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Micro expressions

Nanthana Chaiwong, Chanakan Prom-U-Thai, Nadia Bouain, Benoit Lacombe, Hatem Rouached
Mineral nutrient homeostasis is essential for plant growth and development. Recent research has demonstrated that the occurrence of interactions among the mechanisms regulating the homeostasis of different nutrients in plants is a general rule rather than an exception. Therefore, it is important to understand how plants regulate the homeostasis of these elements and how multiple mineral nutrient signals are wired to influence plant growth. Silicon (Si) is not directly involved in plant metabolism but it is an essential element for a high and sustainable production of crops, especially rice, because of its high content in the total shoot dry weight...
March 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Evan M Zhao, Yanfei Zhang, Justin Mehl, Helen Park, Makoto A Lalwani, Jared E Toettcher, José L Avalos
The optimization of engineered metabolic pathways requires careful control over the levels and timing of metabolic enzyme expression. Optogenetic tools are ideal for achieving such precise control, as light can be applied and removed instantly without complex media changes. Here we show that light-controlled transcription can be used to enhance the biosynthesis of valuable products in engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We introduce new optogenetic circuits to shift cells from a light-induced growth phase to a darkness-induced production phase, which allows us to control fermentation with only light...
March 21, 2018: Nature
Marcello Ceci, Claudia Carlantoni, Maria Azzurra Missinato, Davide Bonvissuto, Bruna Di Giacomo, Riccardo Contu, Nicla Romano
Zebrafish could be an interesting translational model to understand and improve the post-infarction trial and possible regeneration in humans. The adult zebrafish is able to regenerate efficiently after resecting nearly 20% of the ventricular apex. This process requires the concert activation of the epicardium and endocardium, as well as trans-differentiation of pre-existing cardiomyocytes that together replace the lost tissue. The molecular mechanisms involved in this activation process are not completely clarified...
2018: Cell Death Discovery
Keshi Ma, Wenshuo Shi, Mengyue Xu, Jiaxi Liu, Feixiong Zhang
It remains unclear whether plant lncRNAs are responsive to Ca2+ -channel blocking. When using the Ca2+ -channel blocker, LaCl3 , to treat germinated wheat seeds for 24 h, we found that both root length and mitosis were inhibited in the LaCl3 -treated groups. The effect of the Ca2+ -channel blocker was verified in three ways: a [Ca2+ ]cyt decrease detected using Fluo-3/AM staining, a decrease in the Ca content measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and an inhibition of Ca2+ influx detected using Non-invasive Micro-test Technology...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Rajendran Manikandan, Sankarasubramanian Harish, Gandhi Karthikeyan, Thiruvengadam Raguchander
The vascular wilt of tomato caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici is an important soil borne pathogen causes severe yield loss. The molecular characterization and their interaction with its host is necessary to develop a protection strategy. 20 isolates of F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (FOL) were isolated from wilt infected tomato plants across Tamil Nadu. They were subjected to cultural, morphological, molecular and virulence studies. The results revealed that all the isolates produced both micro and macro conidia with different size, number of cells...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Mahnaz Rezaei, Fatemeh Eskandari, Abbas Mohammadpour-Gharehbagh, Mahdiyeh Harati-Sadegh, Batool Teimoori, Saeedeh Salimi
PURPOSE: PE is a pregnancy-specific complication, which genetic and epigenetic factors play key roles in its pathogenesis. DNA methylation is a main epigenetic alteration with important roles in gene regulation. Micro RNAs (miRNAs) as another member of epigenetic machinery regulate the gene expression and involve in different biological pathways including apoptosis and placental development. Therefore, the present study performed to assess the association between miRNA-34a promoter methylation and PE susceptibility...
