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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324843/variations-in-pu-isotopic-composition-in-soils-from-the-spitsbergen-norway-three-potential-pollution-sources-of-the-arctic-region
#1
E Łokas, R Anczkiewicz, R Kierepko, J W Mietelski
Although the polar regions have not been industrialised, numerous contaminants originating from human activity are detectable in the Arctic environment. This study reports evidence of (240)Pu/(239)Pu atomic ratios in the tundra and initial soils from different parts of west and central Spitsbergen and recognizes possible environmental inputs of non-global fallout Pu. The average atomic ratio of (240)Pu/(239)Pu equal to 0.179 (ranging between 0.129 and 0.201) in tundra soils are comparable to the characteristic ratio for global fallout (0...
March 18, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317109/what-if-plant-functional-types-conceal-species-specific-responses-to-environment-study-on-arctic-shrub-communities
#2
Patrick Saccone, Kristiina Hoikka, Risto Virtanen
Plant functional types (PFT) are increasingly used to outline biome-scale plant-environment relationship and predict global change effects on community structure. However, the potentials and limitations of the PFT approach have to be tested as they can be less sensitive than trait-based or species-level approaches. Here, we compare the responses of deciduous-evergreen shrub PFTs and species to gradual snow-related environmental conditions by also considering effects of aboveground architectural traits and neighboring shrubs...
March 19, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295022/impacts-of-twenty-years-of-experimental-warming-on-soil-carbon-nitrogen-moisture-and-soil-mites-across-alpine-subarctic-tundra-communities
#3
Juha M Alatalo, Annika K Jägerbrand, Jaanis Juhanson, Anders Michelsen, Peter Ľuptáčik
High-altitude and alpine areas are predicted to experience rapid and substantial increases in future temperature, which may have serious impacts on soil carbon, nutrient and soil fauna. Here we report the impact of 20 years of experimental warming on soil properties and soil mites in three contrasting plant communities in alpine/subarctic Sweden. Long-term warming decreased juvenile oribatid mite density, but had no effect on adult oribatids density, total mite density, any major mite group or the most common species...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276177/circumpolar-arctic-tundra-biomass-and-productivity-dynamics-in-response-to-projected-climate-change-and-herbivory
#4
Qin Yu, Howard Epstein, Ryan Engstrom, Donald Walker
Satellite remote sensing data have indicated a general 'greening' trend in the arctic tundra biome. However, the observed changes based on remote sensing are the result of multiple environmental drivers, and the effects of individual controls such as warming, herbivory, and other disturbances on changes in vegetation biomass, community structure, and ecosystem function remain unclear. We apply ArcVeg, an arctic tundra vegetation dynamics model, to estimate potential changes in vegetation biomass and net primary production (NPP) at the plant community and functional type levels...
March 8, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270913/effects-of-environmental-features-and-sport-hunting-on-caribou-migration-in-northwestern-alaska
#5
Timothy J Fullman, Kyle Joly, Andrew Ackerman
BACKGROUND: Ungulate movements are influenced by a variety of biotic and abiotic factors, which may affect connectivity between key resource areas and seasonal ranges. In northwestern Alaska, one important question regarding human impacts on ungulate movement involves caribou (Rangifer tarandus) response to autumn hunting and related aircraft activity. While concerns have been voiced by local hunters about the influence of transporter aircraft and non-local sport hunters, there has been little quantitative analysis of the effects of hunter activity on caribou movement...
2017: Movement Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267242/arctic-shrub-growth-trajectories-differ-across-soil-moisture-levels
#6
Daniel Ackerman, Daniel Griffin, Sarah E Hobbie, Jacques C Finlay
The circumpolar expansion of woody deciduous shrubs in arctic tundra alters key ecosystem properties including carbon balance and hydrology. However, landscape-scale patterns and drivers of shrub expansion remain poorly understood, inhibiting accurate incorporation of shrub effects into climate models. Here, we use dendroecology to elucidate the role of soil moisture in modifying the relationship between climate and growth for a dominant deciduous shrub, Salix pulchra, on the North Slope of Alaska, USA. We improve upon previous modeling approaches by using ecological theory to guide model selection for the relationship between climate and shrub growth...
March 7, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263375/shrub-encroachment-in-arctic-tundra-betula-nana-effects-on-above-and-below-ground-litter-decomposition
#7
Jennie R McLaren, Kate M Buckeridge, Martine J van de Weg, Gaius R Shaver, Joshua P Schimel, Laura Gough
Rapid arctic vegetation change as a result of global warming includes an increase in the cover and biomass of deciduous shrubs. Increases in shrub abundance will result in a proportional increase of shrub litter in the litter community, potentially affecting carbon turnover rates in arctic ecosystems. We investigated the effects of leaf and root litter of a deciduous shrub, Betula nana, on decomposition, by examining species-specific decomposition patterns, as well as effects of Betula litter on the decomposition of other species...
