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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933047/diazotroph-diversity-in-the-sea-ice-melt-ponds-and-surface-waters-of-the-eurasian-basin-of-the-central-arctic-ocean
#1
Mar Fernández-Méndez, Kendra A Turk-Kubo, Pier L Buttigieg, Josephine Z Rapp, Thomas Krumpen, Jonathan P Zehr, Antje Boetius
The Eurasian basin of the Central Arctic Ocean is nitrogen limited, but little is known about the presence and role of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Recent studies have indicated the occurrence of diazotrophs in Arctic coastal waters potentially of riverine origin. Here, we investigated the presence of diazotrophs in ice and surface waters of the Central Arctic Ocean in the summer of 2012. We identified diverse communities of putative diazotrophs through targeted analysis of the nifH gene, which encodes the iron protein of the nitrogenase enzyme...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928986/roseomonas-arcticisoli-sp-nov-isolated-from-arctic-tundra-soil
#2
Myong Chol Kim, Songguk Rim, Sehong Pak, Lvzhi Ren, Yumin Zhang, Xulu Chang, Xuhuan Li, Chengxiang Fang, Congyi Zheng, Fang Peng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917060/antarctotrechus-balli-sp-n-carabidae-trechini-the-first-ground-beetle-from-antarctica
#3
Allan C Ashworth, Terry L Erwin
Fossil elytra of a small trechine carabid are reported from the Oliver Bluffs on the Beardmore Glacier at lat. 85°S. They were compared with counterparts from the extant genera Trechisibus, Tasmanorites, Oxytrechus and Pseudocnides. The fossils share some characters but are sufficiently different to be described as a new genus and species. We named the new species Antarctotrechus balli in honour of George E. Ball who made major contributions to the study of carabids through his own research and the training of students while at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada...
2016: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904966/treeline-advances-and-associated-shifts-in-the-ground-vegetation-alter-fine-root-dynamics-and-mycelia-production-in-the-south-and-polar-urals
#4
Emily F Solly, Ika Djukic, Pavel A Moiseev, Nelly I Andreyashkina, Nadezhda M Devi, Hans Göransson, Valeriy S Mazepa, Stepan G Shiyatov, Marina R Trubina, Fritz H Schweingruber, Martin Wilmking, Frank Hagedorn
Climate warming is shifting the elevational boundary between forests and tundra upwards, but the related belowground responses are poorly understood. In the pristine South and Polar Urals with shifts of the treeline ecotone documented by historical photographs, we investigated fine root dynamics and production of extramatrical mycorrhizal mycelia (EMM) along four elevational transects reaching from the closed forest to the treeless tundra. In addition, we analysed elevational differences in climate and vegetation structure, and excavated trees to estimate related changes in the partitioning between below- and aboveground biomass...
November 30, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902716/large-scale-anthropogenic-reduction-of-forest-cover-in-last-glacial-maximum-europe
#5
Jed O Kaplan, Mirjam Pfeiffer, Jan C A Kolen, Basil A S Davis
Reconstructions of the vegetation of Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) are an enigma. Pollen-based analyses have suggested that Europe was largely covered by steppe and tundra, and forests persisted only in small refugia. Climate-vegetation model simulations on the other hand have consistently suggested that broad areas of Europe would have been suitable for forest, even in the depths of the last glaciation. Here we reconcile models with data by demonstrating that the highly mobile groups of hunter-gatherers that inhabited Europe at the LGM could have substantially reduced forest cover through the ignition of wildfires...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898193/modeling-long-term-changes-in-tundra-carbon-balance-following-wildfire-climate-change-and-potential-nutrient-addition
#6
Yueyang Jiang, Edward B Rastetter, Gaius R Shaver, Adrian V Rocha, Qianlai Zhuang, Bonnie L Kwiatkowski
To investigate the underlying mechanisms that control long-term recovery of tundra carbon (C) and nutrients after fire, we employed the Multiple Element Limitation (MEL) model to simulate 200-yr post-fire changes in the biogeochemistry of three sites along a burn severity gradient in response to increases in air temperature, CO2 concentration, nitrogen (N) deposition, and phosphorus (P) weathering rates. The simulations were conducted for severely burned, moderately burned, and unburned arctic tundra. Our simulations indicated that recovery of C balance after fire was mainly determined by the internal redistribution of nutrients among ecosystem components (controlled by air temperature), rather than the supply of nutrients from external sources (e...
