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Multielectrode array

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428663/shengmai-san-derived-herbal-prevents-the-development-of-a-vulnerable-substrate-for-atrial-fibrillation-in-a-rat-model-of-ischemic-heart-failure
#1
Jin Ma, Shiyu Ma, Chunxia Yin, Huanlin Wu
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to investigate whether a Shengmai San-derived herbal, Fumai granule (FM), which had a preventive effect on atrial fibrillation (AF) in myocardial infarction (MI)-induced heart failure (HF) rat and to determine the underlying mechanisms. DESIGN AND METHODS: MI was induced by a ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. One week after MI surgery, FM was gavaged for 4 weeks. AF inducibility was detected by transesophageal programmed electrical stimulation technology...
February 8, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426889/sio2-nanoparticles-modulate-the-electrical-activity-of-neuroendocrine-cells-without-exerting-genomic-effects
#2
C Distasi, F A Ruffinatti, M Dionisi, S Antoniotti, A Gilardino, G Croci, B Riva, E Bassino, G Alberto, E Castroflorio, D Incarnato, E Morandi, G Martra, S Oliviero, L Munaron, D Lovisolo
Engineered silica nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted increasing interest in several applications, and particularly in the field of nanomedicine, thanks to the high biocompatibility of this material. For their optimal and controlled use, the understanding of the mechanisms elicited by their interaction with the biological target is a prerequisite, especially when dealing with cells particularly vulnerable to environmental stimuli like neurons. Here we have combined different electrophysiological approaches (both at the single cell and at the population level) with a genomic screening in order to analyze, in GT1-7 neuroendocrine cells, the impact of SiO2 NPs (50 ± 3 nm in diameter) on electrical activity and gene expression, providing a detailed analysis of the impact of a nanoparticle on neuronal excitability...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377795/statistically-reconstructed-multiplexing-for-very-dense-high-channel-count-acquisition-systems
#3
David Tsai, Rafael Yuste, Kenneth L Shepard
Multiplexing is an important strategy in multichannel acquisition systems. The per-channel antialiasing filters needed in the traditional multiplexing architecture limit its scalability for applications requiring high channel density, high channel count, and low noise. A particularly challenging example is multielectrode arrays for recording from neural systems. We show that conventional approaches must tradeoff recording density and noise performance, at a scale far from the ideal goal of one-to-one mapping between neurons and sensors...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372259/lycium-barbarum-polysaccharides-protect-retina-in-rd1-mice-during-photoreceptor-degeneration
#4
Feng Liu, Jia Zhang, Zongqin Xiang, Di Xu, Kwok-Fai So, Noga Vardi, Ying Xu
Purpose: As an active component in wolfberry, lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) are capable of protecting retinal neurons in several animal disease models. Here, we asked whether LBP rescues the retinal morphology and function in rd1 mouse, a photoreceptor fast-degenerating animal model of retinitis pigmentosa, and in particular focused on LBP's effects on the function of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) during photoreceptor degeneration. Methods: An equal volume of LBP or control vehicle was daily intraperitoneal (i...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351358/microfluidics-based-subretinal-chemical-neuromodulation-of-photoreceptor-degenerated-retinas
#5
Corey M Rountree, John B Troy, Laxman Saggere
Purpose: Retinal prostheses can restore rudimentary vision in cases of photoreceptor degeneration through electrical stimulation, but face difficulties achieving high spatial resolution because electrical current is an inherently unnatural stimulus. We investigated the therapeutic feasibility of using patterned delivery of the glutamate neurotransmitter, a primary agent of natural synaptic communication of the retina, as a biomimetic chemical alternative to electrical current for neuromodulation of photoreceptor degenerate retina...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346110/a-three-dimensional-arrayed-microfluidic-blood-brain-barrier-model-with-integrated-electrical-sensor-array
#6
Sehoon Jeong, Sunja Kim, John Buonocore, Jaewon Park, C Jane Welsh, Jianrong Li, Arum Han
OBJECTIVE: The blood-brain barrier (BBB) poses a unique challenge to the development of therapeutics against neurological disorders due to its impermeabi-lity to most of the chemical compounds. Most in vitro BBB models have limitations in mimicking in vivo conditions and functions. Here, we show a co-culture microfluidic BBB-on-a-chip that provides interactions between neurovascular endothelial cells and neuronal cells across a porous polycarbonate membrane, which better mimics the in vivo conditions, as well as allows in vivo level shear stress to be applied...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342363/differential-effects-of-inhibitory-g-protein-isoforms-on-g-protein-gated-inwardly-rectifying-k-currents-in-adult-murine-atria
#7
Muriel Nobles, David Montaigne, Sonia Sebastian, Lutz Birnbaumer, Andrew Tinker
G-protein gated inwardly rectifying K+ (GIRK) channels are the major inwardly rectifying K+ currents in cardiac atrial myocytes and an important determinant of atrial electrophysiology. Inhibitory G-protein alpha subunits can both mediate activation via acetylcholine but can also supress basal currents in the absence of agonist. We studied this phenomenon using whole cell patch clamping in murine atria from mice with global genetic deletion of Gαi2, combined deletion of Gαi1/Gαi3 and littermate controls...