March 6, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247094/the-giant-virus-finder-discovers-an-abundance-of-giant-viruses-in-the-antarctic-dry-valleys
#8
Csaba Kerepesi, Vince Grolmusz
Mimivirus was identified in 2003 from a biofilm of an industrial water-cooling tower in England. Later, numerous new giant viruses were found in oceans and freshwater habitats, some of them having 2,500 genes. We have demonstrated their likely presence in four soil samples taken from the Kutch Desert (Gujarat, India). Here we describe a bioinformatics work-flow, called the "Giant Virus Finder" that is capable of discovering the likely presence of the genomes of giant viruses in metagenomic shotgun-sequenced datasets...
February 28, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243679/ligninolytic-activity-at-0%C3%A2-%C3%A2-c-of-fungi-on-oak-leaves-under-snow-cover-in-a-mixed-forest-in-japan
#9
Toshizumi Miyamoto, Keiichi Koda, Arata Kawaguchi, Yasumitsu Uraki
Despite the importance of litter decomposition under snow cover in boreal forests and tundra, very little is known regarding the characteristics and functions of litter-decomposing fungi adapted to the cold climate. We investigated the decomposition of oak leaves in a heavy snowfall forest region of Japan. The rate of litter weight loss reached 26.5% during the snow cover period for 7 months and accounted for 64.6% of the annual loss (41.1%). Although no statistically significant lignin loss was detected, decolourization portions of oak leaf litter, which was attributable to the activities of ligninolytic fungi, were observed during snow cover period...
February 28, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242841/another-winter-tundra
#10
Justyna Wolak-Dinsmore
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229043/detection-and-molecular-characterization-of-the-mosquito-borne-filarial-nematode-setaria-tundra-in-danish-roe-deer-capreolus-capreolus
#11
Heidi Larsen Enemark, Antti Oksanen, Mariann Chriél, Jakob le Fèvre Harslund, Ian David Woolsey, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman Al-Sabi
Setaria tundra is a mosquito-borne filarial nematode of cervids in Europe. It has recently been associated with an emerging epidemic disease causing severe morbidity and mortality in reindeer and moose in Finland. Here, we present the first report of S. tundra in six roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) collected between October 2010 and March 2014 in Denmark. The deer originated from various localities across the country: the eastern part of the Jutland peninsular and four locations on the island Zealand. With the exception of one deer, with parasites residing in a transparent cyst just under the liver capsule, worms (ranging from 2 to >20/deer) were found free in the peritoneal cavity...
April 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224883/seroprevalence-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-zoo-and-domestic-animals-in-jiangxi-province-china
#12
Houqiang Luo, Kun Li, Hui Zhang, Ping Gan, Muhammad Shahzad, Xiaoxing Wu, Yanfang Lan, Jiaxiang Wang
Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of warm-blooded animals throughout the world. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were determined using a commercial indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test in wild animals in a zoo. Three of 11 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) (27%), 1 of 5 wolves (Canis lupus laniger) (20%), 1 of 6 hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibious) (17%), and 2 of 9 tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) (22%) were found to be positive. No antibodies were detected in leopards (Panthera pardus), wild geese (Anser cygnoides), and Eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus)...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220873/response-of-rhizosphere-soil-microbial-to-deyeuxia-angustifolia-encroaching-in-two-different-vegetation-communities-in-alpine-tundra
#13
Lin Li, Ming Xing, Jiangwei Lv, Xiaolong Wang, Xia Chen
Deyeuxia angustifolia (Komarov) Y. L Chang is an herb species originating from the birch forests in the Changbai Mountain. Recently, this species has been found encroaching into large areas in the western slopes of the alpine tundra in the Changbai Mountain, threatening the tundra ecosystem. In this study, we systematically assessed the response of the rhizosphere soil microbial to D. angustifolia encroaching in alpine tundra by conducting experiments for two vegetation types (shrubs and herbs) by real-time PCR and Illumina Miseq sequencing methods...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215011/implementation-of-the-first-adaptive-management-plan-for-a-european-migratory-waterbird-population-the-case-of-the-svalbard-pink-footed-goose-anser-brachyrhynchus
#14
Jesper Madsen, James Henty Williams, Fred A Johnson, Ingunn M Tombre, Sergey Dereliev, Eckhart Kuijken
An International Species Management Plan for the Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose was adopted under the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds in 2012, the first case of adaptive management of a migratory waterbird population in Europe. An international working group (including statutory agencies, NGO representatives and experts) agreed on objectives and actions to maintain the population in favourable conservation status, while accounting for biodiversity, economic and recreational interests...
