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M Antonietta Baldo, Paolo Oliveri, Remo Simonetti, Salvatore Daniele
In this paper, a novel voltammetric/amperometric approach for the direct determination of free acidity (FFA, expressed as mass percentage of free oleic acid) in olive oil samples is presented. The method is based on the reduction processes occurring at a platinum microdisk electrode involving the free fatty acids present in the matrices. To overcome problems related to the low conductivity of the samples investigated, olive oils were mixed with suitable amounts of the room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), tri-hexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide ([P14,6,6,6](+)[NTf2](-)), which acted as a supporting electrolyte...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Regina Aroca-Santos, John C Cancilla, Enrique S Pariente, José S Torrecilla
The identification and quantification of binary blends of refined olive oil with four different extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) varietals (Picual, Cornicabra, Hojiblanca and Arbequina) was carried out with a simple method based on combining visible spectroscopy and non-linear artificial neural networks (ANNs). The data obtained from the spectroscopic analysis was treated and prepared to be used as independent variables for a multilayer perceptron (MLP) model. The model was able to perfectly classify the EVOO varietal (100% identification rate), whereas the error for the quantification of EVOO in the mixtures containing between 0% and 20% of refined olive oil, in terms of the mean prediction error (MPE), was 2...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Maria Gabriella Di Serio, Lucia Giansante, Giuseppina Di Loreto, Angelo Faberi, Lorenzo Ricchetti, Luciana Di Giacinto
The quality and genuineness of extra-virgin olive oils (EVOOs) were assessed following the methods and parameters of EU Commission Regulation N° 2568/91/EEC and subsequent modifications, which also set specific limits for fatty-acid ethyl esters (FAEEs). This study included a subset of EVOOs from among 399 samples analysed as part of a monitoring study for FAEEs in EVOOs. The subset was subjected to statistical evaluation to quantify the relationships between FAEE content and sensory defects associated with fermentation: fusty/muddy sediment, musty/humid/earthy, and winey/vinegary...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Lorenzo Cecchi, Marzia Innocenti, Fabrizio Melani, Marzia Migliorini, Lanfranco Conte, Nadia Mulinacci
Herein we describe the influence of olive oil refining processes on the lignan profile. The detection of new isobaric lignans is suggested to reveal frauds in commercial extra-Virgin Olive Oils. We analyzed five commercial olive oils by HPLC-DAD-TOF/MS to evaluate their lignan content and detected, for the first time, some isobaric forms of natural (+)-pinoresinol and (+)-1-acetoxypinoresinol. Then we analyzed partially and fully-refined oils from Italy, Tunisia and Spain. The isobaric forms occur only during the bleaching step of the refining process and remain unaltered after the final deodorizing step...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Giulio Binetti, Laura Del Coco, Rosa Ragone, Samanta Zelasco, Enzo Perri, Cinzia Montemurro, Raffaele Valentini, David Naso, Francesco Paolo Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo Schena
The development of an efficient and accurate method for extra-virgin olive oils cultivar and origin authentication is complicated by the broad range of variables (e.g., multiplicity of varieties, pedo-climatic aspects, production and storage conditions) influencing their properties. In this study, artificial neural networks (ANNs) were applied on several analytical datasets, namely standard merceological parameters, near-infra red data and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) fingerprints, obtained on mono-cultivar olive oils of four representative Apulian varieties (Coratina, Ogliarola, Cima di Mola, Peranzana)...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Fiorella Casamenti, Massimo Stefani
Clinical trials and population studies indicate the healthy virtues of the Mediterranean diet and its main lipid component, extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). Olive leaves and EVOO contain many phenolics effective against several aging and lifestyle-related diseases, including neurodegeneration, both in animal models and in humans. Recent research has shown that such protection stems from several effects, including (i.) the interference with the aggregation of peptides/proteins found in amyloid diseases, particularly in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases; (ii...
October 20, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Babak Nakhostin-Roohi, Faegheh Khoshkhahesh, Shahab Bohlooli
OBJECTIVE: The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of virgin olive oil phonophoresis on female athletes' anterior knee pain (AKP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A double blinded randomized clinical trial was conducted. Ninety-three female athletes suffering from AKP voluntarily participated in this study. Patients were randomly assigned into olive oil (n=31), piroxicam (n=31) or base gel phonophoresis (n=31) groups. At the baseline visit, the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire was filled by subjects who were then treated with olive oil, piroxicam or pure phonophoresis for 12 sessions...
