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Shi-Jun Weng, Jordan M Renna, Wei-Yi Chen, Xiong-Li Yang
Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are a special subset of retinal output neurons capable of detecting and responding to light via a unique photopigment called melanopsin. Melanopsin activation is essential to a wide array of physiological functions, especially to those related to non-image-forming vision. Since ipRGCs only constitute a very small proportion of retinal ganglion cells, targeted recording of melanopsin-driven responses used to be a big challenge to vision researchers...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Liju Luan, Chaoran Ren, Wenyao Wang, Yan Nan, Jie Gao, Mingliang Pu
The amygdala is a limbic structure that is involved in many brain functions, including emotion, learning and memory. It has been reported that melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) innervate the medial amygdala (MeA). However, whether conventional RGCs (cRGCs) project to the MeA remains unknown. The goal of this study was to determine if cRGCs project to the MeA and to determine the morphological properties of MeA-projecting RGCs (MeA-RGCs). Retrogradely labeled RGCs in whole-mount retinas were intracellularly injected to reveal their dendritic morphologies...
March 19, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
Xian-Zhi Jiang, Zhong-Dong Yu, Yong-Ming Ruan, Long Wang
Three new Talaromyces species isolated from soil are reported here, namely T. dimorphus (ex-type strain AS3.15692T ), T. lentulus (ex-type strain AS3.15689T ) and T. mae (ex-type strain AS3.15690T ). T. dimorphus is characterized by biverticillate and monoverticillate penicilli, ampulliform phialides, slimy texture with sparse mycelial funicles and absent conidiogenesis on MEA. T. lentulus is featured by vivid yellow mycelium on Cz and MEA, absent conidiogenesis on CYA, and globose smooth-walled conidia. T...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kohei Nakamura, Kentaro Nakayama, Masako Ishikawa, Atsuko Katagiri, Hiroshi Katagiri, Tomoka Ishibashi, Emi Sato, Satoru Kyo
We evaluated the efficacy of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) therapy for improving the myometrial thickness in women with thin (less than 1 cm) uterine walls, a contraindication for microwave endometrial ablation (MEA). The normal myometrium thickness was 0.5 cm, 0.7 cm and 0.9 cm. After the third GnRHa dose, the myometrial thickness increased to over 1 cm in all the three patients, and all were able to undergo MEA. The VAS score for menorrhagia improved in all the cases. The patient satisfaction levels were 10 in 2 of the 3 patients, and 5 in the other...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Rui Huang, Feng Wu, Jian Zhao, Huai-Bin Li, Jian Ding, Ke-Ren Xiong
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) combined with Gastrodin on learning-memory ability and expression of silent information regulator 2 homologous protein 1(SIRT 1) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ coactivator (PGC-1 ɑ) of hippocampal CA 1 region in Alzheimer's disease(AD) rats, so as to explore its mechanism under-lying improvement of AD. METHODS: Sixty male SD rats were randomly divided into normal control (normal), sham operation (sham), model, EA, Gastrodin and EA+ Gastrodin groups ( n =10 in each)...
