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Post exposure hiv prophylaxis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448948/occupational-exposure-to-hiv-in-a-developing-country-assessing-knowledge-and-attitude-of-healthcare-professional-before-and-after-an-awareness-symposium
#1
Samina Ismail, Safia Awan, Rubaba Naeem, Sarfraz Siddiqui, Badar Afzal, Bushra Jamil, Uzma Rahim Khan
OBJECTIVE: Health care providers (HCPs) are at risk of occupational exposure to HIV infection. In developing world these exposure occur due to general lack of awareness, education and structured training of HCPs. The objective of the study was to asses if continuing medical education symposium can be used as an effective educational tool to improve attitude, awareness and knowledge regarding occupational exposure to HIV infection. This quasi-experimental study was conducted among HCPs from Karachi, Pakistan...
February 15, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433965/hiv-preexposure-prophylaxis-an-essential-safe-and-effective-prevention-tool-for-sexual-health
#2
M Siguier, J-M Molina
Preexposure prophylaxis of HIV with antiretroviral drugs is a prevention tool available in France since 2016, combined with the prevention methods already used (condoms, post-exposure treatment, rapid treatment of diagnosed HIV infections, etc.). It is targeted at populations at high risk of HIV infection, especially men who have sex with men, for whom traditional prevention methods are insufficient. We collected clinical research data, which resulted in the launch of preexposure prophylaxis in the United States and then elsewhere in the world, safety, tolerability and cost data, as well as ongoing research data (new molecules/methods of administration)...
February 9, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429390/belgian-guidelines-for-non-occupational-hiv-post-exposure-prophylaxis-2017
#3
Agnès Libois, Eric Florence, Inge Derdelinckx, Jean Cyr Yombi, Sophie Henrard, Françoise Uurlings, Stefaan Vandecasteele, Sabine D Allard, Rémy Demeester, Filip Van Wanzeele, Nathalie Ausselet, Stéphane De Wit
We present the updated Belgian guidelines for the use of non-occupational HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (NONOPEP). This document is inspired by UK guidelines 2015, adapted to the Belgian situation and approved by all AIDS reference centers in Belgium. When recommended, NONOPEP should be initiated as soon as possible, preferably within 24 h of exposure but can be offered up to 72 h. The duration of NONOPEP should be 28 days. These current guidelines include epidemiologic estimations, which can be used to calculate the risk of infection after a potential exposure and help to decide whether or not to start prophylaxis...
February 12, 2018: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419570/hiv-post-exposure-prophylaxis-in-pocket-pip-for-individuals-with-low-frequency-high-risk-hiv-exposures
#4
Ethan Tumarkin, Amila Heendeniya, Pauline Murphy, Tania Placido, Darrell H S Tan, Isaac I Bogoch
BACKGROUND: On-demand PrEP may reduce one's risk of HIV acquisition, however it is unclear if individuals with a very low frequency of HIV exposures are conferred adequate protection. We evaluated a novel approach dubbed HIV Post-Exposure Prophylaxis-in-Pocket ('PIP'), for individuals with a low frequency of high risk HIV exposures. SETTING: Two HIV clinics in Toronto, Canada, managing HIV prevention cases. METHODS: A retrospective evaluation of patients referred to HIV clinics for PrEP between January 1, 2013 and September 30, 2017, inclusive...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389978/dendritic-cell-immunotherapy-followed-by-cart-interruption-during-hiv-1-infection-induces-plasma-protein-markers-of-cellular-immunity-and-neutrophil-recruitment
#5
Henk-Jan van den Ham, Jason D Cooper, Jakub Tomasik, Sabine Bahn, Joeri L Aerts, Albert D M E Osterhaus, Rob A Gruters, Arno C Andeweg
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the host response to dendritic cell-based immunotherapy and subsequent combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) interruption in HIV-1-infected individuals at the plasma protein level. DESIGN: An autologous dendritic cell (DC) therapeutic vaccine was administered to HIV-infected individuals, stable on cART. The effect of vaccination was evaluated at the plasma protein level during the period preceding cART interruption, during analytical therapy interruption and at viral reactivation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299789/hiv-related-healthcare-needs-and-access-barriers-for-brazilian-transgender-and-gender-diverse-people
#6
Angelo Brandelli Costa, Anna Martha Vaitses Fontanari, Ramiro Figueiredo Catelan, Karine Schwarz, Juliana Ledur Stucky, Heitor Tome da Rosa Filho, Paola Fagundes Pase, Daniel Augusto Mori Gagliotti, Alexandre Saadeh, Maria Inês Rodrigues Lobato, Henrique Caetano Nardi, Silvia Helena Koller
The aim of this study is to investigate HIV-related healthcare needs and access barriers for Brazilian transgender and gender diverse people. Data were collected from gender identity clinics and the questionnaire was also made available on the Internet. Out of the 543 participants-62.1% (n = 337) transgender women, 28.7 (n = 156) transgender men and 9.2% (n = 50) gender diverse people, 63.7% had been tested at least once in their lives. The prevalence of self-reported HIV-positive status among transgender women was 16...
