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recto cancer

Swapnendu Basu, Kazi Sazzad Manir, Abhishek Basu, Koushik Ghosh
PURPOSE: This study was initiated to prove feasibility of hydrogel application in recto-vaginal space in intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) of cervical cancer in order to reduce rectal toxicity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a case of stage IIB cervical cancer, after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), we planned ICBT 7 Gy × 3 fractions. In 1(st) fraction (Plan 1), due to narrow separation between rectum and cervix (0.18 cm), only 5 Gy was delivered at point A (with high-risk clinical target volume [HR-CTV] D90 5...
October 2016: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
James Edward Mensah, Joel Yarney, Verna Vanderpuye, Evans Akpakli, Samuel Tagoe, Evans Sasu
PURPOSE: This study presents the experience of a brachytherapy team in Ghana with a focus on technology transfer and outcome. The team was initially proctored by experienced physicians from Europe and South Africa. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 90 consecutive patients underwent either brachytherapy alone or brachytherapy in combination with external beam radiotherapy for prostate carcinoma between July 2008 and February 2014 at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana...
October 2016: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
Giuseppe Palermo, Angelo Totaro, Emilio Sacco, Nazario Foschi, Gaetano Gulino, Marco Racioppi, Pierfrancesco Bassi, Francesco Pinto
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in men and the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Despite the primary treatments, 20-30% of patients experience a recurrence. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of salvage HIFU after radical prostatectomy in terms of biochemical free survival rate (BFSR) and PSA nadir. METHODS: Twenty two patients with local recurrence of Pca after radical prostatectomy underwent HIFU as first-line salvage therapy...
September 28, 2016: Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica, the Italian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
Melissa J Firth, Katrina J Sharples, Victoria A Hinder, Jerome Macapagal, Diana Sarfati, Sarah L Derrett, Andrew G Hill, Charis Brown, Papaarangi Mj Reid, Ross A Lawrenson, Carol Atmore, John P Keating, Mark Jeffery, Adrian H Secker, Charles De Groot, Christopher Gca Jackson, Michael Pn Findlay
AIM: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers, and second-leading cause of cancer-related death, in New Zealand. The PIPER (Presentations, Investigations, Pathways, Evaluation, Rx [treatment]) project was undertaken to compare presentation, investigations, management and outcomes by rurality, ethnicity and deprivation. This paper reports the methods of the project, a comparison of PIPER patient diagnoses to the New Zealand Cancer Registry (NZCR) data, and the characteristics of the PIPER cohort...
2016: New Zealand Medical Journal
Ching-Heng Yen, Chin-Yu Liu, Tai-Lung Cha, Sheng-Tang Wu, En Meng, Guang-Huan Sun, Dah-Shyong Yu, Hong-I Chen, Sun-Yran Chang, Chih-Wei Tsao
INTRODUCTION: Emphysematous epididymo-orchitis is a rare cause of acute scrotum pain characterized by gas formation within the tissue. Diabetes mellitus and recto-seminal fistula secondary to sigmoid diverticulitis are generally accepted as being responsible for this disease. However, prostate invasion secondary to rectal cancer may be considered to be a newly identified pathogenetic mechanism. Herein, we report this rare case and illustrate the pathogenesis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 69-year-old man arrived at our emergency department presenting with sepsis and acute scrotal pain...
July 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Erik N Mayer, Jonathan D Tward, Mitchell Bassett, Sara M Lenherr, James M Hotaling, William O Brant, William T Lowrance, Jeremy B Myers
OBJECTIVE: To describe the management of grade 4 Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) urinary adverse events (UAEs) after radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer (PCa). We hypothesized grade 4 UAEs often require complex surgical management and subject patients to significant morbidity. METHODS: A single-center retrospective review, over a 6-year period (2010-2015), identified men with RTOG grade 4 UAEs after RT for PCa. RT was classified as combined modality therapy (radical prostatectomy (RP) followed by external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), EBRT + low-dose brachytherapy (LDR), EBRT + high-dose brachytherapy (HDR), or other combinations of RT) or single modality RT...
July 28, 2016: BJU International
K J Tay, T J Polascik
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the oncological and functional outcomes of contemporary primary prostate focal cryotherapy for localized prostate cancer in the context of current developments in prostate focal therapy. METHODS: We performed a systematic search of the Pubmed, Cochrane and Embase databases to identify studies where primary prostate focal cryotherapy was performed to treat prostate cancer. These included reports on focal/ lesion/ sector ablation, hemi-ablation and partial prostate ablation...
