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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335275/methanol-tolerant-platinum-palladium-catalyst-supported-on-nitrogen-doped-carbon-nanofiber-for-high-concentration-direct-methanol-fuel-cells
#1
Jiyoung Kim, Jin-Sung Jang, Dong-Hyun Peck, Byungrok Lee, Seong-Ho Yoon, Doo-Hwan Jung
Pt-Pd catalyst supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber (N-CNF) was prepared and evaluated as a cathode electrode of the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The N-CNF, which was directly synthesized by the catalytic chemical vapor deposition from acetonitrile at 640 °C, was verified as having a change of electrochemical surface properties such as oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activities and the electrochemical double layer compared with common carbon black (CB). To attain the competitive oxygen reduction reaction activity with methanol tolerance, the Pt and Pd metals were supported on the CB or the N-CNF...
August 15, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335260/a-label-free-microelectrode-array-based-on-one-step-synthesis-of-chitosan-multi-walled-carbon-nanotube-thionine-for-ultrasensitive-detection-of-carcinoembryonic-antigen
#2
Huiren Xu, Yang Wang, Li Wang, Yilin Song, Jinping Luo, Xinxia Cai
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) has been an extensively used tumor marker responsible for clinical early diagnosis of cervical carcinomas, and pancreatic, colorectal, gastric and lung cancer. Combined with micro-electro mechanical system (MEMS) technology, it is important to develop a novel immune microelectrode array (MEA) not only for rapid analysis of serum samples, but also for cell detection in vitro and in vivo. In this work, we depict a simple approach to modify chitosan-multi-walled carbon nanotubes-thionine (CS-MWCNTs-THI) hybrid film through one-step electrochemical deposition and the CS-MWCNTs-THI hybrid films are successfully employed to immobilize anti-CEA for fabricating simple, label-free, and highly sensitive electro-chemical immune MEAs...
July 11, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334223/is-bamm-flawed-theoretical-and-practical-concerns-in-the-analysis-of-multi-rate-diversification-models
#3
Daniel L Rabosky, Jonathan S Mitchell, Jonathan Chang
BAMM (Bayesian Analysis of Macroevolutionary Mixtures) is a statistical framework that uses reversible jump MCMC to infer complex macroevolutionary dynamics of diversification and phenotypic evolution on phylogenetic trees. A recent article by Moore and coauthors (MEA) reported a number of theoretical and practical concerns with BAMM. Major claims from MEA are that (1) BAMM's likelihood function is incorrect, because it does not account for unobserved rate shifts; (2) the posterior distribution on the number of rate shifts is overly sensitive to the prior; and (3) diversification rate estimates from BAMM are unreliable...
February 21, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329830/secondhand-smoke-prevalent-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-binary-mixture-induced-specific-mitogenic-and-pro-inflammatory-cell-signaling-events-in-lung-epithelial-cells
#4
Ross S Osgood, Brad L Upham, Pierre R Bushel, Kalpana Velmurugan, Ka-Na Xiong, Alison K Bauer
Low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (LMW PAHs; < 206.3 g/mol) are prevalent and ubiquitous environmental contaminants, presenting a human health concern, and have not been as thoroughly studied as the high MW PAHs. LMW PAHs exert their pulmonary effects, in part, through P38-dependent and -independent mechanisms involving cell-cell communication and the production of pro-inflammatory mediators known to contribute to lung disease. Specifically, we determined the effects of two representative LMW PAHs, 1-methylanthracene (1-MeA) and fluoranthene (Flthn), individually and as a binary PAH mixture on the dysregulation of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) and connexin 43 (Cx43), activation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK), and induction of inflammatory mediators in a mouse non-tumorigenic alveolar type II cell line (C10)...
