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Post exposure hiv prophylaxis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914484/comparing-non-occupational-post-exposure-prophylaxis-drug-regimens-for-hiv-insights-from-a-linked-hiv-surveillance-system
#1
Anna B Pierce, Carol El-Hayek, Damien McCarthy, Jude Armishaw, Kerrie Watson, Anna Wilkinson, Brian Price, Edwina J Wright, Jennifer F Hoy, Mark A Stoové
Background: International non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (NPEP) guidelines recommend routine use of three drug NPEP regimens, despite absence of evidence for greater prevention efficacy compared with two drug regimens. This study examines the potential for excess HIV seroconversions among high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM) reporting receptive anal intercourse with a source of unknown HIV serostatus (RAIU) following a two-drug versus a three-drug NPEP regimen. Methods: Data for MSM in the Victorian NPEP service database between 10 August 2005 and 31 December 2012 were linked with all Victorian HIV notifications up to 31 December 2013...
December 5, 2016: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910722/post-exposure-prophylaxis-awareness-and-use-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-london-who-use-geosocial-networking-smartphone-applications
#2
William C Goedel, Daniel Hagen, Perry N Halkitis, Richard E Greene, Marybec Griffin-Tomas, Forrest A Brooks, DeMarc Hickson, Dustin T Duncan
The number of new HIV infections continues to be on the rise in many high-income countries, most notably among men who have sex with men (MSM). Despite recent attention to the use of antiretroviral medications as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among MSM, considerably less research has been devoted to examining the awareness and use of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Based on a convenience sample of 179 self-reported HIV-uninfected MSM using a geosocial-networking smartphone application, this study is among the first to examine the awareness and use of PEP and their demographic and behavioral correlates among MSM in London...
December 2, 2016: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906766/prescription-of-post-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-1-in-the-emergency-room-correct-transmission-risk-assessment-remains-challenging
#3
Alex Marzel, Henriette Heinrich, Lukas Schilliger, Jan S Fehr, Huldrych F Günthard, Roger Kouyos, Silvana K Rampini
BACKGROUND: Limited data are available about the accuracy of PEP prescription in the emergency rooms. Here, we evaluated PEP prescription decision-making with respect to the risk of sexual HIV transmission and the exposed person`s fear vis-à-vis HIV. METHODS: Using a risk-assessment algorithm, we retrospectively evaluated the adequacy of PEP prescription for all persons presenting at the emergency room of the University Hospital Zurich after consensual sex from 2007 to 2013...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894270/evaluation-of-tolerability-with-the-co-formulation-elvitegravir-cobicistat-emtricitabine-and-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-for-post-hiv-exposure-prophylaxis
#4
Nadia Valin, Laurent Fonquernie, Anne Daguenel, Pauline Campa, Theresita Anthony, Marguerite Guiguet, Pierre Marie Girard, Marie Caroline Meyohas
BACKGROUND: The preferred regimen for HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is based mainly on safety and tolerability because it is given to immunocompetent people without HIV infection for a limited time (28 days). The frequency of adverse events (AEs) may be > 60%. Although AEs are generally not severe, they can lead to lack of adherence and failure to complete the regimen. We evaluated the co-formulation elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Stribild(®)) prescribed as one pill taken once daily for HIV PEP in terms of tolerability and adherence...
November 29, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865332/human-immunodeficiency-virus-other-sexually-transmitted-infections-and-sexual-and-reproductive-health-in-lesbian-gay-bisexual-transgender-youth
#5
REVIEW
Sarah M Wood, Caroline Salas-Humara, Nadia L Dowshen
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT), and questioning youth represent a diverse population who are affected by many sexual health inequities, including increased risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). To provide comprehensive sexual health care for LGBT youth, providers should set the stage with a nonjudgmental, respectful tone. Providers should be competent in recognizing symptoms of STIs and HIV and aware of the most up-to-date screening guidelines for LGBT youth...