July 2016: Archivos Españoles de Urología
Ritu Rana, Sandeep Sharma, Harjeet Narula, Brijesh Madhok
INTRODUCTION: Although endometriosis with sigmoid serosal involvement is not uncommon in women of childbearing age, the mucosal and lymph node involvement is rare and differential diagnosis from colon cancer and diverticulitis may be difficult due to poor diagnostic accuracy of colonoscopy and colonic biopsies. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a nulliparous woman presenting with large bowel obstruction. She underwent emergency sigmoid colectomy based on clinical and radiological findings...
2016: SpringerPlus
Sandy Mohamed, Jacob Christian Lindegaard, Astrid A C de Leeuw, Ina Jürgenliemk-Schulz, Kathrin Kirchheiner, Christian Kirisits, Richard Pötter, Kari Tanderup
PURPOSE: Vaginal stenosis is a major problem following radiotherapy in cervical cancer. We investigated a new dose planning strategy for vaginal dose de-escalation (VDD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty consecutive locally advanced cervical cancer patients without lower or middle vaginal involvement at diagnosis from 3 institutions were analysed. External beam radiotherapy was combined with MRI-guided brachytherapy. VDD was obtained by decreasing dwell times in ovoid/ring and increasing dwell times in tandem/needles...
June 3, 2016: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Prasanna L Ponugoti, Douglas K Rex
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Current guidelines recommend screening colonoscopy at 10-year intervals in average-risk individuals who had baseline screening colonoscopy (no polyps or only hyperplastic polyps ≤5 mm in the recto-sigmoid colon), but the yield of repeat screening at 10 years is unknown. Our aim was to describe the yield of second screening colonoscopy in average-risk individuals performed at least 8 years after a first screening colonoscopy had shown no polyps or only distal hyperplastic polyps ≤5 mm in size...
May 21, 2016: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Louise Dickinson, Manit Arya, Naveed Afzal, Paul Cathcart, Susan C Charman, Andrew Cornaby, Richard G Hindley, Henry Lewi, Neil McCartan, Caroline M Moore, Senthil Nathan, Chris Ogden, Raj Persad, Jan van der Meulen, Shraddha Weir, Mark Emberton, Hashim U Ahmed
BACKGROUND: High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a minimally-invasive treatment for nonmetastatic prostate cancer. OBJECTIVE: To report medium-term outcomes in men receiving primary whole-gland HIFU from a national multi-centre registry cohort. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Five-hundred and sixty-nine patients at eight hospitals were entered into an academic registry. INTERVENTION: Whole-gland HIFU (Sonablate 500) for primary nonmetastatic prostate cancer...
March 4, 2016: European Urology
Kenji Kuroda, Bunzo Nakata, Shigetomi Nakao, Tomohiro Lee, Masashige Tendo, Takeshi Hori, Hideaki Yokomatsu, Kosei Hirakawa, Tetsuro Ishikawa
A 62-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of bloody stool. Colonoscopy revealed stenosis by a type 2 tumor of the recto-sigmoid colon. A biopsy specimen contained moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Thoraco-abdominal computed tomography (CT) showed liver metastasis (S7, 10 mm) and enlargement of Virchow's lymph node (17 mm) and several para-aortic lymph nodes (15 mm on average). Because of oozing from the tumor and severe stenosis of the recto-sigmoid colon, we performed laparoscopic-assisted high anterior resection of the primary lesion...
November 2015: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Kathrin Kirchheiner, Remi A Nout, Jacob C Lindegaard, Christine Haie-Meder, Umesh Mahantshetty, Barbara Segedin, Ina M Jürgenliemk-Schulz, Peter J Hoskin, Bhavana Rai, Wolfgang Dörr, Christian Kirisits, Søren M Bentzen, Richard Pötter, Kari Tanderup
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: To identify risk factors for vaginal stenosis and to establish a dose-effect relationship for image-guided brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer. MATERIALS/METHODS: Patients from the ongoing EMBRACE study with prospectively assessed morbidity (CTCAEv3.0) at baseline and at least one follow-up were selected. Patient-, disease- and treatment characteristics were tested as risk factors for vaginal stenosis G ⩾ 2 in univariate and multivariable analyses (Cox proportional hazards model) and a dose-effect curve was deduced from the estimates...
January 2016: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Nelson Leong, Howard H Pai, W James Morris, Mira Keyes, Tom Pickles, Scott Tyldesley, Jonn Wu
PURPOSE: Radiation induced rectal ulcers and fistulas are rare but significant complications of low dose rate prostate brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer. We describe the incidence of ulcers and fistulas, and associated risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the records of 4,690 patients with localized prostate cancer who were treated with low dose rate (125)I prostate brachytherapy to a dose of 144 Gy with or without 6 months of androgen deprivation therapy...
