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Johan Asplund, David A Wardle
Lichens occur in most terrestrial ecosystems; they are often present as minor contributors, but in some forests, drylands and tundras they can make up most of the ground layer biomass. As such, lichens dominate approximately 8% of the Earth's land surface. Despite their potential importance in driving ecosystem biogeochemistry, the influence of lichens on community processes and ecosystem functioning have attracted relatively little attention. Here, we review the role of lichens in terrestrial ecosystems and draw attention to the important, but often overlooked role of lichens as determinants of ecological processes...
October 11, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Samer Angelone-Alasaad, Michael J Jowers, Rosario Panadero, Ana Pérez-Creo, Gerardo Pajares, Pablo Díez-Baños, Ramón C Soriguer, Patrocinio Morrondo
BACKGROUND: Filarioid nematode parasites are major health hazards with important medical, veterinary and economic implications. Recently, they have been considered as indicators of climate change. FINDINGS: In this paper, we report the first record of Setaria tundra in roe deer from the Iberian Peninsula. Adult S. tundra were collected from the peritoneal cavity during the post-mortem examination of a 2 year-old male roe deer, which belonged to a private fenced estate in La Alcarria (Guadalajara, Spain)...
September 29, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
J T Lennon, D Nguyễn-Thùy, T M Phạm, A Drobniak, P H Tạ, N Ð Phạm, T Streil, K D Webster, A Schimmelmann
Sources and sinks of methane (CH4 ) are critical for understanding global biogeochemical cycles and their role in climate change. A growing number of studies have reported that CH4 concentrations in cave ecosystems are depleted, leading to the notion that these subterranean environments may act as sinks for atmospheric CH4 . Recently, it was hypothesized that this CH4 depletion may be caused by radiolysis, an abiotic process whereby CH4 is oxidized via interactions with ionizing radiation derived from radioactive decay...
September 27, 2016: Geobiology
Stanislav K Korb, Lavr V Bolshakov
A catalogue of butterflies of Russia and adjacent countries is given, with special account to the name-bearing types depository. This catalogue contains data about 86 species (3 of them are questionable) of Hesperiidae (22 genera); 47 species of Papilionidae (14 genera); 89 species of Pieridae (5 of them are questionable)  (15 genera); 1 species (1 genus) of Libytheinae(dae); 2 species of Danainae(dae) (2 genera); 160 species of Nymphalinae(dae) (1 of them is questionable) (23 genera); 259 species of Satyrinae(dae) (14 of them are questionable, mainly from genera Oeneis and Pseudochazara) (34 genera); 3 species of Riodinidae (2 genera); 318 species of Lycaenidae (11 of them are questionable, mainly from genera Neolycaena and Plebeius) (57 genera)...
2016: Zootaxa
Ruichen Zheng, Yiming Zhao, Liqiu Wang, Xulu Chang, Yumin Zhang, Xuyang Da, Fang Peng
The novel pale yellow-coloured bacterial strain, designated S14-88T, was isolated from a tundra soil near Antarctic Peninsula, South Shetland Islands (62° 22' 34" S, 59° 42' 34" W), and the taxonomic position was investigated by a genotypic and phenotypic analysis. The cells were facultatively anaerobic, Gram-staining-negative, non-motile and rod-shaped. Growth occurred at 4-28 ℃ (optimum at 15 ℃), at pH 7.0-8.0 (optimum at 7.0), and with 0-0.6 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, no NaCl). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain S14-88T formed a lineage within the genus Mucilaginibacter...
September 8, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Marie-Andrée Giroux, Myriam Trottier-Paquet, Joël Bêty, Vincent Lamarre, Nicolas Lecomte
Predation is one of the main factors explaining nesting mortality in most bird species. Birds can avoid nest predation or reduce predation pressure by breeding at higher latitude, showing anti-predator behaviour, selecting nest sites protected from predators, and nesting in association with protective species. American Golden-Plovers (Pluvialis dominica) defend their territory by using various warning and distraction behaviours displayed at varying levels of intensity (hereafter "conspicuous behaviour"), as well as more aggressive behaviours such as aerial attacks, but only in some populations...