January 3, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296104/addressing-the-dual-health-epidemics-of-hiv-and-sexual-abuse-among-children-and-adolescents-in-kenya-uptake-of-hiv-counseling-and-post-exposure-prophylaxis
#7
Carolyne Ajema, Charity Mbugua, Peter Memiah, Camille Wood, Courtney Cook, Ronald Kotut, Lina Digolo
Purpose: Child sexual abuse and HIV are key health challenges in Kenya. In 2015, LVCT Health conducted a study aimed at assessing the quality of HIV-related services offered to child survivors of sexual violence in public health facilities. Materials and methods: A qualitative data collection approach was utilized. Qualitative data were collected through in-depth interviews with 31 providers. Quantitative methods included a retrospective review of 164 records of child survivors of rape who had accessed services 6 months prior to the commencement of the study...
2018: Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285638/the-use-of-online-posts-to-identify-barriers-to-and-facilitators-of-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-a-comparison-to-a-systematic-review-of-the-peer-reviewed-literature
#8
Alisse Hannaford, Madeleine Lipshie-Williams, Joanna L Starrels, Julia H Arnsten, Jessica Rizzuto, Phillip Cohen, Damon Jacobs, Viraj V Patel
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) remains an under-utilized HIV prevention tool among men who have sex with men (MSM). To more comprehensively elucidate barriers and facilitators to PrEP use among US MSM, we conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed published articles and content analysis of online posts about PrEP. We searched peer-reviewed databases (Medline, Web of Science, Google Scholar) using MESH headings and keywords about PrEP and/or HIV prevention from 2005 to 2015. We included original studies among MSM in the US that reported on barriers, facilitators, or other factors related to PrEP use...
December 28, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278971/prevention-strategies-against-hiv-transmission-a-proactive-approach
#9
Antonio J Carrion, Jovan D Miles, Juan F Mosley, Lillian L Smith, April S Prather, Marcus M Gurley, Linh D Phan, Emily C Everton
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has now transformed into a manageable chronic condition. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has proven efficacious at controlling the disease progression. Based on compelling evidence, the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) developed guidelines for the management of persons infected with HIV. However, there are approximately 50 000 new cases of HIV in the United States each year. In this article, we review proactive methods to reduce the transmission of HIV, which include reinforcing patient education, gel-coated condoms that destroy HIV, HIV vaccinations, and adequately utilizing pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP)...
February 2018: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239887/incidence-of-sexually-transmitted-infections-before-and-after-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-a-cohort-study
#10
Vinh-Kim Nguyen, Zoë R Greenwald, Helen Trottier, Martha Cadieux, Alexandre Goyette, Mariève Beauchemin, Louise Charest, Danièle Longpré, Stéphane Lavoie, Hermione Gbego Tossa, Réjean Thomas
OBJECTIVE: Use of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV raises concerns about sexually transmitted infection (STI) incidence due to decreased condom use among men who have sex with men (MSM). This study examines whether PrEP is associated with STIs in the 12-months following PrEP prescription relative to the 12-months prior to PrEP and if STI rates are higher among PrEP users relative to individuals receiving Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study including PrEP users with >12 months of follow-up before PrEP prescription and individuals receiving PEP from 2010-2015 at Clinique l'Actuel (Montréal, Canada)...