August 4, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883187/molybdenum-and-phosphorus-limitation-of-moss-associated-nitrogen-fixation-in-boreal-ecosystems
#7
Kathrin Rousk, Jefferson Degboe, Anders Michelsen, Robert Bradley, Jean-Philippe Bellenger
Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) performed by moss-associated cyanobacteria is one of the main sources of new nitrogen (N) input in pristine, high-latitude ecosystems. Yet, the nutrients that limit BNF remain elusive. Here, we tested whether this important ecosystem function is limited by the availability of molybdenum (Mo), phosphorus (P), or both. BNF in dominant mosses was measured with the acetylene reduction assay (ARA) at different time intervals following Mo and P additions, in both laboratory microcosms with mosses from a boreal spruce forest and field plots in subarctic tundra...
November 24, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881760/changes-in-composition-and-abundance-of-functional-groups-of-arctic-fungi-in-response-to-long-term-summer-warming
#8
József Geml, Tatiana A Semenova, Luis N Morgado, Jeffrey M Welker
We characterized fungal communities in dry and moist tundra and investigated the effect of long-term experimental summer warming on three aspects of functional groups of arctic fungi: richness, community composition and species abundance. Warming had profound effects on community composition, abundance, and, to a lesser extent, on richness of fungal functional groups. In addition, our data show that even within functional groups, the direction and extent of response to warming tend to be species-specific and we recommend that studies on fungal communities and their roles in nutrient cycling take into account species-level responses...
November 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878083/interactive-effects-between-plant-functional-types-and-soil-factors-on-tundra-species-diversity-and-community-composition
#9
Maitane Iturrate-Garcia, Michael J O'Brien, Olga Khitun, Samuel Abiven, Pascal A Niklaus, Gabriela Schaepman-Strub
Plant communities are coupled with abiotic factors, as species diversity and community composition both respond to and influence climate and soil characteristics. Interactions between vegetation and abiotic factors depend on plant functional types (PFT) as different growth forms will have differential responses to and effects on site characteristics. However, despite the importance of different PFT for community assembly and ecosystem functioning, research has mainly focused on vascular plants. Here, we established a set of observational plots in two contrasting habitats in northeastern Siberia in order to assess the relationship between species diversity and community composition with soil variables, as well as the relationship between vegetation cover and species diversity for two PFT (nonvascular and vascular)...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862698/warming-of-subarctic-tundra-increases-emissions-of-all-three-important-greenhouse-gases-carbon-dioxide-methane-and-nitrous-oxide
#10
Carolina Voigt, Richard E Lamprecht, Maija E Marushchak, Saara E Lind, Alexander Novakovskiy, Mika Aurela, Pertti J Martikainen, Christina Biasi
Rapidly rising temperatures in the Arctic might cause a greater release of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to the atmosphere. To study the effect of warming on GHG dynamics, we deployed open-top chambers in a subarctic tundra site in Northeast European Russia. We determined carbon dioxide (CO2 ), methane (CH4 ), and nitrous oxide (N2 O) fluxes as well as the concentration of those gases, inorganic nitrogen (N) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) along the soil profile. Studied tundra surfaces ranged from mineral to organic soils and from vegetated to unvegetated areas...