September 2016: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
Meysam Keshavarz, Bo Tan, Krishnan Venkatakrishnan
This in-vitro study introduces residual stress as a third dimension of cell stimulus to modulate the interaction between cells and bio-template, without the addition of either chemical or physical stimuli onto the bio-template surface. Ultrashort Pulsed Laser (USPL) irradiation of silicon-based bio-template causes recrystallization of silicon, which mismatches the original crystal orientation of the virgin silicon. Consequently, subsurface Induced Residual Stress (IRS) is generated. The IRS components demonstrated a strong cytocompatibility, whereas the peripheral of IRS, which is the interface between the IRS component and the virgin silicon surface, a significant directional cell alignment was observed...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Baomei Xia, Chang Chen, Hailou Zhang, Wenda Xue, Juanjuan Tang, Weiwei Tao, Ruyan Wu, Li Ren, Wei Wang, Gang Chen
Postpartum depression (PPD) affects over 10% of new mothers and adversely impacts the health of offspring. One of the greatest risk factors for PPD is prepregnancy stress but the underlying biological mechanism is unknown. Here we constructed an animal model which recapitulated prepregnancy stress induced PPD and tested the role of Akt-mTOR signaling in the hippocampus. Female virgin Balb/c mice received chronic restraint stress, followed by co-housing with a normal male mouse. We found that the chronic stress led to a transient depressive-like condition that disappeared within two weeks...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ahmad H Ibrahim, Md Shamsuddin Sultan Khan, Sawsan S Al-Rawi, Aman Shah Bin Abdul Majid, Dan Ji, Amin Malik Shah Abdul Majid
Fermented Virgin Coconut Oil (FVCO) is widely used in the Southeast Asia as food and traditional medicine. The objective of the present study is the evaluation of chronic safety of the commercialized FVCO of Malaysia and other Southeast Asian countries. A single dose of 5000 mg/kg of FVCO was administered orally in rats (each group, n = 5) for the acute toxicity study and 175, 550 and 2000 mg/kg for sub-chronic and chronic studies (each group, n = 10), respectively. The behavior, mortality, and body weight of the rats were assessed to determine the toxic effects of FVCO...
October 15, 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Sarah Igidbashian, Sara Boveri, Fabio Bottari, Ailyn Vidal Urbinati, Eleonora Preti, Chiara Casadio, Fabio Landoni, Mario Sideri, Maria Teresa Sandri
OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the epidemiology of human papillomavirus (HPV) in Italy before the age of 25. At the European Institute of Oncology, a prospective observational study on cervical HPV infection in 18-year-old women undergoing quadrivalent HPV vaccination is ongoing. METHODS: At the first visit before vaccination, all the young women answered an epidemiological questionnaire, and then, the presence of high-risk HPV (hrHPV) was tested. Samples positive for hrHPV were genotyped...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease
Pablo Pena Gandara E Silva, Caio Rodrigues Nobre, Pryscila Resaffe, Camilo Dias Seabra Pereira, Felipe Gusmão
Microplastic debris is a pervasive type of contaminant in marine ecosystems, being considered a major threat to marine biota. One of the problems of microplastics is that they can adsorb contaminants in extremely high concentrations. When released from the particle, these contaminants have the potential to cause toxic effects in the biota. So far, reports of toxic effects are mostly linked with the direct exposure of organisms through ingestion of contaminated microplastics. There is little information on the toxicity of leachates from microplastics to marine organisms...
October 8, 2016: Water Research
Enrique Jurado-Ruiz, Lourdes M Varela, Amparo Luque, Genoveva Berná, Gladys Cahuana, Enrique Martinez-Force, Rocío Gallego-Durán, Bernat Soria, Baukje de Roos, Manuel Romero Gómez, Franz Martín
SCOPE: We evaluated the protective effect of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) in high-fat diets (HFDs) on the inflammatory response and liver damage in a non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) mouse model. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6J mice fed a standard diet or a lard-based HFD (HFD-L) for 12 weeks to develop NAFLD. HFD fed mice were then divided into four groups and fed for 24 weeks with: HFD-L; HFD-EVOO; HFD-OL (phenolics-rich EVOO) and R (reversion; standard diet)...