December 2016: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809557/comparison-of-dapivirine-vaginal-gel-and-film-formulation-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-fame-02b
#6
Jennifer A Robinson, Mark A Marzinke, Rahul P Bakshi, Edward J Fuchs, Christine Radebaugh, Wutyi S Aung, Hans Spiegel, Jenell S Coleman, Lisa C Rohan, Craig W Hendrix
Objective While pre-exposure prophylaxis with oral tenofovir/emtricitabine reduces HIV acquisition rates, poor adherence to and acceptability of vaginal gels and the potential for evolving drug resistance has led to development of vaginal film formulations and other antiretroviral drugs, respectively, including the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor dapivirine. Study Design In this two-arm, cross-over study of a novel fast-dissolving dapivirine film and a previously studied semisolid dapivirine gel, 10 healthy women received a single 1...
November 3, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799005/influences-of-geo-spatial-location-on-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-use-in-south-africa-positioning-microbicides-for-better-product-uptake
#7
Eliza M Govender, Leila E Mansoor, Quarraisha Abdool Karim
Young women bear a disproportionately high burden of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa, prioritising pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can be an integral part of HIV prevention combination strategies. Women initiated HIV prevention technology options will require consistent adherence, an imperative for product effectiveness. With several PrEP clinical trials underway; exploring women's acceptability to advances in HIV prevention technologies can better facilitate demand creation for future PrEP roll out. This study utilised the opportunity of post-trial access to CAPRISA 008 women (trial) and non-trial women from three geo-spatial settings (urban, rural and peri-urban) to identify microbicide acceptability and how product associations of microbicides can influence future HIV prevention choices...
November 1, 2016: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749602/implementation-and-operational-research-affordable-care-act-implementation-in-a-california-health-care-system-leads-to-growth-in-hiv-positive-patient-enrollment-and-changes-in-patient-characteristics
#8
Derek D Satre, Andrea Altschuler, Sujaya Parthasarathy, Michael J Silverberg, Paul Volberding, Cynthia I Campbell
OBJECTIVES: This study examined implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in relation to HIV-positive patient enrollment in an integrated health care system; as well as changes in new enrollee characteristics, benefit structure, and health care utilization after key ACA provisions went into effect in 2014. METHODS: This mixed-methods study was set in Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC). Qualitative interviews with 29 KPNC leaders explored planning for ACA implementation...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712617/what-is-the-extent-of-repeat-prescriptions-for-post-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-after-sexual-exposure-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-the-uk
#9
Carrie Llewellyn, Harriet Martin, Eileen Nixon
People who repeatedly present for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for prevention of HIV following a high-risk sexual exposure are of concern according to the British HIV Association PEP guidelines. The aim of this audit was to determine the extent of repeat PEP prescriptions for men who have sex with men (MSM) by conducting a retrospective review of patient notes from a 5-year period at one genitourinary medicine clinic. Over the 5 years, 107 of 929 MSM (11.5%; 95% confidence interval: 9.45-13.55) received more than one PEP prescription (repeat range 1-8; mean=3...
October 7, 2016: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682067/hepatitis-c-virus-postexposure-prophylaxis-in-the-healthcare-worker-why-direct-acting-antivirals-don-t-change-a-thing
#10
Susanna Naggie, David P Holland, Mark S Sulkowski, David L Thomas
Currently, 380 000-400 000 occupational exposures to blood-borne pathogens occur annually in the United States. The management for occupational HIV or hepatitis B virus exposures includes postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) when necessary; however, PEP is not recommended for hepatitis C virus (HCV) exposures. Recent approval of HCV direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) has renewed discussions as to whether these therapies could be used to prevent infection after exposure. There are no published studies addressing this question, but the prescribing of DAAs for PEP has been reported...
September 28, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668463/modeling-the-effects-of-morphine-on-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-dynamics
#11
Naveen K Vaidya, Ruy M Ribeiro, Alan S Perelson, Anil Kumar
Complications of HIV-1 infection in individuals who utilize drugs of abuse is a significant problem, because these drugs have been associated with higher virus replication and accelerated disease progression as well as severe neuropathogenesis. To gain further insight it is important to quantify the effects of drugs of abuse on HIV-1 infection dynamics. Here, we develop a mathematical model that incorporates experimentally observed effects of morphine on inducing HIV-1 co-receptor expression. For comparison we also considered viral dynamic models with cytolytic or noncytolytic effector cell responses...