March 20, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
Danka Grčević, Marina Sironi, Sonia Valentino, Livija Deban, Hrvoje Cvija, Antonio Inforzato, Nataša Kovačić, Vedran Katavić, Tomislav Kelava, Ivo Kalajzić, Alberto Mantovani, Barbara Bottazzi
Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is an inflammatory mediator acting as a fluid-phase pattern recognition molecule and playing an essential role in innate immunity and matrix remodeling. Inflammatory mediators also contribute to skeletal homeostasis, operating at multiple levels in physiological and pathological conditions. This study was designed to investigate the role of PTX3 in physiological skeletal remodeling and bone healing. Micro-computed tomography (μCT) and bone histomorphometry of distal femur showed that PTX3 gene-targeted female and male mice ( ptx3-/- ) had lower trabecular bone volume than their wild-type ( ptx3+/+ ) littermates (BV/TV by μCT: 3...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Marianela C Serradell, Pablo R Gargantini, Alicia Saura, Sergio R Oms, Lucía L Rupil, Luciana Berod, Tim Sparwasser, Hugo D Luján
Giardiasis is one of the most common human intestinal diseases worldwide. Several experimental animals have been used to evaluate Giardia infections, with gerbils ( Meriones unguiculatus ) being the most valuable model due to their high susceptibility to Giardia infection, abundant shedding of cysts, and pathophysiological alterations and signs of disease similar to those observed in humans. Here we report cytokine and antibody profiles both during the course of Giardia infection in gerbils and after immunization with a novel oral vaccine comprising a mixture of purified Variant-specific Surface Proteins (VSPs)...
March 19, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Salvatore Sauro, Ashvin Babbar, Borzo Gharibi, Victor Pinheiro Feitosa, Ricardo Marins Carvalho, Lidiany Karla Azevedo Rodrigues, Avijit Banerjee, Timothy Watson
OBJECTIVE: Materials for pulp protection should have therapeutic properties in order to stimulate remineralization and pulp reparative processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanical properties, biocompatibility, cell differentiation and bioactivity of experimental light-curable resin-based materials containing bioactive micro-fillers. METHODS: Four calcium-phosphosilicate micro-fillers were prepared and incorporated into a resin blend: 1) Bioglass 45S5 (BAG); 2) zinc-doped bioglass (BAG-Zn); 3) βTCP-modified calcium silicate (β-CS); 4) zinc-doped β-CS (β-CS-Zn)...
March 16, 2018: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Ping-Er Wang, Lei Zhang, Jun Ying, Xing Jin, Cheng Luo, Shibing Xu, Rui Dong, Luwei Xiao, Peijian Tong, Hongting Jin
BACKGROUND: Articular cartilage degeneration plays a key role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). Bushenhuoxue formula (BSHXF) has been widely used in the treatment of OA in clinics. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the chondroprotective effect of BSHXF remain to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of BSHXF on OA mice model. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the effects of BSHXF on destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM)-induced chondrocyte degradation in OA mice model...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Shayan Fakhraei Lahiji, Seol Hwa Seo, Suyong Kim, Manita Dangol, Jiyong Shim, Cheng Guo Li, Yonghao Ma, Chisong Lee, Geonwoo Kang, Huisuk Yang, Kang-Yell Choi, Hyungil Jung
The interest in alternative material systems and delivery methods for treatment of androgenetic alopecia has been increasing in the recent decades. Topical application of valproic acid (VPA), an FDA-approved anticonvulsant drug, has been shown to effectively stimulate hair follicle (HF) regrowth by upregulating Wnt/β-catenin, a key pathway involved in initiation of HF development. Moreover, a majority of studies have suggested that cutaneous wound re-epithelialization is capable of inducing HF through Wnt/β-catenin pathway...
March 13, 2018: Biomaterials
Elena Sanchez, Emma Artuso, Chiara Lombardi, Ivan Visentin, Beatrice Lace, Wajeeha Saeed, Marco L Lolli, Piermichele Kobauri, Zahid Ali, Francesca Spyrakis, Pilar Cubas, Francesca Cardinale, Cristina Prandi
Strigolactones (SLs) are plant hormones with various functions in development, responses to stress and interaction with (micro)organisms in the rhizosphere, including seeds of parasitic plants. Their perception for hormonal functions requires an α,β-hydrolase belonging to the D14 clade in higher plants; perception of host-produced SLs in parasitic seeds relies on similar but phylogenetically distinct proteins (D14-like). D14 and D14-like proteins are peculiar receptors, because they cleave SLs before undergoing a conformational change that elicits downstream events...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Md Abu Manju, Edwin R Van Den Heuvel, Pieta C IJzerman-Boon
The detection proportion of a qualitative microbiological test method is the probability to detect a single micro-organism. A general expression for the moment estimator of the detection proportion is provided. It depends on the distribution of the spikes used in a validation study through its moment-generating function. Several forms of spiking experiments are compared on their estimation performance using simulations and assuming a generalized Poisson distribution (GPD) for the spikes. The optimal design, which minimizes the mean squared error of our proposed moment estimator, depends on the dispersion parameter of the GPD...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
Victor C Ujor, Emmanuel C Adukwu, Christopher C Okonkwo
Non-self contact between fungi elicits strong morphological and biochemical reactions in the mycelia of interacting species. Although these reactions appear to be species- and interaction-specific, some responses such as pigmentation, increased secretion of phenol-oxidases, barrage formation and sealing of the mycelia front are common responses in most interactions. Hence, some species recruit similar molecular machineries in response to non-self. Increasing number of fully sequenced and annotated fungal genomes and advances in genome-wide and global proteome analytical tools now allow researchers to use techniques such as RNA sequencing, micro and macroarray analysis, 2-dimensional protein gel profiling, and differential display of mRNA to probe the underlying molecular mechanisms of combative mycelial interactions...