December 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229440/post-exposure-prophylaxis-with-doxycycline-to-prevent-sexually-transmitted-infections-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-an-open-label-randomised-substudy-of-the-anrs-ipergay-trial
#11
Jean-Michel Molina, Isabelle Charreau, Christian Chidiac, Gilles Pialoux, Eric Cua, Constance Delaugerre, Catherine Capitant, Daniela Rojas-Castro, Julien Fonsart, Béatrice Bercot, Cécile Bébéar, Laurent Cotte, Olivier Robineau, François Raffi, Pierre Charbonneau, Alexandre Aslan, Julie Chas, Laurence Niedbalski, Bruno Spire, Luis Sagaon-Teyssier, Diane Carette, Soizic Le Mestre, Veronique Doré, Laurence Meyer
BACKGROUND: Increased rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have been reported among men who have sex with men. We aimed to assess whether post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) with doxycycline could reduce the incidence of STIs. METHODS: All participants attending their scheduled visit in the open-label extension of the ANRS IPERGAY trial in France (men aged 18 years or older having condomless sex with men and using pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate plus emtricitabine) were eligible for inclusion in this open-label randomised study...
December 8, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208160/hiv-epidemic-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-the-czech-republic-2016-high-time-for-targeted-action
#12
Viktor Mravčík, Michal Pitoňák, Robert Hejzák, Barbara Janíková, Ivo Procházka
Reported incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the Czech Republic increased steeply over the past decade from 90 new cases in 2005 to 266 in 2015. This increase is almost exclusively attributed to sexual transmissions between men who have sex with men (MSM). In 2015, there were 79% (n=210) newly diagnosed cases among MSM, 17% (n=45) were attributed to heterosexual transmission and 1% (n=3) to people who inject drugs. Interventions targeted at MSM have not yet been prioritised in the broadly focused national HIV prevention strategy which this is envisaged to change in the programme set out for 2018 to 2022...
November 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183270/results-from-the-post-exposure-prophylaxis-pilot-program-p-quad-demonstration-project-in-los-angeles-county
#13
Matthew R Beymer, Ryan M Kofron, Chi-Hong Tseng, Robert K Bolan, Risa P Flynn, Jennifer M Sayles, Mario J Perez, Wilbert C Jordan, Raphael J Landovitz
Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is a promising but under-utilized strategy for HIV prevention in high-risk populations. Between March 2010 and June 2011, two community-based clinics in Los Angeles County provided PEP in a pilot program to 267 unique individuals. Courses were primarily dispensed to men who have sex with men (84%) and consisted overwhelmingly of a three-drug antiretroviral therapy regimen containing two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and either an integrase inhibitor (raltegravir) or a boosted protease inhibitor (lopinavir/ritonavir)...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166481/-prep-forum-an-on-line-debate-on-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-in-brazil
#14
Artur Acelino Francisco Luz Nunes Queiroz, Alvaro Francisco Lopes de Sousa
This study aimed to identify health-promoting contents focused on HIV/Aids prevention in messages posted in a Facebook group for debates on the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). This was a prospective observational study using systematic non-participant observation. From July 2015 to June 2016, all the posts in the group were catalogued and formed a corpus. Everything was processed in IRaMuTeQ and analyzed by descending hierarchical classification. The collected data were grouped in three classes: (1) HIV/Aids prevention: discussing prophylaxis, treatment, target public, and side effects; (2) universal access to PrEP in Brazil: discussing government responsibilities; (3) on-line purchase of truvada: exposing a situation of vulnerability...
