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Post exposure hiv prophylaxis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684327/do-health-promotion-messages-integrate-unintended-pregnancy-and-sti-prevention-a-content-analysis-of-online-information-for-adolescents-and-young-adults
#1
Riley J Steiner, Catherine N Rasberry, Jessica M Sales, Laura M Gaydos, Karen Pazol, Michael Kramer, Andrea Swartzendruber
OBJECTIVE: Recently there have been calls to strengthen integration of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention messages, spurred by increasing use of long-acting reversible contraception. To assess the extent to which public health/clinical messages about unintended pregnancy prevention also address STI prevention, we conducted a content analysis of web-based health promotion information for young people. STUDY DESIGN: Websites identified through a systematic Google search were eligible for inclusion if they were operated by a United States-based organization with a mission related to public health/clinical services and the URL included: 1) original content; 2) about sexual and reproductive health; 3) explicitly for adolescents and/or young adults...
April 20, 2018: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676342/audit-of-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-programme-interventions-in-hiv-exposed-children-at-national-hospital-abuja-nigeria
#2
Mariya Mukhtar-Yola, Adekunle Tolulope Otuneye, Amsa Baba Mairami, Yewande Wey, Vincent Nwatah, Lamidi Isah Audu
Background: Ninety percentage of children acquire human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the form of Mother-to-child Transmission (MTCT). In the absence of interventions, transmission rates range from 15% to 45%. This can be reduced to below 5% with effective interventions. The last published national guideline (NG) on prevention of MTCT (PMTCT) was in 2010. Clinical audits are essential in improving the quality of care delivered to patients. Objectives: The study objectives were to determine the rate of MTCT of HIV in exposed infants at a follow-up clinic between 2011 and 2014 and to determine the level of adherence to 2010 NG on the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, feeding options, antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis and the use of co-trimoxazole (CTZ)...
January 2018: Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673698/-which-information-is-given-during-the-purchase-of-an-hiv-self-test-in-a-caen-pharmacy-a-comprehensive-transversal-and-observational-study-using-surveys-without-modification-of-practice
#3
S Guitton, A Rabiaza
INTRODUCTION: HIV infection affects about 150,000 people in France. In total, 30,000 of them are unaware of their serostatus. In this context, HIV self-testing has arrived in France in September 2015. The aim of our study was to analyze the level of application of the recommendations during the purchase of an HIV self-test. Our primary hypothesis was that the delivered information is poor. METHODS: We realized a comprehensive transversal and observational study with surveys without modification of practice in all Caen pharmacies...
April 16, 2018: Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626043/hiv-1-disease-progression-in-immune-competent-hiv-1-infected-and-breastfeeding-mothers-participating-in-the-anrs-12174-clinical-trial-in-burkina-faso-south-africa-uganda-and-zambia-a-cohort-study
#4
Eric Nagaonle Somé, Ingunn M S Engebretsen, Nicolas Nagot, Nicolas Yelbomkan Meda, Roselyne Vallo, Chipepo Kankasa, James K Tumwine, Mandisa Singata-Madliki, Kim Harper, G Justus Hofmeyr, Philippe Van de Perre, Thorkild Tylleskär
OBJECTIVE: We have assessed HIV-1 disease progression among HIV-1-positive mothers in relation to duration of any or exclusive breast feeding in the context of ANRS 12174 trial. METHODS: The analysis was completed on 203, 212, 272 and 529 HIV-1-positive and lactating mothers with CD4 count >350 cells/µL from Burkina Faso, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia, respectively. The trial compared lamivudine and lopinavir/ritonavir as a peri-exposure prophylaxis during a 50-week follow-up time...
