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Mind over matter

Hongyu Yang, Amber M Leaver, Prabha Siddarth, Pattharee Paholpak, Linda Ercoli, Natalie M St Cyr, Harris A Eyre, Katherine L Narr, Dharma S Khalsa, Helen Lavretsky
Behavioral interventions are becoming increasingly popular approaches to ameliorate age-related cognitive decline, but their underlying neurobiological mechanisms and clinical efficiency have not been fully elucidated. The present study explored brain plasticity associated with two behavioral interventions, memory enhancement training (MET) and a mind-body practice (yogic meditation), in healthy seniors with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using structural magnetic resonance imaging (s-MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS)...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Nicole Last, Emily Tufts, Leslie E Auger
The present systematic review is based on the premise that a variety of neurodegenerative diseases are accompanied by grey matter atrophy in the brain and meditation may impact this. Given that age is a major risk factor for many of these progressive and neurodegenerative diseases and that the percentage of the population over the age of 65 is quickly increasing, there is an obvious need for prompt treatment and prevention advances in research. As there is currently no cure for Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases, many are seeking non-pharmacological treatment options in attempts to offset the disease-related cognitive and functional declines...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Chiara S Haller, Colin M Bosma, Kush Kapur, Ross Zafonte, Ellen J Langer
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present investigation was to examine the association of mindful creativity with the trajectory of recovery (emotional, interpersonal, cognitive, and total functioning) of patients with severe TBI. METHODS: This was drawn from a subsample of an adult prospective cohort study on severe TBI in Switzerland; patients and their relatives were assessed at 3, 6, and 12 months (patients N = 176, relatives N = 176). Predictor measures were assessed using Mindful Creativity Scale-short form and time (trajectory of functioning of the patient over time)...
September 23, 2016: Quality of Life Research
Bengt Nordén
Einstein was wrong with his 1927 Solvay Conference claim that quantum mechanics is incomplete and incapable of describing diffraction of single particles. However, the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox of entangled pairs of particles remains lurking with its 'spooky action at a distance'. In molecules quantum entanglement can be viewed as basis of both chemical bonding and excitonic states. The latter are important in many biophysical contexts and involve coupling between subsystems in which virtual excitations lead to eigenstates of the total Hamiltonian, but not for the separate subsystems...
January 2016: Quarterly Reviews of Biophysics
Helen O' Brien, Helen Mohan, Celia O' Hare, John Vincent Reynolds, Rose Anne Kenny
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to highlight the vulnerability of the aging brain to surgery and anesthesia, examine postoperative cognitive outcomes, and recommend possible interventions. BACKGROUND: Surgeons are facing increasingly difficult ethical and clinical decisions given the rapidly expanding aging demographic. Cognitive function is not routinely assessed either preoperatively or postoperatively. Potential short and long-term cognitive implications are rarely discussed with the patient despite evidence that postoperative cognitive impairment occurs in up to 65% of older patients...
August 17, 2016: Annals of Surgery
Adrian Wong, Alexander Y L Lau, Eugene Lo, Michael Tang, Zhaolu Wang, Wenyan Liu, Nicole Tanner, Natalie Chau, Lorraine Law, Lin Shi, Winnie C W Chu, Jie Yang, Yun-Yun Xiong, Bonnie Y K Lam, Lisa Au, Anne Y Y Chan, Yannie Soo, Thomas W H Leung, Lawrence K S Wong, Linda C W Lam, Vincent C T Mok
BACKGROUND: Leisure activity participation has been shown to lower risks of cognitive decline in non-stroke populations. However, effects of leisure activities participation upon cognitive functions and risk of dementia after stroke are unclear. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of recent past leisure activities participation upon cognitive functions and risk of incident dementia after stroke. METHODS: Hospital-based, retrospective cohort study...
2016: PloS One
Wee Ping Wong, Craig Hassed, Richard Chambers, Jan Coles
INTRODUCTION: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) not only negatively impacts upon a person's life, but it is also seen as an intermediate stage on the progression to Alzheimer's Disease (AD), and therefore warrants early intervention. However, there is currently no effective pharmacological treatment approved for MCI. There is a paucity of evidence that non-pharmacological interventions such as cognitive training could result in improvements in the daily activities functioning of persons with MCI...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Lisa M Reynolds, Ian P Bissett, David Porter, Nathan S Consedine
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy can be physically and psychologically demanding. Avoidance and withdrawal are common among patients coping with these demands. PURPOSE: This report compares established emotional predictors of avoidance during chemotherapy (embarrassment; distress) with an emotion (disgust) that has been unstudied in this context. METHODS: This report outlines secondary analyses of an RCT where 68 cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy were randomized to mindfulness or relaxation interventions...