November 21, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135651/comparison-of-the-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-single-dose-tenofovir-vaginal-film-and-gel-formulation-fame-05
#15
Jennifer A Robinson, Mark A Marzinke, Edward J Fuchs, Rahul P Bakshi, Hans M L Spiegel, Jenell S Coleman, Lisa C Rohan, Craig W Hendrix
OBJECTIVE: While pre-exposure prophylaxis with oral tenofovir (TFV) disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine reduces HIV acquisition rates, poor adherence to and acceptability of daily vaginal gels has led to development of vaginal film formulations to improve adherence and, potentially, enable episodic use. STUDY DESIGN: In this two-arm, cross-over study of a fast-dissolving tenofovir film (40 mg) compared to a previously studied semisolid tenofovir 1% gel (40 mg), 10 healthy women received a single vaginal dose of each study product...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127409/frequency-of-human-cd45-target-cells-is-a-key-determinant-of-intravaginal-hiv-1-infection-in-humanized-mice
#16
Philip V Nguyen, Jocelyn M Wessels, Kristen Mueller, Fatemeh Vahedi, Varun Anipindi, Chris P Verschoor, Marianne Chew, Alexandre Deshiere, Uladzimir Karniychuk, Tony Mazzulli, Michel J Tremblay, Ali A Ashkar, Charu Kaushic
Approximately 40% of HIV-1 infections occur in the female genital tract (FGT), primarily through heterosexual transmission. FGT factors determining outcome of HIV-1 exposure are incompletely understood, limiting prevention strategies. Here, humanized NOD-Rag1(-/-) γc(-/-) mice differentially reconstituted with human CD34+ -enriched hematopoietic stem cells (Hu-mice), were used to assess target cell frequency and viral inoculation dose as determinants of HIV-1 infection following intravaginal (IVAG) challenge...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108450/comparing-provider-and-client-preferences-for-hiv-prevention-services-in-south-africa-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#17
John Shaver, Patrick Sullivan, Aaron Siegler, Alex de Voux, Nancy Phaswana-Mafuya, Linda-Gail Bekker, Stefan D Baral, Andrea L Wirtz, Chris Beyrer, Ben Brown, Rob Stephenson
Combination prevention efforts are now recommended toward reducing HIV incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM). Understanding the perceptions of both MSM and service providers is critical to informing the development of prevention packages and ultimately improving intervention effectiveness. This study assessed the preferences of MSM and health service providers in the administration of HIV-prevention efforts. Qualitative data were gathered from a series of separate MSM and health care provider focus groups in 2 South African cities...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091217/tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-emtricitabine-plus-ritonavir-boosted-lopinavir-or-cobicistat-boosted-elvitegravir-as-a-single-tablet-regimen-for-hiv-post-exposure-prophylaxis
#18
A Inciarte, L Leal, E González, A León, C Lucero, J Mallolas, B Torres, M Laguno, J Rojas, M Martínez-Rebollar, A González-Cordón, A Cruceta, J A Arnaiz, J M Gatell, F García
Objectives: To assess HIV-1 post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) non-completion at day 28, comparing ritonavir-boosted lopinavir versus cobicistat-boosted elvitegravir as a single-tablet regimen (STR), using tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine with both of these therapies. Methods: A prospective, open, randomized clinical trial was performed. Individuals attending the emergency room due to potential sexual exposure to HIV and who met criteria for PEP were randomized 1:3 into two groups receiving either 400/100 mg of lopinavir/ritonavir (n = 38) or 150/150 mg of elvitegravir/cobicistat (n = 119), with both groups also receiving 245/200 mg of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082767/design-and-evaluation-of-mucoadhesive-vaginal-tablets-of-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-for-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-of-hiv
#19
Arshad Bashir Khan, Ram Sharnagat Thakur
OBJECTIVE: To design and evaluate novel, feasible, safe, mucoadhesive intravaginal tablets of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). SIGNIFICANCE: It may provide pre-exposure prophylaxis for women against HIV. METHODS: TDF intravaginal tablets were formulated employing poylvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as the matrix forming polymer and various mucoadhesive polymers such as carbopol 934, 940, chitosan, and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC). Wet granulation was used...
October 30, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074102/adherence-to-hiv-post-exposure-prophylaxis-a-multivariate-regression-analysis-of-a-5-years-prospective-cohort
#20
Stefano Malinverni, Anne-Françoise Gennotte, Monica Schuster, Stéphane De Wit, Pierre Mols, Agnès Libois
BACKGROUND: Non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP) is a recommended public health intervention after a sexual or percutaneous exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study recording consultations for nPEP at a reference HIV center in Brussels, Belgium from January 2011 to December 2015. We recorded attendance to follow-up, reported completion of nPEP and pharmacy records to measure adherence. Multivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify independent risk factors for adherence to nPEP and attendance to first follow-up visit at the STI clinic...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Infection
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