January 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129319/modeling-the-interplay-between-neurons-and-astrocytes-in-autism-using-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#8
Fabiele Baldino Russo, Beatriz Camille Freitas, Graciela Conceição Pignatari, Isabella Rodrigues Fernandes, Jonathan Sebat, Alysson Renato Muotri, Patricia Cristina Baleeiro Beltrão-Braga
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with unclear etiology and imprecise genetic causes. The main goal of this work was to investigate neuronal connectivity and the interplay between neurons and astrocytes from individuals with nonsyndromic ASD using induced pluripotent stem cells. METHODS: Induced pluripotent stem cells were derived from a clinically well-characterized cohort of three individuals with nonsyndromic ASD sharing common behaviors and three control subjects, two clones each...
October 3, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093659/closed-loop-experiment-manager-clem-an-open-and-inexpensive-solution-for-multichannel-electrophysiological-recordings-and-closed-loop-experiments
#9
Hananel Hazan, Noam E Ziv
There is growing need for multichannel electrophysiological systems that record from and interact with neuronal systems in near real-time. Such systems are needed, for example, for closed loop, multichannel electrophysiological/optogenetic experimentation in vivo and in a variety of other neuronal preparations, or for developing and testing neuro-prosthetic devices, to name a few. Furthermore, there is a need for such systems to be inexpensive, reliable, user friendly, easy to set-up, open and expandable, and possess long life cycles in face of rapidly changing computing environments...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060067/a-comparative-study-of-light-and-electrically-evoked-response-of-retinal-ganglion-cells
#10
Satarupa Biswas, Debdeep Sikdar, Soumen Das, Manjunatha Mahadevappa
Understanding of the evoked neural discharges from retinal tissues is vital for designing of any retinal prosthesis. In this study, retinal ganglion cell activity to light and electrical stimulus is recorded using multielectrode arrays. For an effective epiretinal prosthetic device, the electrical stimulus through the prosthesis should be able to evoke responses similar to those of light response in normal condition. This pilot study was intended to design the experimental protocol for in-vitro retinal stimulation...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046428/spatio-temporal-characteristics-of-retinal-response-to-network-mediated-photovoltaic-stimulation
#11
Elton Ho, Richard Smith, Georges A Goetz, Xin Lei, Ludwig Galambos, Theodore I Kamins, James Harris, Keith Mathieson, Daniel Palanker, Alexander Sher
Subretinal prostheses aim at restoring sight to patients blinded by photoreceptor degeneration using electrical activation of the surviving inner retinal neurons. Today, such implants deliver visual information with low-frequency stimulation, resulting in discontinuous visual percepts. We measured retinal responses to complex visual stimuli delivered at video rate via a photovoltaic subretinal implant and by visible light. Using a multielectrode array to record from retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the healthy and degenerated rat retina ex-vivo, we estimated their spatio-temporal properties from the spike-triggered average (STA) responses to photovoltaic binary white noise stimulus with 70μm pixel size at 20Hz frame rate...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024244/local-chemical-stimulation-of-neurons-with-the-fluidfm
#12
Matthias J Aebersold, Harald Dermutz, László Demkó, José F Saenz Cogollo, Shiang-Chi Lin, Conrad Burchert, Moritz Schneider, Doris Ling, Csaba Forró, Hana Han, Tomaso Zambelli, Janos Vörös
Physiological communication between neurons is dependent on the exchange of neurotransmitters at the synapses. Although such chemical signal transmission targets specific receptors and allows for subtle adaptation of the action potential, in vitro neuroscience typically relies on electrical currents and potentials to stimulate neurons. The electric stimulus is unspecific and the confinement of the stimuli within the media is technically difficult to control and introduces large artifacts in electric recordings of the activity...
October 10, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973319/differential-effects-of-hcn-channel-block-on-on-and-off-pathways-in-the-retina-as-a-potential-cause-for-medication-induced-phosphene-perception
#13
Sebastian Bemme, Michael Weick, Tim Gollisch
Purpose: Phosphene perception is a characteristic side effect of heart rate-reducing medication that acts on hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) ion channels. It is hypothesized that these phosphenes are caused by blocking HCN channels in photoreceptors and neurons of the retina, yet the underlying changes in visual signal processing in the retina caused by the HCN channel block are still unknown. Methods: We examined the effects of pharmacologic HCN channel block on the encoding of visual signals in retinal ganglion cells by recording ganglion cell spiking activity from isolated mouse retinas mounted on multielectrode arrays...