June 2016: Journal of Urology
F Plotti, R Montera, A Aloisi, G Scaletta, S Capriglione, D Luvero, C De Cicco Nardone, S Basile, P Benedetti Panici, R Angioli
PURPOSE: To compare in a sample of Italian patients intraoperative, perioperative complications, Quality of Life (QoL), recurrence rate and overall survival of advanced ovarian cancer (AOC) patients according to the type of surgery performed on sigma-rectum, total rectosigmoid resection (TRR) versus partial rectosigmoid resection (PRR). METHODS: From May 2004 to May 2010, consecutive patients affected by epithelial AOC (FIGO Stage III-IV) were assessed for this prospective case-control study, According to the type of colorectal surgery performed to approach rectosigmoid involvement, patients were allocated into Group A (TRR) and Group B (PRR)...
March 2016: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
Khurram M Siddiqui, Michele Billia, Andrew Williams, Ali Alzahrani, Joseph L Chin
INTRODUCTION: We compared the morbidity of whole gland salvage ablation using cryotherapy (CRYO) and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for radio recurrent prostate cancer at a single centre over a 17-year period. METHODS: Patients were divided in 3 cohorts. Group 1 included the first 65 patients treated with CRYO (1995-1998); Group 2 included the last 65 patients treated with CRYO (2002-2004), and Group 3 included 65 patients treated with HIFU (2006-2011)...
September 2015: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
A C Kraima, N P West, D Treanor, D Magee, N Roberts, C J H van de Velde, M C DeRuiter, P Quirke, H J T Rutten
AIM: Dissection of the perineal body (PB) during abdominoperineal excision (APE) for low rectal cancer is often difficult due to the lack of a natural plane of dissection. Understanding the PB and its relation to the anorectum is essential to permit safe dissection during the perineal phase of the operation and avoid damage to the anorectum and urogenital organs. This study describes the anatomy and histology of the PB relevant to APE. METHOD: Six human adult cadaver pelvic exenteration specimens (three male, three female) from the Leeds GIFT Research Tissue Programme were studied...
July 2016: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
Oscar Casares-Magaz, Maria Thor, Donghua Liao, Jens B Frøkjær, Pia Kræmer, Klaus Krogh, Asbjørn M Drewes, Hans Gregersen, Vitali Moiseenko, Morten Høyer, Ludvig P Muren
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal morbidity after radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer may be related to the biomechanical properties of the rectum. In this study we present a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based method to quantitate the thickness and elasticity of the rectal wall in prostate cancer patients treated with RT. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Four patients previously treated with RT for prostate cancer underwent an MRI session with stepwise rectal bag deflation (from a maximum tolerable volume to 0 ml, in 50 ml steps), with a probe inserted inside the bag to monitor the internal rectal pressure...
2015: Acta Oncologica
M Petrillo, G Vizzielli, F Fanfani, V Gallotta, F Cosentino, V Chiantera, F Legge, V Carbone, G Scambia, A Fagotti
OBJECTIVE: To develop an updated laparoscopy-based model to predict incomplete cytoreduction (RT>0) in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (AEOC), after the introduction of upper abdominal surgery (UAS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The presence of omental cake, peritoneal extensive carcinomatosis, diaphragmatic confluent carcinomatosis, bowel infiltration, stomach and/or spleen and/or lesser omentum infiltration, and superficial liver metastases was evaluated by staging laparoscopy (S-LPS) in a consecutive series of 234 women with newly diagnosed AEOC, receiving laparotomic PDS after S-LPS...
October 2015: Gynecologic Oncology
M Thor, A Jackson, G Steineck, M Zelefsky, A Karlsdottir, M Hoyer, M Liu, N Nasser, S Petersen, V Moiseenko, J Deasy
PURPOSE: Normal tissue complications following radiotherapy (RT) are commonly estimated from single institutions, limiting generalizability of critical dose-volume thresholds. In this study we use data from five cohorts/institutions to explore dose-volume relations for late rectal bleeding (LRB) after RT for prostate cancer. METHODS: The investigated cohorts included 1001 patients treated with various RT techniques for prostate cancer (922 3DCRT, 211 image-guided RT, and 79 intensity-modulated RT patients) to 70-86 Gy@2Gy/fraction in 1991-2007...
June 2015: Medical Physics
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