July 13, 2016: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
Arturo Tozzi, Marzieh Zare, April A Benasich
Spontaneous brain activity has received increasing attention as demonstrated by the exponential rise in the number of published article on this topic over the last 30 years. Such "intrinsic" brain activity, generated in the absence of an explicit task, is frequently associated with resting-state or default-mode networks (DMN)s. The focus on characterizing spontaneous brain activity promises to shed new light on questions concerning the structural and functional architecture of the brain and how they are related to "mind"...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Fred S Berlin
Gender Dysphoria is a distressed state of mind that is of interest to psychiatrists, including forensic psychiatrists. Forensic matters can be best addressed only after one has a good appreciation of relevant psychiatric knowledge and concepts. In this commentary I review the nature of Gender Dysphoria, its relationship to cross-dressing and erotic arousal, and the question of whether it should be thought of as a psychiatric disorder. I also review the complexity of sex and gender; alternative conceptualizations of Gender Dysphoria, its etiology, its multicultural history, and its typical course over time in a given individual...
June 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
François Rebaudo, Emile Faye, Olivier Dangles
A large body of literature has recently recognized the role of microclimates in controlling the physiology and ecology of species, yet the relevance of fine-scale climatic data for modeling species performance and distribution remains a matter of debate. Using a 6-year monitoring of three potato moth species, major crop pests in the tropical Andes, we asked whether the spatiotemporal resolution of temperature data affect the predictions of models of moth performance and distribution. For this, we used three different climatic data sets: (i) the WorldClim dataset (global dataset), (ii) air temperature recorded using data loggers (weather station dataset), and (iii) air crop canopy temperature (microclimate dataset)...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Wataru Sato, Takanori Kochiyama, Shota Uono, Reiko Sawada, Yasutaka Kubota, Sayaka Yoshimura, Motomi Toichi
The ability to read the minds of others in their eyes plays an important role in human adaptation to social environments. Behavioral studies have resulted in the development of a test to measure this ability (Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, revised version; Eyes Test), and have demonstrated that this ability is consistent over time. Although functional neuroimaging studies revealed brain activation while performing the Eyes Test, the structural neural substrates supporting consistent performance on the Eyes Test remain unclear...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Rachel S Agbeko, Andrew Argent, Graeme MacLaren
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Intensive Care Medicine
Jennifer Hafekost, David Lawrence, Katrina Boterhoven de Haan, Sarah E Johnson, Suzy Saw, William J Buckingham, Michael G Sawyer, John Ainley, Stephen R Zubrick
OBJECTIVE: To describe the study design of Young Minds Matter: The second Australian Child and Adolescent Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. The aims of the study, sample design, development of survey content, field procedures and final questionnaires are detailed. METHOD: During 2013-2014, a national household survey of the mental health and wellbeing of young people was conducted involving a sample of 6310 families selected at random from across Australia...
September 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Alan A George, D Kimberley Molina
The forensic autopsy is often regarded as the final medical diagnosis and expert scientific opinion in matters of death investigation, usually in the legal setting, and sometimes in the clinical setting as well. There are however limitations to what the autopsy can answer, and sometimes the circumstances surrounding a death, despite our best efforts, are simply unable to be determined. Approximately 5% of cases reportedly remain unknown after a complete autopsy. With this in mind, we sought to examine the frequency of deaths in which both the cause and manner are unknown after complete forensic examination and autopsy...
December 2015: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
M Moutoussis, G W Story, R J Dolan
Research into the biological basis of emotional and motivational disorders is in danger of riding roughshod over a patient-centered psychiatry and falling into the dualist errors of the past, i.e., by treating mind and brain as conceptually distinct. We argue that a psychiatry informed by computational neuroscience, computational psychiatry, can obviate this danger. Through a focus on the reasoning processes by which humans attempt to maximize reward (and minimize punishment), and how such reasoning is expressed neurally, computational psychiatry can render obsolete the polarity between biological and psychosocial conceptions of illness...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Sian Lewis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2015: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
Vishwajeet Kumar, Aarti Kumar, Amit Kumar Ghosh, Rigzin Samphel, Ranjanaa Yadav, Diana Yeung, Gary L Darmstadt
Despite significant advancements in the scientific evidence base of interventions to improve newborn survival, we have not yet been able to "bend the curve" to markedly accelerate global rates of reduction in newborn mortality. The ever-widening gap between discovery of scientific best practices and their mass adoption by families (the evidence-practice gap) is not just a matter of improving the coverage of health worker-community interactions. The design of the interactions themselves must be guided by sound behavioral science approaches such that they lead to mass adoption and impact at a large scale...
August 2015: Seminars in Perinatology
Rebekah Apple
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2015: Physician Leadership Journal
Natalie Ebert, Amina Loesment, Peter Martus, Olga Jakob, Jens Gaedeke, Martin Kuhlmann, Jan Bartel, Mirjam Schuchardt, Markus Tölle, Tao Huang, Markus van der Giet, Elke Schaeffner
BACKGROUND: Accurate and precise measurement of GFR is important for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Sampling time of exogenous filtration markers may have great impact on measured GFR (mGFR) results, but there is still uncertainty about optimal timing of plasma clearance measurement in patients with advanced CKD, for whom 24-h measurement is recommended. This satellite project of the Berlin Initiative Study evaluates whether 24-h iohexol plasma clearance reveals a clinically relevant difference compared with 5-h measurement in older adults...
August 2015: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
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