March 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Jun-Fan Xie, Yu-Feng Shao, Hai-Liang Wang, Can Wang, Guang-Fu Cui, Xiang-Pan Kong, Lin-Xin Wang, Yu-Nong Chen, Chao-Yu Cong, Hai-Lin Chen, Yi-Ping Hou
Disturbed sleep is a common subjective complaint among individuals with anxiety disorders. Sleep deprivation increases general and specific anxiety symptoms among healthy individuals. The amygdala is critical for regulating anxiety and also involved in mediating the effects of emotions on sleep. Neuropeptide S (NPS) and NPS receptors (NPSR) are reported as a novel endogenous arousal and anxiolytic system, but it is unclear yet whether this system is involved in anxiety-like behavior and sleep caused by sleep deprivation, and how it plays anxiolytic effect underlying the comorbid condition...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Meeri Eeva-Liisa Mäkinen, Laura Ylä-Outinen, Susanna Narkilahti
The electrical activity of the brain arises from single neurons communicating with each other. However, how single neurons interact during early development to give rise to neural network activity remains poorly understood. We studied the emergence of synchronous neural activity in human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived neural networks simultaneously on a single-neuron level and network level. The contribution of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and gap junctions to the development of synchronous activity in hPSC-derived neural networks was studied with GABA agonist and antagonist and by blocking gap junctional communication, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Daiju Yamazaki, Takashi Kitaguchi, Masakazu Ishimura, Tomohiko Taniguchi, Atsuhiro Yamanishi, Daisuke Saji, Etsushi Takahashi, Masao Oguchi, Yuta Moriyama, Sanae Maeda, Kaori Miyamoto, Kaoru Morimura, Hiroki Ohnaka, Hiroyuki Tashibu, Yuko Sekino, Norimasa Miyamoto, Yasunari Kanda
Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) are expected to become a useful tool for proarrhythmia risk prediction in the non-clinical drug development phase. Several features including electrophysiological properties, ion channel expression profile and drug responses were investigated using commercially available hiPSC-CMs, such as iCell-CMs and Cor.4U-CMs. Although drug-induced arrhythmia has been extensively examined by microelectrode array (MEA) assays in iCell-CMs, it has not been fully understood an availability of Cor...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
S Thiyagarajan, V Edwin Geo, Leenus Jesu Martin, B Nagalingam
This experimental study aims to mitigate harmful emissions from a CI engine using bio-energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) approach. The engine used for this experimental work is a single cylinder CI engine with a rated power of 5.2 kW at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. The BECCS approach is a combination of plant-based biofuels and carbon capture and storage system. The whole investigation was done in four phases: (1) Substituting diesel with Karanja oil methyl ester (KOME) (2) Equal volume blending of Orange oil (ORG) with KOME (3) 20% blending of n-butanol (B) with KOME-ORG blend (4) Carbon capture and storage (CCS) system with zeolite based non-selective catalytic reduction (NSCR) and mono ethanolamine (MEA) based selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system with KOME-ORG + B20 blend...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Technology
Ethan Leng, Benjamin Spilseth, Lin Zhang, Jin Jin, Joseph S Koopmeiners, Gregory J Metzger
PURPOSE: Computer-aided detection/diagnosis (CAD) of prostate cancer (PCa) on multipara-metric MRI (mpMRI) is an active area of research. In the literature, the performance of predictive models trained to detect PCa on mpMRI has typically been reported in terms of voxel-wise mea-sures such as sensitivity and specificity and/or area under the receiver operating curve (AUC).However, it is unclear whether models that score higher by these measures are actually superior.Here, we propose a novel method for lesion identification as well as novel measures that assess the quality of the detected lesions...
March 15, 2018: Medical Physics
Rui Lin, Xin Cai, Hao Zeng, Zhuoping Yu
Due to their environmental sustainability and high efficiency, proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are expected to be an essential type of energy source for electric vehicles, energy generation, and the space industry in the coming decades. Here, the recent developments regarding shape-controlled nanostructure catalysts are reviewed, with a focus on the stability of high-performance Pt-based catalysts and related mechanisms. The catalysts, which possess great activity, are still far from meeting the requirements of their applications, due to stability issues, especially in membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs)...
March 12, 2018: Advanced Materials
Diana Campos-Beltrán, Åsa Konradsson-Geuken, Jorge E Quintero, Lisa Marshall
D-serine is the major D-amino acid in the mammalian central nervous system. As the dominant co-agonist of the endogenous synaptic NMDA receptor, D-serine plays a role in synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. Alterations in D-serine are linked to neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Thus, it is of increasing interest to monitor the concentration of D-serine in vivo as a relevant player in dynamic neuron-glia network activity. Here we present a procedure for amperometric detection of D-serine with self-referencing ceramic-based microelectrode arrays (MEAs) coated with D-amino acid oxidase from the yeast Rhodotorula gracilis (RgDAAO)...
