinal-ganglion-cell-types-and-synapses-after-transient-ocular-hypertension
#17
Yvonne Ou, Rebecca E Jo, Erik M Ullian, Rachel O L Wong, Luca Della Santina
UNLABELLED: Key issues concerning ganglion cell type-specific loss and synaptic changes in animal models of experimental glaucoma remain highly debated. Importantly, changes in the structure and function of various RGC types that occur early, within 14 d after acute, transient intraocular pressure elevation, have not been previously assessed. Using biolistic transfection of individual RGCs and multielectrode array recordings to measure light responses in mice, we examined the effects of laser-induced ocular hypertension on the structure and function of a subset of RGCs...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578493/interaction-of-intrinsic-and-synaptic-currents-mediate-network-resonance-driven-by-layer-v-pyramidal-cells
#18
Stephen L Schmidt, Christopher R Dorsett, Apoorva K Iyengar, Flavio Fröhlich
Cortical oscillations modulate cellular excitability and facilitate neuronal communication and information processing. Layer 5 pyramidal cells (L5 PYs) drive low-frequency oscillations (<4 Hz) in neocortical networks in vivo. In vitro, individual L5 PYs exhibit subthreshold resonance in the theta band (4-8 Hz). This bandpass filtering of periodic input is mediated by h-current (Ih) and m-current (IM) that selectively suppress low-frequency input. It has remained unclear how these intrinsic properties of cells contribute to the emergent, network oscillation dynamics...
August 30, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535370/large-scale-recording-of-thalamocortical-circuits-in-vivo-electrophysiology-with-the-two-dimensional-electronic-depth-control-silicon-probe
#19
Richárd Fiáth, Patrícia Beregszászi, Domonkos Horváth, Lucia Wittner, Arno A A Aarts, Patrick Ruther, Hercules P Neves, Hajnalka Bokor, László Acsády, István Ulbert
Recording simultaneous activity of a large number of neurons in distributed neuronal networks is crucial to understand higher order brain functions. We demonstrate the in vivo performance of a recently developed electrophysiological recording system comprising a two-dimensional, multi-shank, high-density silicon probe with integrated complementary metal-oxide semiconductor electronics. The system implements the concept of electronic depth control (EDC), which enables the electronic selection of a limited number of recording sites on each of the probe shafts...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465511/prolonged-stimulation-with-low-intensity-ultrasound-induces-delayed-increases-in-spontaneous-hippocampal-culture-spiking-activity
#20
Hyun-Bum Kim, Kelley M Swanberg, Hee-Sok Han, Jung-Chae Kim, Jun-Woo Kim, Sungon Lee, C Justin Lee, Sungho Maeng, Tae-Seong Kim, Ji-Ho Park
Ultrasound is a promising neural stimulation modality, but an incomplete understanding of its range and mechanism of effect limits its therapeutic application. We investigated the modulation of spontaneous hippocampal spike activity by ultrasound at a lower acoustic intensity and longer time scale than has been previously attempted, hypothesizing that spiking would change conditionally upon the availability of glutamate receptors. Using a 60-channel multielectrode array (MEA), we measured spontaneous spiking across organotypic rat hippocampal slice cultures (N = 28) for 3 min each before, during, and after stimulation with low-intensity unfocused pulsed or sham ultrasound (spatial-peak pulse average intensity 780 μW/cm(2) ) preperfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid, 300 μM kynurenic acid (KA), or 0...
July 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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