November 14, 2016: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860006/on-the-ecology-and-range-of-anopheles-beklemishevi-diptera-culicidae-with-reference-to-the-taxonomy-of-an-lewisi
#11
Yuri M Novikov
The ecological features and geographic distribution of Anopheles beklemishevi have not been studied extensively. These studies are important in connection with the validity of the 'Anopheles lewisi' taxon. The materials were collected in Russia and Kazakhstan from 1973 to 2012, and species identity was defined by cytogenetic analysis of polytene chromosomes of larvae and adult females. A total of 7,896 specimens from 34 geographic locations was included in the analysis. It was established that An. beklemishevi is distributed from the east coast of the Baltic Sea to the basin of the Lena River, and from the forest-tundra zone to the Altai and Sayan Mountain systems...
December 2016: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854567/metagenomic-evaluation-of-bacteria-from-voles
#12
Katja A Koskela, Laura Kalin-Mänttäri, Heidi Hemmilä, Teemu Smura, Paula M Kinnunen, Jukka Niemimaa, Heikki Henttonen, Simo Nikkari
Voles (Arvicolinae, Rodentia) are known carriers of zoonotic bacteria such as Bartonella spp. and Francisella tularensis. However, apart from F. tularensis, the bacterial microbiome of voles has not previously been determined in Finland and rarely elsewhere. Therefore, we studied liver samples from 61 voles using 16S ribosomal RNA gene PCR analysis, followed by Sanger sequencing. Twenty-three of these samples were also studied with tag-encoded pyrosequencing. The samples originated from 21 field voles (Microtus agrestis), 37 tundra voles (Microtus oeconomus), and 3 bank voles (Myodes glareolus)...
November 17, 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853118/traditional-living-habits-of-the-taz-tundra-population-a-paleoparasitological-study
#13
Sergey Mikhailovich Slepchenko, Sergey Nikolaevich Ivanov, Bagashev Anatoly Nikolaevich, Tsybankov Alexander Alekseevich, Slavinsky Vyacheslav Sergeyevich
An excavation of the Vesakoyakha II-IV and Nyamboyto I burial grounds was conducted during the 2014 field season, and soil samples from intact burials dating from the 19th and 20th centuries, respectively, were analyzed to determine interactions between parasites and host/vectors. Considering the discovery of Diphyllobothrium sp. and Taenia sp. eggs in soil samples from the pelvic region, diphyllobothriasis was the most frequent helminthic infection among the Taz Nenets. The Nyamboyto Nenets mainly consumed uncooked fish, while the Vesakoyakha Nenets had a bigger variety in food choices, including reindeer meat...
October 2016: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852939/sea-ice-rain-on-snow-and-tundra-reindeer-nomadism-in-arctic-russia
#14
Bruce C Forbes, Timo Kumpula, Nina Meschtyb, Roza Laptander, Marc Macias-Fauria, Pentti Zetterberg, Mariana Verdonen, Anna Skarin, Kwang-Yul Kim, Linette N Boisvert, Julienne C Stroeve, Annett Bartsch
Sea ice loss is accelerating in the Barents and Kara Seas (BKS). Assessing potential linkages between sea ice retreat/thinning and the region's ancient and unique social-ecological systems is a pressing task. Tundra nomadism remains a vitally important livelihood for indigenous Nenets and their large reindeer herds. Warming summer air temperatures have been linked to more frequent and sustained summer high-pressure systems over West Siberia, Russia, but not to sea ice retreat. At the same time, autumn/winter rain-on-snow (ROS) events have become more frequent and intense...
November 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851768/when-winners-become-losers-predicted-nonlinear-responses-of-arctic-birds-to-increasing-woody-vegetation
#15
Sarah J Thompson, Colleen M Handel, Rachel M Richardson, Lance B McNew
Climate change is facilitating rapid changes in the composition and distribution of vegetation at northern latitudes, raising questions about the responses of wildlife that rely on arctic ecosystems. One widely observed change occurring in arctic tundra ecosystems is an increasing dominance of deciduous shrub vegetation. Our goals were to examine the tolerance of arctic-nesting bird species to existing gradients of vegetation along the boreal forest-tundra ecotone, to predict the abundance of species across different heights and densities of shrubs, and to identify species that will be most or least responsive to ongoing expansion of shrubs in tundra ecosystems...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796925/vertical-distribution-of-bacterial-community-is-associated-with-the-degree-of-soil-organic-matter-decomposition-in-the-active-layer-of-moist-acidic-tundra
#16
Hye Min Kim, Min Jin Lee, Ji Young Jung, Chung Yeon Hwang, Mincheol Kim, Hee-Myong Ro, Jongsik Chun, Yoo Kyung Lee
The increasing temperature in Arctic tundra deepens the active layer, which is the upper layer of permafrost soil that experiences repeated thawing and freezing. The increasing of soil temperature and the deepening of active layer seem to affect soil microbial communities. Therefore, information on soil microbial communities at various soil depths is essential to understand their potential responses to climate change in the active layer soil. We investigated the community structure of soil bacteria in the active layer from moist acidic tundra in Council, Alaska...