2016: PeerJ
Laura Gough, Neil D Bettez, Karie A Slavik, William B Bowden, Anne E Giblin, George W Kling, James A Laundre, Gaius R Shaver
Primary producers form the base of food webs but also affect other ecosystem characteristics, such as habitat structure, light availability, and microclimate. Here, we examine changes caused by 5-30+ years of nutrient addition and resulting increases in net primary productivity (NPP) in tundra, streams, and lakes in northern Alaska. The Arctic provides an important opportunity to examine how ecosystems characterized by low diversity and low productivity respond to release from nutrient limitation. We review how responses of algae and plants affect light availability, perennial biotic structures available for consumers, oxygen levels, and temperature...
November 2016: Oecologia
Sarah Hagel Svendsen, Frida Lindwall, Anders Michelsen, Riikka Rinnan
Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from terrestrial ecosystems are important for the atmospheric chemistry and the formation of secondary organic aerosols, and may therefore influence the climate. Global warming is predicted to change patterns in precipitation and plant species compositions, especially in arctic regions where the temperature increase will be most pronounced. These changes are potentially highly important for the BVOC emissions but studies investigating the effects are lacking...
August 20, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Rafael Rubio de Casas, Mark E Mort, Douglas E Soltis
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Organismal evolution tends to be closely associated with ecological conditions. However, the extent to which this association constrains adaptation or diversification into new habitats remains unclear. We studied habitat evolution in the hyper-diverse angiosperm clade Saxifragales. METHODS: We used species-level phylogenies for approx. 950 species to analyse the evolution of habitat shifts as well as their influence on plant diversification...
August 22, 2016: Annals of Botany
C G Andresen, M J Lara, C E Tweedie, V L Lougheed
Plant-mediated CH4 flux is an important pathway for land-atmosphere CH4 emissions but the magnitude, timing, and environmental controls, spanning scales of space and time, remain poorly understood in arctic tundra wetlands, particularly under the long term effects of climate change. CH4 fluxes were measured in situ during peak growing season for the dominant aquatic emergent plants in the Alaskan arctic coastal plain, Carex aquatilis and Arctophila fulva, to assess the magnitude and species-specific controls on CH4 flux...
August 19, 2016: Global Change Biology
Fangfang Li, Renbin Zhu, Tao Bao, Qing Wang, Hua Xu
Many environmental factors affecting methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes have been investigated during the processes of carbon and nitrogen transformation in the boreal tundra. However, effects of sunlight on CH4 and N2O fluxes and their budgets were neglected in the boreal tundra. Here, summertime CH4 and N2O fluxes in the presence and total absence of sunlight were investigated at the six tundra sites (DM1-DM6) on Ny-Ålesund in the High Arctic. The mean CH4 fluxes at the tundra sites ranged from -4...
August 10, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Rikke Reisner Hansen, Oskar Liset Pryds Hansen, Joseph J Bowden, Urs A Treier, Signe Normand, Toke Høye
The Arctic is warming at twice the rate of the rest of the world. This impacts Arctic species both directly, through increased temperatures, and indirectly, through structural changes in their habitats. Species are expected to exhibit idiosyncratic responses to structural change, which calls for detailed investigations at the species and community level. Here, we investigate how arthropod assemblages of spiders and beetles respond to variation in habitat structure at small spatial scales. We sampled transitions in shrub dominance and soil moisture between three different habitats (fen, dwarf shrub heath, and tall shrub tundra) at three different sites along a fjord gradient in southwest Greenland, using yellow pitfall cups...
2016: PeerJ
Luis G Chaves-Barquero, Kim Hoang Luong, C J Mundy, Charles W Knapp, Mark L Hanson, Charles S Wong
The treatment of municipal wastewater in the Arctic is challenging due to a variety of financial, operational, climatic and technical issues. To better understand the efficacy of current wastewater treatment in this region and the hazard posed to receiving waters, we assessed the occurrence of nutrients and contaminants (i.e., pharmaceuticals, antibiotic resistance genes) as they moved through a lagoon-based treatment system in Cambridge Bay, Nunavut, Canada. Wastewater treatment in this community is performed by the use of a lagoon-tundra wetland system that is discharged into the marine environment and is representative of current common practices throughout the region...
November 2016: Environmental Pollution
Nikolai M Korovchinsky
Two species of the genus Bythotrephes Leydig, B. arcticus Lilljeborg and B. transcaucasicus Behning, forming a group of close species, are redescribed on the basis of type material and other materials from Northern Eurasia. They were investigated with the application of detailed morphological analysis, including intra- and interpopulation variability and the original scheme of morphometric measurements. The lectotypes and paralectotypes of the species were selected. B. arcticus compared with other species of the genus, seem more evolutionary primitive and less specialized, judging from its large body size, comparatively short tl I, short and straight caudal process, well developed distal setae on two proximal endopodital segments of tl I, and large number of claws...