April 2018: Fungal Biology
Bin Zhang, Bo Meng, Edward Viloria, Adrien Naveau, Bernhard Ganss, Andrew H Jheon
The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of epithelial signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in mouse incisor amelogenesis. Since Stat3 is expressed in the epithelial component of developing and adult mouse teeth, we generated and analyzed Krt14Cre/+;Stat3fl/fl mutant mice in which Stat3 was inactivated in epithelia including ameloblast progenitors and ameloblasts, the cells responsible for enamel formation. Histological analysis showed little enamel matrix in mutant incisors compared to controls...
March 16, 2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Priscilla Coutinho Romualdo, Marília P Lucisano, Francisco Wanderley G Paula-Silva, Graziela B Leoni, Manoel D Sousa-Neto, Raquel Assed B Silva, Lea Assed B Silva, Paulo Nelson-Filho
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and cathepsin K in apical periodontitis (AP) and the volume of lesions in ovariectomized and sham-operated rats. METHODS: Twenty 12-week-old female Wistar rats were subjected to ovariectomy (OVX) or sham surgery. After 9 weeks, access cavities were prepared in the maxillary and mandibular first molars, pulp tissue was removed, and canals were exposed to the oral environment during 21 days for the induction of AP...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Endodontics
Jaana Rysä, Heikki Tokola, Heikki Ruskoaho
Mechanical forces are able to activate hypertrophic growth of cardiomyocytes in the overloaded myocardium. However, the transcriptional profiles triggered by mechanical stretch in cardiac myocytes are not fully understood. Here, we performed the first genome-wide time series study of gene expression changes in stretched cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVM)s, resulting in 205, 579, 737, 621, and 1542 differentially expressed (>2-fold, P < 0.05) genes in response to 1, 4, 12, 24, and 48 hours of cyclic mechanical stretch...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chaofan Zhang, Kwong Yuen Chiu, Boris Pok Man Chan, Teng Li, Chunyi Wen, Aimin Xu, Chun Hoi Yan
OBJECTIVES: Adipokines play roles in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) is a novel adipokine that is closely associated with obesity and metabolic diseases. The aim of this study was to discover the potential role of FABP4 in OA. METHODS: Seventy-two FABP4 knockout mice (KO) in C57BL/6N background and wild-type littermates (WT) (male, 6-week-old) were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD, 60% calorie) or standard diet (STD, 11...
March 13, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Sung Eun Kim, Jae Yong Lee, Kyu-Sik Shim, Sunghee Lee, Kyoengwoo Min, Ji-Hoon Bae, Hak-Jun Kim, Kyeongsoon Park, Hae-Ryong Song
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a sulfasalazine-containing hyaluronic acid (SASP/HA) systems on in vitro anti-inflammation and the alleviation of cartilage degradation in both lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated synoviocytes and a rat model of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced osteoarthritis (OA). The SASP/HA resulted in long-term release of SASP from the SASP/HA for up to 60 days in a sustained manner. In vitro studies performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay revealed that the SASP/HA was able to effectively and dose-dependently inhibit the mRNA expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as matrix metalloproteinases-3 (MMP-3), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in LPS-stimulated synoviocytes...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Shengye Liu, Long Zhou, Liyu Yang, Shuai Mu, Tao Fang, Qin Fu
Background: Prolonged and over-dosed administration of glucocorticoids results in more bone remodeling, leading to glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, which is primarily due to dysfunction and apoptosis of osteoblasts. The present study investigated the therapeutic effect and molecular mechanism of gastrodin, a natural bioactive compound isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal agent Gastrodia elata, on osteoblastic cells in vivo and in vitro . Materials and Methods: The anti-dexamethasone (DEX) effects of gastrodin on primary osteoblasts were measured by cell viability, flow cytometry, and western blot analysis in vitro , and also extensively examined in a rat model in vivo ...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
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