September 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658864/long-acting-rilpivirine-as-potential-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-1-prevention-the-mwri-01-study-an-open-label-phase-1-compartmental-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-assessment
#12
Ian McGowan, Charlene S Dezzutti, Aaron Siegel, Jarret Engstrom, Alexiy Nikiforov, Kathryn Duffill, Cory Shetler, Nicola Richardson-Harman, Kaleab Abebe, David Back, Laura Else, Deidre Egan, Saye Khoo, James E Egan, Ronald Stall, Peter E Williams, Khaleel K Rehman, Amy Adler, Rhonda M Brand, Beatrice Chen, Sharon Achilles, Ross D Cranston
BACKGROUND: Long-acting injectable antiretroviral agents are being developed for HIV-1 prevention. The MWRI-01 study was done to characterise the safety, acceptability, and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of long-acting rilpivirine. METHODS: We did a phase 1 open-label study at the University of Pittsburgh. We enrolled healthy individuals (aged 18-45 years) who were seronegative for HIV-1. Participants were assigned alternately one intramuscular dose of either 1200 mg or 600 mg long-acting rilpivirine, beginning with the 1200 mg dose...
December 2016: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631366/anti-retroviral-therapy-based-hiv-prevention-among-a-sample-of-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-cape-town-south-africa-use-of-post-exposure-prophylaxis-and-knowledge-on-pre-exposure-prophylaxis
#13
J M Hugo, R D Stall, K Rebe, J E Egan, G De Swardt, H Struthers, J A McIntyre
Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) have been affected disproportionately by the global HIV pandemic. Rates of consistent condom-use are low and there is a need for further biomedical prevention interventions to prevent new HIV infections. Post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) can reduce the risk of HIV, but uptake among MSM is low. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), an innovative anti-retroviral-based HIV prevention tool might be an appropriate intervention for MSM who have recently accessed PEP that involves HIV negative individuals taking daily tenofovir+emtricitabine for HIV prevention...
December 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615724/pre-exposure-prophylaxis-a-useful-tool-to-prevent-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#14
G Pialoux, C Delaugerre, L Cotte, F Raffi, E Cua, J-M Molina
The aim of preventive measures against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is to reduce the incidence of HIV infection in the general population and in high-risk groups, such as men having sex with men (MSM), and to reduce the risk that a given individual will contract or spread the virus. Male and female condoms, post-exposure prophylaxis and circumcision are preventive methods currently recognized or promoted worldwide. Although modest success has been reported in a phase-III vaccine trial, other methods are being evaluated, such as vaginal and rectal microbicides, and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)...
September 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572401/emtricitabine-triphosphate-in-dried-blood-spots-as-a-marker-of-recent-dosing
#15
Jose Castillo-Mancilla, Sharon Seifert, Kayla Campbell, Stacey Coleman, Kevin McAllister, Jia-Hua Zheng, Edward M Gardner, Albert Liu, David V Glidden, Robert Grant, Sybil Hosek, Craig M Wilson, Lane R Bushman, Samantha MaWhinney, Peter L Anderson
BACKGROUND: New objective measures of antiretroviral adherence are needed. We determined if emtricitabine triphosphate (FTC-TP) in dried blood spots (DBS) can be used as a marker of recent dosing to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-emtricitabine (TDF-FTC). METHODS: The half-life of FTC-TP was estimated in DBS samples obtained from an intensive pharmacokinetic (PK) study of co-formulated TDF-FTC in HIV-negative and HIV-infected participants. The concordance of quantifiable FTC-TP in DBS with tenofovir (TFV)/FTC in plasma was evaluated utilizing paired plasma/DBS samples from participants enrolled in 2 large pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) open-label trials...