April 5, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625796/sexualised-drug-use-in-the-united-kingdom-uk-a-review-of-the-literature
#5
Claire Edmundson, Ellen Heinsbroek, Rachel Glass, Vivian Hope, Hamish Mohammed, Martin White, Monica Desai
BACKGROUND: Sexualised drug use (SDU) refers to the use of drugs in a sexual context. This includes 'Chemsex'- the use of drugs (specifically crystal methamphetamine, GHB/GBL and mephedrone) before or during planned sexual activity to sustain, enhance, disinhibit or facilitate the experience. Here we aimed to synthesise available UK prevalence data for Chemsex, SDU and the use of Chemsex drugs in an undefined context (CDU) in men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: Papers published between January 2007 and August 2017 reporting Chemsex, SDU and/or Chemsex drug use (CDU) prevalence in MSM were identified through PubMed...
April 3, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622045/a-couple-based-hiv-prevention-intervention-for-latino-men-who-have-sex-with-men-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Omar Martinez, M Isabel Fernandez, Elwin Wu, Alex Carballo-Diéguez, Guillermo Prado, Adam Davey, Ethan Levine, Brian Mattera, Nikki Lopez, Omar Valentin, Ashley Murray, Madeline Sutton
BACKGROUND: Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) experienced a 13% increase in HIV diagnoses from 2010 to 2014, more than any other racial/ethnic subgroup of MSM in the United States. If current HIV diagnoses rates persist, about one in four Latino MSM in the United States will be diagnosed with HIV during their lifetime. Although some efficacious HIV prevention interventions for Latino MSM exist, none have focused on couples. This paper describes the protocol of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to test the preliminary efficacy of a couple-based HIV prevention intervention that is culturally tailored for Latino men and their same-sex partners...
April 5, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582199/integrated-bio-behavioral-approach-to-improve-adherence-to-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-and-reduce-hiv-risk-in-people-who-use-drugs-a-pilot-feasibility-study
#7
Roman Shrestha, Frederick L Altice, Pramila Karki, Michael M Copenhaver
This study reports the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of the bio-behavioral community-friendly health recovery program-an integrated, HIV prevention intervention to improve pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) adherence and HIV-risk reduction behaviors among high-risk people who use drugs. We used a within-subjects, pretest-posttest follow-up design to recruit participants, who were HIV-uninfected, methadone-maintained and reported HIV-risk behaviors and had initiated PrEP (n = 40; males: 55%)...
March 26, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534210/promoting-positive-condom-use-experiences-among-young-black-msm-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-brief-clinic-based-intervention
#8
Richard A Crosby, Leandro Mena, Rachel Vickers Smith
The aim of this study is to determine, among young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM), the 12-month efficacy of a single-session, clinic-based intervention promoting condom use to enhance sexual pleasure (purpose 1) and the use of condoms from the start-to-finish of anal sex (purpose 2). A pre-test, post-test randomized controlled trial was conducted, using a 12-month period of follow-up observation, in STI clinics. Data from 394 YBMSM completing baseline and 12-month follow-up assessments were analyzed...
March 9, 2018: Health Education Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509759/sexual-risk-during-pregnancy-and-postpartum-periods-among-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-south-african-women-implications-for-primary-and-secondary-hiv-prevention-interventions
#9
Dvora Joseph Davey, Elise Farley, Yolanda Gomba, Thomas Coates, Landon Myer
BACKGROUND: HIV acquisition in pregnancy and breastfeeding contributes significantly toward pediatric HIV infection. However, little is known about how sexual behavior changes during pregnancy and postpartum periods which will help develop targeted HIV prevention and transmission interventions, including pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). METHODS: Cross-sectional study in HIV-infected and uninfected pregnant and postpartum women in Cape Town, South Africa. Interviewers collected survey data on demographic, sexual behaviors, and alcohol use among pregnant and post-partum women...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497452/the-latest-evidence-for-possible-hiv-1-curative-strategies
#10
REVIEW
Hanh Thi Pham, Thibault Mesplède
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection remains a major health issue worldwide. In developed countries, antiretroviral therapy has extended its reach from treatment of people living with HIV-1 to post-exposure prophylaxis, treatment as prevention, and, more recently, pre-exposure prophylaxis. These healthcare strategies offer the epidemiological tools to curve the epidemic in rich settings and will be concomitantly implemented in developing countries. One of the remaining challenges is to identify an efficacious curative strategy...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492179/exploring-receipt-of-hiv-pep-counseling-among-women-sexually-assaulted-by-an-intimate-partner
#11
Janice Du Mont, Lily Van, Daisy Kosa, Sheila Macdonald
Among 136 women sexually assaulted by a current or former male intimate partner presenting to hospital-based violence treatment centers, 58 (42.6%) received HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (HIV PEP) counseling by a specially trained sexual assault nurse. We identified factors that were associated with receipt of HIV PEP counseling. Those who received counseling were more likely to have been younger than 25 years of age, single, a student, vaginally penetrated, and have received various other services ( e.g ., STI prophylaxis)...