January 30, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324940/use-of-local-field-potentials-of-dissociated-cultures-grown-on-multi-electrode-arrays-for-pharmacological-assays
#5
G D C Mendis, E Morrisroe, C A Reid, S K Halgamuge, S Petrou
In vitro Multi-Electrode Arrays (MEA) are an extracellular recording technology that enables the analysis of networks of neurons in vitro. Neurons in culture exhibit a range of behavioral dynamics, which can be measured in terms of individual action potentials, network-wide synchronized firing and a host of other features that characterize network activity. MEA data analysis was historically focused on high frequency spike data forgoing the low frequency content of the signal. In this study, we use local field potentials, which are low frequency components of MEA signals, to differentiate between two types of antiepileptic drugs (p<;0...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322793/temporal-relation-between-neural-activity-and-neurite-pruning-on-a-numerical-model-and-a-microchannel-device-with-micro-electrode-array
#6
Yohei Kondo, Yuichiro Yada, Tatsuya Haga, Yuzo Takayama, Takuya Isomura, Yasuhiko Jimbo, Osamu Fukayama, Takayuki Hoshino, Kunihiko Mabuchi
Synapse elimination and neurite pruning are essential processes for the formation of neuronal circuits. These regressive events depend on neural activity and occur in the early postnatal days known as the critical period, but what makes this temporal specificity is not well understood. One possibility is that the neural activities during the developmentally regulated shift of action of GABA inhibitory transmission lead to the critical period. Moreover, it has been reported that the shifting action of the inhibitory transmission on immature neurons overlaps with synapse elimination and neurite pruning and that increased inhibitory transmission by drug treatment could induce temporal shift of the critical period...
March 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322053/development-of-a-novel-lysosome-targeted-ruthenium-ii-complex-for-phosphorescence-time-gated-luminescence-assay-of-biothiols
#7
Quankun Gao, Wenzhu Zhang, Bo Song, Run Zhang, Weihua Guo, Jingli Yuan
Considering the important roles of biothiols in lysosomes of live organisms, and unique photophysical/photochemical prop-erties of ruthenium(II) complexes, a novel ruthenium(II) complex, Ru-2, has been developed as a molecular probe for phosphorescence and time-gated luminescence assay of biothiols in human sera, live cells and in vivo. Ru-2 is weakly lumi-nescent due to the effective photo-induced electron transfer (PET) from Ru(II) luminophore to electron acceptor, 2,4-dinitrobenzene-sulfonyl (DNBS). In the presence of biothiols, such as glutathione (GSH), cysteine (Cys) and homocysteine (Hcy), the emission of Ru-2 solution was switched ON, as the result of the cleavage of quencher to form the production, Ru-1...
March 21, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321182/sparse-and-specific-coding-during-information-transmission-between-co-cultured-dentate-gyrus-and-ca3-hippocampal-networks
#8
Daniele Poli, Srikanth Thiagarajan, Thomas B DeMarse, Bruce C Wheeler, Gregory J Brewer
To better understand encoding and decoding of stimulus information in two specific hippocampal sub-regions, we isolated and co-cultured rat primary dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3 neurons within a two-chamber device with axonal connectivity via micro-tunnels. We tested the hypothesis that, in these engineered networks, decoding performance of stimulus site information would be more accurate when stimuli and information flow occur in anatomically correct feed-forward DG to CA3 vs. CA3 back to DG. In particular, we characterized the neural code of these sub-regions by measuring sparseness and uniqueness of the responses evoked by specific paired-pulse stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319897/dialysis-membrane-enforced-microelectrode-array-measurement-of-diverse-gut-electrical-activity
#9
Naoko Iwata, Takumi Fujimura, Chiho Takai, Kei Odani, Shin Kawano, Shinsuke Nakayama
A variety of electrical activities occur depending on the functional state in each section of the gut, but the application of microelectrode array (MEA) is rather limited. We thus developed a dialysis membranes-enforced technique to investigate diverse and complex spatio-temporal electrical activity in the gut. Muscle sheets isolated from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of mice along with a piece of dialysis membrane were woven over and under the strings to fix them to the anchor rig, and mounted on an 8×8 MEA (inter-electrode distance=150µm)...
March 16, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318622/computer-assisted-topological-analysis-of-renal-allograft-inflammation-adds-to-risk-evaluation-at-diagnosis-of-humoral-rejection
#10
Antoine Sicard, Vannary Meas-Yedid, Maud Rabeyrin, Alice Koenig, Stephanie Ducreux, Frederique Dijoud, Valerie Hervieu, Lionel Badet, Emmanuel Morelon, Jean Christophe Olivo-Marin, Valerie Dubois, Olivier Thaunat
Antibody-mediated rejection is associated with heterogeneous kidney allograft outcomes. Accurate evaluation of risk for graft loss at time of diagnosis is necessary to offer personalized treatment. In contrast with serological and molecular assessment, morpho-histological evaluation of antibody-mediated rejection lesions has not significantly evolved. This relies on Banff classifications designed to be of diagnostic discriminatory power rather than prognostic and face quantitative and qualitative limitations...