August 29, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562987/management-of-health-care-workers-following-occupational-exposure-to-hepatitis-b-hepatitis-c-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#16
W Wy Sin, A Wc Lin, K Cw Chan, K H Wong
INTRODUCTION: Needlestick injury or mucosal contact with blood or body fluids is well recognised in the health care setting. This study aimed to describe the post-exposure management and outcome in health care workers following exposure to hepatitis B, hepatitis C, or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during needlestick injury or mucosal contact. METHODS: This case series study was conducted in a public clinic in Hong Kong. All health care workers with a needlestick injury or mucosal contact with blood or body fluids who were referred to the Therapeutic Prevention Clinic of Department of Health from 1999 to 2013 were included...
October 2016: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539310/knowledge-attitudes-and-beliefs-regarding-post-exposure-prophylaxis-among-south-african-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#17
J M Hugo, R D Stall, K Rebe, J E Egan, G Jobson, G De Swardt, H Struthers, J A McIntyre
The Soweto Men's Study (2008), demonstrated an overall HIV prevalence rate of 13.2 %, with 10.1 % among straight-identified Men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM), 6.4 % among bisexual-identified MSM and 33.9 % among gay-identified MSM. Behavioral interventions are imperative, but insufficient to prevent new HIV infections. Biomedical prevention of HIV offers a variety of combination prevention tools, including Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). PEP studies amongst MSM have been conducted in Amsterdam, Brazil and San Francisco, but never before in Africa...
December 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537936/characteristics-sexual-practices-and-sexually-transmissible-infections-diagnoses-of-men-who-have-sex-with-men-and-use-non-occupational-hiv-post-exposure-prophylaxis-in-victoria-australia
#18
Jason J Ong, Andre Landika, Christopher K Fairley, Catriona Bradshaw, Marcus Chen, Tim R H Read, Eric P F Chow
Background: Non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (NPEP) is available to people with a potential risk for HIV exposure within the preceding 72h. We sought to determine if men who have sex with men (MSM) and receive NPEP had a significantly different risk profile (before the preceding 72h) from MSM not receiving NPEP. If this is the case, NPEP consultations may act as a cue for also discussing pre-exposure prophylaxis. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis to compare the demographic characteristics, sexual practices and clinical diagnoses of MSM who were NPEP users and those who were non-NPEP users attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre from January 2008 to December 2014...
August 19, 2016: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477994/awareness-and-use-of-nonoccupational-post-exposure-prophylaxis-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-vancouver-canada
#19
S Y Lin, N J Lachowsky, M Hull, A Rich, Z Cui, P Sereda, J Jollimore, K Stephenson, M Thumath, Jsg Montaner, E A Roth, R S Hogg, D M Moore
OBJECTIVES: Nonoccupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP) is a strategy to reduce the risk of HIV infection in those with high-risk exposure. This study characterized nPEP awareness among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) in Metro Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada after a pilot nPEP programme established in 2012. METHODS: Momentum Health Study participants were MSM aged ≥16 years recruited via respondent-driven sampling (RDS) who completed a computer-assisted self-interview...
October 2016: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27476591/-guidelines-for-caring-for-hiv-infected-adults-and-post-exposure-prophylaxis-of-hiv-infection
#20
Svatava Snopková, Hanuš Rozsypal, Viktor Aster, Dalibor Sedláček, Jaroslav Kapla, Zdeňka Jerhotová, Lenka Olbrechtová, Alena Zjevíková, Pavel Dlouhý, David Jilich, Dan Veselý
Presented are general principles of care for HIV-infected persons following their admission to an AIDS care center, initiation of antiretroviral therapy and follow-up. Scientific research, drug development and new clinical data in recent years have led to a change in certain therapeutic perspectives and preferences for the treatment of HIV infection. Certain conditions are better specified, which affect the choice of antiretroviral regimens. Procedures and criteria for monitoring the effect of treatment and indication of post-exposure prophylaxis are specified...
March 2016: Klinická Mikrobiologie a Infekc̆ní Lékar̆ství
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