2016: Zootaxa
Xia Yuan, Joseph E Knelman, Eve Gasarch, Deli Wang, Diana R Nemergut, Timothy R Seastedt
Bacterial community composition and diversity was studied in alpine tundra soils across a plant species and moisture gradient in 20 y-old experimental plots with four nutrient addition regimes (control, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) or both nutrients). Different bacterial communities inhabited different alpine meadows, reflecting differences in moisture, nutrients and plant species. Bacterial community alpha-diversity metrics were strongly correlated with plant richness and the production of forbs. After meadow type, N addition proved the strongest determinant of bacterial community structure...
June 2016: Ecology
Steve D Albon, R Justin Irvine, Odd Halvorsen, Rolf Langvatn, Leif Egil Loe, Erik Ropstad, Vebjørn Veiberg, René van der Wal, Eirin M Bjørkvoll, Elizabeth I Duff, Brage Bremset Hansen, Aline M Lee, Torkild Tveraa, Audun Stien
The cumulative effects of climate warming on herbivore vital rates and population dynamics are hard to predict, given that the expected effects differ between seasons. In the Arctic, warmer summers enhance plant growth which should lead to heavier and more fertile individuals in the autumn. Conversely, warm spells in winter with rainfall (rain-on-snow) can cause 'icing', restricting access to forage, resulting in starvation, lower survival and fecundity. Since body condition is a 'barometer' of energy demands relative to energy intake, we explored the causes and consequences of variation in body mass of wild female Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus) from 1994-2015, a period of marked climate warming...
July 18, 2016: Global Change Biology
Ludovica D'Imperio, Cecilie Skov Nielsen, Andreas Westergaard-Nielsen, Anders Michelsen, Bo Elberling
Arctic ecosystems are characterized by a wide range of soil moisture conditions and thermal regimes and contribute differently to the net methane (CH4 ) budget. Yet, it is unclear how climate change will affect the capacity of those systems to act as a net source or sink of CH4 . Here, we present results of in situ CH4 flux measurements made during the growing season 2014 on Disko Island (west Greenland) and quantify the contribution of contrasting soil and landscape types to the net CH4 budget and responses to summer warming...
July 15, 2016: Global Change Biology
MyongChol Kim, Songguk Rim, Sehong Pak, Lvzhi Ren, Yumin Zhang, Xulu Chang, Xuhuan Li, Chengxiang Fang, Congyi Zheng, Fang Peng
A pale-pink, Gram-reaction-negative, non-motile, aerobic bacterium, designated MC 3624T, was isolated from a tundra soil near Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard Archipelago, Norway (78°N). Growth occurred at 10-37℃ (optimum 25-30℃) and at pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum pH 8.0). The predominant fatty acids were C16:0 (17.7%), C18:1 ω7c 11methyl (13.4%), Summed Feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1 ω6c) (10.1%) and Summed Feature 8 (C18:1 ω6c and/or C18:1 ω7c) (38.3%); the major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-10; the main polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and an unidentified aminolipids...
July 13, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Kathrin Rousk, Anders Michelsen
Nitrogen (N) fixation in moss-associated cyanobacteria is one of the main sources of available N for N-limited ecosystems like subarctic tundra. Yet, N2 fixation in mosses is strongly influenced by soil moisture and temperature. Thus, temporal scaling up of low frequency in situ measurements to several weeks, months or even the entire growing season without taking into account changes in abiotic conditions cannot capture the variation in moss-associated N2 fixation. We therefore aimed to estimate moss-associated N2 fixation throughout the snow-free period in subarctic tundra in field experiments simulating climate change: willow (Salix myrsinifolia) and birch (Betula pubescens spp...
July 8, 2016: Global Change Biology
Anne D Bjorkman, Mark Vellend, Esther R Frei, Gregory H R Henry
Rapidly rising temperatures are expected to cause latitudinal and elevational range shifts as species track their optimal climate north and upward. However, a lack of adaptation to environmental conditions other than climate - for example photoperiod, biotic interactions, or edaphic conditions - might limit the success of immigrants in a new location despite hospitable climatic conditions. Here we present one of the first direct experimental tests of the hypothesis that warmer temperatures at northern latitudes will confer a fitness advantage to southern immigrants relative to native populations...
July 8, 2016: Global Change Biology
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