March 15, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299444/the-ethmoidal-arteries-a-cadaveric-study-based-on-cone-beam-computed-tomography-and-endoscopic-dissection
#11
Marco Ferrari, Luca Pianta, Andrea Borghesi, Alberto Schreiber, Marco Ravanelli, Davide Mattavelli, Vittorio Rampinelli, Francesco Belotti, Luigi Fabrizio Rodella, Roberto Maroldi, Piero Nicolai
PURPOSE: To describe the anatomical variability of the ethmoidal arteries (EAs). To evaluate the reliability of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in preoperative assessment of EAs. METHODS: Fourteen cadaver heads underwent CBCT and endoscopic dissection. The following anatomical features were evaluated for anterior (AEA), middle (MEA), and posterior (PEA) EAs: presence, cranio-caudal position, antero-posterior position, and dehiscence of the bony canal. Accuracy of radiological assessment was calculated...
March 15, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290133/the-effects-of-acute-gaba-treatment-on-the-functional-connectivity-and-network-topology-of-cortical-cultures
#12
Yao Han, Hong Li, Yiran Lang, Yuwei Zhao, Hongji Sun, Peng Zhang, Xuan Ma, Jiuqi Han, Qiyu Wang, Jin Zhou, Changyong Wang
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory transmitter, acting on receptor channels to reduce neuronal excitability in matured neural systems. However, electrophysiological responses of whole neuronal ensembles to the exposure to GABA are still unclear. We used micro-electrode arrays (MEAs) to study the effects of the increasing amount of GABA on functional network of cortical neural cultures. Then the recorded data were analyzed by the cross-covariance analysis and graph theory. Results showed that after the GABA treatment, the activity parameters of firing rate, bursting rate, bursting duration and network burst frequency in neural cultures decreased as expected...
March 13, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284881/susceptibility-or-resilience-prenatal-stress-predisposes-male-rats-to-social-subordination-but-facilitates-adaptation-to-subordinate-status
#13
Karen A Scott, Annette D de Kloet, Michael D Smeltzer, Eric G Krause, Jonathan N Flak, Susan J Melhorn, Michelle T Foster, Kellie L K Tamashiro, Randall R Sakai
Mood disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD) affect a significant proportion of the population. Although progress has been made in the development of therapeutics, a large number of individuals do not attain full remission of symptoms and adverse side effects affect treatment compliance for some. In order to develop new therapies, there is a push for new models that better reflect the multiple risk factors that likely contribute to the development of depressive illness. We hypothesized that early life stress would exacerbate the depressive-like phenotype that we have previously observed in socially subordinate (SUB), adult male rats in the visible burrow system (VBS), a semi-natural, ethologically relevant environment in which males in a colony form a dominance hierarchy...
March 8, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281757/liesegang-mechanism-with-a-gradual-phase-transition
#14
Yushiro Shimizu, Jun Matsui, Kei Unoura, Hideki Nabika
We report a novel and generalized chemical model for the Liesegang mechanism that involves gradual phase transitions of macromolecules, unlike previous models that involved definite and discontinuous phase transitions. As a model system, an agarose gel medium doped with an initiator was contacted with a solution containing monomer 2-methoxyethyl acrylate (MEA), in which monomers diffused into the gel medium and initiated a polymerization reaction. As there is a monomer concentration gradient along the diffusion direction, the degree of polymerization and the corresponding degree of insolubility showed a similar spatial gradient in the reaction medium because molecular solubility gradually changes from soluble to insoluble with an increase in the degree of polymerization...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280466/embryonic-stem-cell-derived-neurons-grown-on-multi-electrode-arrays-as-a-novel-in-vitro-bioassay-for-the-detection-of-clostridium-botulinum-neurotoxins
#15
Stephen P Jenkinson, Denis Grandgirard, Martina Heidemann, Anne Tscherter, Marc-André Avondet, Stephen L Leib
Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most poisonous naturally occurring protein toxins known to mankind and are the causative agents of the severe and potentially life-threatening disease botulism. They are also known for their application as cosmetics and as unique bio-pharmaceuticals to treat an increasing number of neurological and non-neurological disorders. Currently, the potency of biologically active BoNT for therapeutic use is mainly monitored by the murine LD50-assay, an ethically disputable test causing suffering and death of a considerable number of mice...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277062/platelet-function-testing-in-cardiac-surgery-a-comparative-study-of-electrical-impedance-aggregometry-and-thromboelastography
#16
Bilal H Kirmani, Robert Ian Johnson, Seema Agarwal
Point of care platelet function tests are increasingly used to assess drug-related platelet inhibition prior to cardiac surgery. Numerous devices are available including Thromboelastography (TEG(®) PlateletMapping™). The latest generation TEG(®) - the TEG(®) 6 - has recently been released incorporating a cartridge-based system with a PlateletMapping cartridge. In this study, the performance of the TEG(®) 6 PlateletMapping was compared to that of Multiple Electrode Aggregometry (MEA) performed with the Multiplate™...