September 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930702/gcamp-expression-in-retinal-ganglion-cells-characterized-using-a-low-cost-fundus-imaging-system
#14
Yao-Chuan Chang, Steven T Walston, Robert H Chow, James D Weiland
OBJECTIVE: Virus-transduced, intracellular-calcium indicators are effective reporters of neural activity, offering the advantage of cell-specific labeling. Due to the existence of an optimal time window for the expression of calcium indicators, a suitable tool for tracking GECI expression in vivo following transduction is highly desirable. APPROACH: We developed a noninvasive imaging approach based on a custom-modified, low-cost fundus viewing system that allowed us to monitor and characterize in vivo bright-field and fluorescence images of the mouse retina...
October 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924008/primary-generators-of-visually-evoked-field-potentials-recorded-in-the-macaque-auditory-cortex
#15
Yoshinao Kajikawa, John F Smiley, Charles E Schroeder
Prior studies have reported "local" field potential (LFP) responses to faces in the macaque auditory cortex and have suggested that such face-LFPs may be substrates of audiovisual integration. However, although field potentials (FPs) may reflect the synaptic currents of neurons near the recording electrode, due to the use of a distant reference electrode, they often reflect those of synaptic activity occurring in distant sites as well. Thus, FP recordings within a given brain region (e.g., auditory cortex) may be "contaminated" by activity generated elsewhere in the brain...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923928/transparent-conformable-active-multielectrode-array-using-organic-electrochemical-transistors
#16
Wonryung Lee, Dongmin Kim, Naoji Matsuhisa, Masae Nagase, Masaki Sekino, George G Malliaras, Tomoyuki Yokota, Takao Someya
Mechanically flexible active multielectrode arrays (MEA) have been developed for local signal amplification and high spatial resolution. However, their opaqueness limited optical observation and light stimulation during use. Here, we show a transparent, ultraflexible, and active MEA, which consists of transparent organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) and transparent Au grid wirings. The transparent OECT is made of Au grid electrodes and has shown comparable performance with OECTs with nontransparent electrodes/wirings...
October 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904106/diversity-in-spatial-scope-of-contrast-adaptation-among-mouse-retinal-ganglion-cells
#17
Mohammad Hossein Khani, Tim Gollisch
Retinal ganglion cells adapt to changes in visual contrast by adjusting their response kinetics and sensitivity. While much work has focused on the time scales of these adaptation processes, less is known about the spatial scale of contrast adaptation. For example, do small, localized contrast changes affect a cell's signal processing across its entire receptive field? Previous investigations have provided conflicting evidence, suggesting either that contrast adaptation occurs locally within subregions of a ganglion cell's receptive field or globally over the receptive field in its entirety...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883759/the-advantage-of-topographic-prominence-adopted-filter-for-the-detection-of-short-latency-spikes-of-retinal-ganglion-cells
#18
Jungryul Ahn, Myoung-Hwan Choi, Kwangsoo Kim, Solomon S Senok, Dong-Il Dan Cho, Kyo-In Koo, Yongsook Goo
Electrical stimulation through retinal prosthesis elicits both short and long-latency retinal ganglion cell (RGC) spikes. Because the short-latency RGC spike is usually obscured by electrical stimulus artifact, it is very important to isolate spike from stimulus artifact. Previously, we showed that topographic prominence (TP) discriminator based algorithm is valid and useful for artifact subtraction. In this study, we compared the performance of forward backward (FB) filter only vs. TP-adopted FB filter for artifact subtraction...
September 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871959/dipolar-extracellular-potentials-generated-by-axonal-projections
#19
Thomas McColgan, Ji Liu, Paula Tuulia Kuokkanen, Catherine Emily Carr, Hermann Wagner, Richard Kempter
Extracellular field potentials (EFPs) are an important source of information in neuroscience, but their physiological basis is in many cases still a matter of debate. Axonal sources are typically discounted in modeling and data analysis because their contributions are assumed to be negligible. Here, we established experimentally and theoretically that contributions of axons to EFPs can be significant. Modeling action potentials propagating along axons, we showed that EFPs were prominent in the presence of terminal zones where axons branch and terminate in close succession, as found in many brain regions...
September 5, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842772/pdms-based-multielectrode-arrays-for-superior-in-vitro-retinal-stimulation-and-recording
#20
Satarupa Biswas, Debdeep Sikdar, Debanjan Das, Manjunatha Mahadevappa, Soumen Das
Understanding of the neural response to electrical stimulation requires simultaneous recording from the various neurons of retina. Electrodes form the physical interface with the neural or retinal tissue. Successful retinal stimulation and recording demands conformal integration of these electrodes with the soft tissue to ensure establishment of proper electrical connection with the excitable tissue. Mechanical impedance of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) being compliant with that of retinal tissue, offers excellent potential as a substrate for metal electrodes...
August 25, 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
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