March 6, 2018: Biosensors
Kai Hu, Ge Zhao, Junwei Liu, Lizhen Jia, Fuwei Xie, Shusheng Zhang, Huimin Liu, Minying Liu
Three alkylated DNA adducts, N3 ‑methyladenine, N3 ‑ethyladenine and N7 ‑ethylguanine, have been proved to be potential biomarkers for DNA injury caused by exposure to cigarette smoke. In this study, a highly specific and sensitive method using a new mixed-mode sulfonate-functionalized poly(glycidyl methacrylate-divinylbenzene) as a solid-phase extraction sorbent was developed for the analysis of these three alkylated-purine adducts in human urine. Under optimized conditions, the prepared sorbent interacts strongly with these urinary adducts, demonstrating high clean-up efficiency and extraction recovery...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Amy E Perkins, Michelle K Piazza, Terrence Deak
Aging is associated with a substantial decline in the expression of social behavior, as well as increased neuroinflammation. Since immune activation and subsequent increased expression of cytokines can suppress social behavior in young rodents, we examined age and sex differences in microglia within brain regions critical to social behavior regulation (PVN, BNST, and MEA) as well as in the hippocampus. Adult (3-month) and aged (18-month) male and female F344 (N = 26, n = 5-8/group) rats were perfused and Iba-1 immunopositive microglia were assessed using unbiased stereology and optical density...
February 26, 2018: Neuroscience
Ingunn Ludviksdottir, Hildur Hardardottir, Thorgerdur Sigurdardottir, Gudmundur F Ulfarsson
INTRODUCTION: Exercise can stress the pelvic floor muscles. Numerous women experience urinary incontinence while exercising or competing in sports. This study investigated pelvic floor muscle strength, urinary incontinence, and knowledge in contracting pelvic floor muscles among female athletes and untrained women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective case-control study measuring pelvic floor muscle strength using vaginal pressure meas-urement. Participants answered questions regarding general health, urinary incontinence, and knowledge on pelvic floor muscles...
2018: Læknablađiđ
Dariusz Boguszewski, Mateusz Krupiński, Dariusz Białoszewski
BACKGROUND: Low-back pain is a common problem in developed societies. The quest for methods to reduce this com-plaint may contribute to improving the quality of life for many people. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of Swedish massage combined with acupressure vs. Swedish massage alone in patients with low back pain. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 20 women and 20 men with lumbosacral pain. The group was clinically ho-mo-geneous. The participants were randomized into two groups: Group 1, which received Swedish massage with acu-pressure techniques, and Group 2, treated with Swedish massage only...
December 30, 2017: Ortopedia, Traumatologia, Rehabilitacja
Teppei Noda, Steven J Meas, Jumpei Nogami, Yutaka Amemiya, Ryutaro Uchi, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Koji Nishimura, Alain Dabdoub
Primary auditory neurons (PANs) play a critical role in hearing by transmitting sound information from the inner ear to the brain. Their progressive degeneration is associated with excessive noise, disease and aging. The loss of PANs leads to permanent hearing impairment since they are incapable of regenerating. Spiral ganglion non-neuronal cells (SGNNCs), comprised mainly of glia, are resident within the modiolus and continue to survive after PAN loss. These attributes make SGNNCs an excellent target for replacing damaged PANs through cellular reprogramming...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Lee P Ferguson, Phuoc Duong, Kim F Pearce, Paul Murphy, Tina T Biss
The optimal method for monitoring antiplatelet therapy in children supported with ventricular assist devices (VADs) is unknown. We conducted a retrospective study to compare Thromboelastography Platelet Mapping (TEG/PM) with multiple electrode platelet aggregometry (MEA) on a Multiplate analyzer (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany). We analyzed data from 66 paired blood samples from 9 patients <16 years of age on VAD where platelet function was simultaneously measured with TEG/PM and MEA. Antiplatelet dose-response relationships and intraindividual variability during steady state therapy were determined...
February 27, 2018: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
Xiao Guo, Huifen Guo, Lei Zhao, Yao-Hua Zhang, Jian-Xu Zhang
Background: In rats, urine-borne male pheromones comprise organic volatile compounds and major urinary proteins (MUPs). A number of volatile pheromones have been reported, but no MUP pheromones have been identified in rat urine. Results: We used sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), isoelectric focusing electrophoresis (IEF), nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/MS) after in gel digestion of the proteins and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT - PCR) and showed that the levels of two MUPs, odorant - binding protein 3 (OBP3) (i...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
Christopher Michael Hensz, Jorge Soberón
The Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) is a Multilateral Environmental Agreement (MEA) focused on species that regularly travel across international borders. Despite covering an important group of species, CMS is under-utilized compared to other conservation-focused MEAs. CMS suffers from a lack of participation across North America and most of Asia. Our goal is to illustrate differences in species richness and average range-size across signatory and nonsignatory nation-states using range-diversity plots...
February 24, 2018: Ambio
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