November 2016: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776999/first-detection-of-allobilharzia-visceralis-schistosomatidae-trematoda-from-cygnus-cygnus-in-japan
#17
Kei Hayashi, Madoka Ichikawa-Seki, Yuma Ohari, Uday Kumar Mohanta, Junya Aita, Hiroshi Satoh, Shiori Ehara, Minami Tokashiki, Tomoko Shiroma, Ayumi Azuta, Nozomi Oka, Takuya Watanabe, Ryo Harasawa, Satoshi Inohana, Toshihiro Ichijo, Kazuhisa Furuhama
Adult schistosomes were detected in the veins or capillaries of the large intestine, mesentery, liver, and adrenal glands in eight of 13 whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) examined in Iwate Prefecture, Japan. However, neither eggs nor severe tissue injuries were observed in any of the swans. The schistosomes were definitively identified as Allobilharzia visceralis based on the nucleotide sequences of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Allobilharzia visceralis infections have been reported in whooper swan in Iceland and tundra swan (Cygnus columbianus) in North America...
October 21, 2016: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760156/moss-mediates-the-influence-of-shrub-species-on-soil-properties-and-processes-in-alpine-tundra
#18
C Guillermo Bueno, Scott N Williamson, Isabel C Barrio, Ágústa Helgadóttir, David S HiK
In tundra ecosystems, bryophytes influence soil processes directly and indirectly through interactions with overstory shrub species. We experimentally manipulated moss cover and measured seasonal soil properties and processes under two species of deciduous shrubs with contrasting canopy structures, Salix planifolia pulchra and Betula glandulosa-nana complex. Soil properties (seasonal temperature, moisture and C:N ratios) and processes (seasonal litter decomposition and soil respiration) were measured over twelve months...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730713/how-lichens-impact-on-terrestrial-community-and-ecosystem-properties
#19
Johan Asplund, David A Wardle
Lichens occur in most terrestrial ecosystems; they are often present as minor contributors, but in some forests, drylands and tundras they can make up most of the ground layer biomass. As such, lichens dominate approximately 8% of the Earth's land surface. Despite their potential importance in driving ecosystem biogeochemistry, the influence of lichens on community processes and ecosystem functioning have attracted relatively little attention. Here, we review the role of lichens in terrestrial ecosystems and draw attention to the important, but often overlooked role of lichens as determinants of ecological processes...
October 11, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682456/first-report-of-setaria-tundra-in-roe-deer-capreolus-capreolus-from-the-iberian-peninsula-inferred-from-molecular-data-epidemiological-implications
#20
Samer Angelone-Alasaad, Michael J Jowers, Rosario Panadero, Ana Pérez-Creo, Gerardo Pajares, Pablo Díez-Baños, Ramón C Soriguer, Patrocinio Morrondo
BACKGROUND: Filarioid nematode parasites are major health hazards with important medical, veterinary and economic implications. Recently, they have been considered as indicators of climate change. FINDINGS: In this paper, we report the first record of Setaria tundra in roe deer from the Iberian Peninsula. Adult S. tundra were collected from the peritoneal cavity during the post-mortem examination of a 2 year-old male roe deer, which belonged to a private fenced estate in La Alcarria (Guadalajara, Spain)...
September 29, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
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