October 17, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Andrea Coccia, Luciana Mosca, Rosa Puca, Giorgio Mangino, Alessandro Rossi, Eugenio Lendaro
Epidemiological data indicate that the daily consumption of extra‑virgin olive oil (EVOO), a common dietary habit of the Mediterranean area, lowers the incidence of certain types of cancer, in particular bladder neoplasm. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antiproliferative activity of polyphenols extracted from EVOO on bladder cancer (BCa), and to clarify the biological mechanisms that trigger cell death. Furthermore, we also evaluated the ability of low doses of extra‑virgin olive oil extract (EVOOE) to modulate the in vitro activity of paclitaxel or mitomycin, two antineoplastic drugs used in the management of different types of cancer...
October 5, 2016: Oncology Reports
Shubha Rao, Puja Seth, Tanja Walker, Guoshen Wang, Mesfin S Mulatu, John Gilford, Emilio J German
The 2015 National HIV/AIDS Strategy provides an updated plan to address health disparities in communities at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (1,2). Hispanics/Latinos* are disproportionately affected by HIV in the United States. In 2014, 23% of HIV diagnoses were among Hispanics/Latinos, who represented 16% of the U.S. population (3). To examine HIV testing services, CDC analyzed 2014 data from the National HIV Prevention Program Monitoring and Evaluation (NHM&E) system submitted by 60 CDC-funded health departments(†) and 151 community-based organizations...
October 14, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Zhao-Tian Li, Yan-Qiong Peng, Xiao-Lan Wen, K Charlotte Jandér
Mutualisms play a key role in most ecosystems, yet the mechanisms that prevent overexploitation of the mutualistic relationship are still poorly understood. In the mutualism between fig trees and their pollinating wasps both partners depend on each other. Fig trees benefit from female wasps that disperse their pollen, whereas wasps frequently benefit from a higher ratio of male offspring. Here we use manipulative field experiments to address whether host trees (Ficus racemosa) can influence the offspring sex ratio of the pollinator wasp...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
A T Branco, L Schilling, K Silkaitis, D K Dowling, B Lemos
Reproduction and aging evolved to be intimately associated. Experimental selection for early-life reproduction drives the evolution of decreased longevity in Drosophila whereas experimental selection for increased longevity leads to changes in reproduction. Although life history theory offers hypotheses to explain these relationships, the genetic architecture and molecular mechanisms underlying reproduction-longevity associations remain a matter of debate. Here we show that mating triggers accelerated mortality in males and identify hundreds of genes that are modulated upon mating in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster...
October 12, 2016: Heredity
Siamak Redhai, Josephine E E U Hellberg, Mark Wainwright, Sumeth W Perera, Felix Castellanos, Benjamin Kroeger, Carina Gandy, Aaron Leiblich, Laura Corrigan, Thomas Hilton, Benjamin Patel, Shih-Jung Fan, Freddie Hamdy, Deborah C I Goberdhan, Clive Wilson
Regulated secretion by glands and neurons involves release of signalling molecules and enzymes selectively concentrated in dense-core granules (DCGs). Although we understand how many secretagogues stimulate DCG release, how DCG biogenesis is then accelerated to replenish the DCG pool remains poorly characterised. Here we demonstrate that each prostate-like secondary cell (SC) in the paired adult Drosophila melanogaster male accessory glands contains approximately ten large DCGs, which are loaded with the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) ligand Decapentaplegic (Dpp)...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Vitor Antunes Oliveira, Gaia Favero, Alessandra Stacchiotti, Lorena Giugno, Barbara Buffoli, Claudia Sirlene de Oliveira, Antonio Lavazza, Massimo Albanese, Luigi Fabrizio Rodella, Maria Ester Pereira, Rita Rezzani
This work investigated the effects of mercury chloride (HgCl2 ) acute exposure on virgin, pregnant and lactating rats by determination of renal and hepatic morphological and ultrastructural parameters and the expression of oxidative stress and stress tolerance markers, due to kidney and liver are the organs that more accumulate inorganic mercury. Adult Wistar rats virgin (90 days old), pregnant (18(th) gestation day) and lactating (7(th) lactation day) were injected once with HgCl2 (5 mg/kg) or saline (controls)...
October 11, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Jürgen Heinze
Perennial social insects are famous for the extraordinary longevity of their queens. While the lifespan of termite kings matches those of queens, males of social Hymenoptera are usually considered to die after one or a few copulations. While this is true in species with highly synchronized nuptial flights, in others males mate over much longer periods. Male longevity is not correlated with the life span of queens but appears to be adapted to mating opportunities. This is demonstrated by the extreme life span of Cardiocondyla ant males, which monopolize mating with virgin queens over many months...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
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