March 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214115/warm-summers-and-moderate-winter-precipitation-boost-rhododendron-ferrugineum-l-growth-in-the-taillefer-massif-french-alps
#15
L Francon, C Corona, E Roussel, J Lopez Saez, M Stoffel
Rhododendron ferrugineum L. is a widespread dwarf shrub species growing in high-elevation, alpine environments of the Western European Alps. For this reason, analysis of its growth rings offers unique opportunities to push current dendrochronological networks into extreme environments and way beyond the treeline. Given that different species of the same genus have been successfully used in tree-ring investigations, notably in the Himalayas where Rhododendron spp. has proven to be a reliable climate proxy, this study aims at (i) evaluating the dendroclimatological potential of R...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208232/non-linear-co2-flux-response-to-seven-years-of-experimentally-induced-permafrost-thaw
#16
Marguerite Mauritz, Rosvel Bracho, Gerardo Celis, Jack Hutchings, Susan M Natali, Elaine Pegoraro, Verity G Salmon, Christina Schädel, Elizabeth E Webb, Edward A G Schuur
Rapid Arctic warming is expected to increase global greenhouse gas concentrations as permafrost thaw exposes immense stores of frozen carbon (C) to microbial decomposition. Permafrost thaw also stimulates plant growth, which could offset C loss. Using data from seven years of experimental Air and Soil warming in moist acidic tundra, we show that Soil warming had a much stronger effect on CO2 flux than Air warming. Soil warming caused rapid permafrost thaw and increased ecosystem respiration (Reco), gross primary productivity (GPP), and net summer CO2 storage (NEE)...
February 16, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194307/vascular-plant-biodiversity-of-the-lower-coppermine-river-valley-and-vicinity-nunavut-canada-an-annotated-checklist-of-an-arctic-flora
#17
Jeffery M Saarela, Paul C Sokoloff, Roger D Bull
The Coppermine River in western Nunavut is one of Canada's great Arctic rivers, yet its vascular plant flora is poorly known. Here, we report the results of a floristic inventory of the lower Coppermine River valley and vicinity, including Kugluk (Bloody Falls) Territorial Park and the hamlet of Kugluktuk. The study area is approximately 1,200 km(2), extending from the forest-tundra south of the treeline to the Arctic coast. Vascular plant floristic data are based on a review of all previous collections from the area and more than 1,200 new collections made in 2014...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135298/explicit-not-implicit-preferences-predict-conservation-intentions-for-endangered-species-and-biomes
#18
Alejandra Echeverri, Megan M Callahan, Kai M A Chan, Terre Satterfield, Jiaying Zhao
Conservation of biodiversity is determined in part by human preferences. Preferences relevant to conservation have been examined largely via explicit measures (e.g., a self-reported degree of liking), with implicit measures (e.g., preconscious, automatic evaluations) receiving relatively less attention. This is the case despite psychological evidence from other contexts that implicit preferences are more informative of behavior. Thus, the type of measure that predicts conservation intentions for biodiversity is unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117440/elevation-alters-ecosystem-properties-across-temperate-treelines-globally
#19
Jordan R Mayor, Nathan J Sanders, Aimée T Classen, Richard D Bardgett, Jean-Christophe Clément, Alex Fajardo, Sandra Lavorel, Maja K Sundqvist, Michael Bahn, Chelsea Chisholm, Ellen Cieraad, Ze'ev Gedalof, Karl Grigulis, Gaku Kudo, Daniel L Oberski, David A Wardle
Temperature is a primary driver of the distribution of biodiversity as well as of ecosystem boundaries. Declining temperature with increasing elevation in montane systems has long been recognized as a major factor shaping plant community biodiversity, metabolic processes, and ecosystem dynamics. Elevational gradients, as thermoclines, also enable prediction of long-term ecological responses to climate warming. One of the most striking manifestations of increasing elevation is the abrupt transitions from forest to treeless alpine tundra...
January 25, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116692/toward-a-statistical-description-of-methane-emissions-from-arctic-wetlands
#20
Norbert Pirk, Mikhail Mastepanov, Efrén López-Blanco, Louise H Christensen, Hanne H Christiansen, Birger Ulf Hansen, Magnus Lund, Frans-Jan W Parmentier, Kirstine Skov, Torben R Christensen
Methane (CH4) emissions from arctic tundra typically follow relations with soil temperature and water table depth, but these process-based descriptions can be difficult to apply to areas where no measurements exist. We formulated a description of the broader temporal flux pattern in the growing season based on two distinct CH4 source components from slow and fast-turnover carbon. We used automatic closed chamber flux measurements from NE Greenland (74°N), W Greenland (64°N), and Svalbard (78°N) to identify and discuss these components...
February 2017: Ambio
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