February 21, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277058/the-interaction-between-preoperative-platelet-count-and-function-and-its-relationship-with-postoperative-bleeding-in-cardiac-surgery
#17
Marco Ranucci, Ekaterina Baryshnikova
Platelet function tests (PFTs) before cardiac surgery are predictive of postoperative bleeding and can guide a correct timing of surgery in patients under P2Y12 inhibitors. Thrombocytopenia affects PFT and may determine postoperative bleeding. The present study aims to investigate the relationship between platelet count and function, and its role in determining postoperative bleeding in cardiac surgery patients pre-treated with P2Y12 inhibitors. The study includes 589 consecutive cardiac surgery patients, tested before surgery with platelet count and multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA) ADPtest (investigating P2Y12 receptor platelet reactivity) and TRAPtest (investigating the thrombin-dependent platelet reactivity)...
March 2, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272441/mechanism-of-error-free-dna-synthesis-across-n1-methyl-deoxyadenosine-by-human-dna-polymerase-%C3%AE
#18
Rinku Jain, Jayati Roy Choudhury, Angeliki Buku, Robert E Johnson, Louise Prakash, Satya Prakash, Aneel K Aggarwal
N1-methyl-deoxyadenosine (1-MeA) is formed by methylation of deoxyadenosine at the N1 atom. 1-MeA presents a block to replicative DNA polymerases due to its inability to participate in Watson-Crick (W-C) base pairing. Here we determine how human DNA polymerase-ι (Polι) promotes error-free replication across 1-MeA. Steady state kinetic analyses indicate that Polι is ~100 fold more efficient in incorporating the correct nucleotide T versus the incorrect nucleotide C opposite 1-MeA. To understand the basis of this selectivity, we determined ternary structures of Polι bound to template 1-MeA and incoming dTTP or dCTP...
March 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272020/a-stationary-wavelet-transform-and-a-time-frequency-based-spike-detection-algorithm-for-extracellular-recorded-data
#19
Florian Lieb, Hans-Georg Stark, Christiane Thielemann
OBJECTIVE Spike detection from extracellular recordings is a crucial preprocessing step when analyzing neuronal activity. The decision whether a specific part of the signal is a spike or not is important for any kind of other subsequent preprocessing steps, like spike sorting or burst detection in order to reduce the classification of erroneously identified spikes. Many spike detection algorithms have already been suggested, all working reasonably well whenever the signal-to-noise ratio is large enough. When the noise level is high, however, these algorithms have a poor performance...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269611/simea-a-framework-for-simulating-neurons-on-multi-electrode-array
#20
Vafa Andalibi, Timo Aaltonen, Francois Christophe, Tommi Mikkonen
A Multi-Electrode Array (MEA) is a practical device for recording the extracellular activity of in-vitro biological culture. Such culture - for instance neurons - is prone to mistakes leading to irrelevant recordings or no recording at all. Additionally, with the expenses generated by in-vitro culture, minimizing risks is a must. This paper proposes a framework designed and implemented for simulating the spatial positioning of neuronal cultures on a MEA. The framework serves as a sandbox for researchers to simulate the model of their MEA experiments before its eventual in-vitro implementation...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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