2018: Open AIDS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487471/nurturing-the-continuum-of-hiv-testing-treatment-and-prevention-matrix-cascade-in-reducing-hiv-transmission
#12
Clarence S Yah
Background: Despite the shift in antiretroviral therapy (ARVs) eligibility cascade from CD4 ≤ 200 to CD4 ≤ 350 to CD4 ≤ 500 mm3 , HIV related morbidity and mortality continue to escalate annually, as do HIV infections. The new paradigm of treatment for all HIV positives individual irrespective of CD4 count may significantly reduce HIV and related illnesses. The author assumes that all HIV infected partners should be eligible for HIV treatment and care, irrespective of CD4 count...
November 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480895/genital-inflammation-undermines-the-effectiveness-of-tenofovir-gel-in-preventing-hiv-acquisition-in-women
#13
Lyle R McKinnon, Lenine J Liebenberg, Nonhlanhla Yende-Zuma, Derseree Archary, Sinaye Ngcapu, Aida Sivro, Nico Nagelkerke, Jose Gerardo Garcia Lerma, Angela D Kashuba, Lindi Masson, Leila E Mansoor, Quarraisha Abdool Karim, Salim S Abdool Karim, Jo-Ann S Passmore
Several clinical trials have demonstrated that antiretroviral (ARV) drugs taken as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can prevent HIV infection, with the magnitude of protection ranging from -49 to 86% (refs. ). Although these divergent outcomes are thought to be due primarily to differences in product adherence, biological factors likely contribute. Despite selective recruitment of higher-risk participants for prevention trials, HIV risk is heterogeneous even within higher-risk groups. To determine whether this heterogeneity could influence patient outcomes following PrEP, we undertook a post hoc prospective analysis of results from the CAPRISA 004 trial for 1% tenofovir gel (n = 774 patients), one of the first trials to demonstrate protection against HIV infection...
February 26, 2018: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479524/the-acceptability-of-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-beliefs-of-health-care-professionals-working-in-sexually-transmitted-infections-clinics-and-hiv-treatment-centers
#14
Janneke P Bil, Elske Hoornenborg, Maria Prins, Arjan Hogewoning, Fernando Dias Goncalves Lima, Henry J C de Vries, Udi Davidovich
Background: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is highly effective for preventing HIV infections, but is not yet implemented in the Netherlands. As the attitudes of health-care professionals toward PrEP can influence future PrEP implementation, we studied PrEP knowledge and beliefs and their association with PrEP acceptability among professionals in clinics for sexually transmitted infection (STI professionals) and HIV treatment centers (HIV specialists). In addition, we examined preferred regimens, attitudes toward providing PrEP to key populations and to reimbursement of PrEP costs...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479251/childhood-exposures-to-discarded-needles-and-other-objects-potentially-contaminated-with-blood-borne-pathogens-in-toronto-canada
#15
Faisal Kordy, Astrid Petrich, Stanley E Read, Ari Bitnun
Background: Exposure to discarded needles or other objects put children at risk for infection with blood-borne pathogens (BBP), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C. Objective: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively analyze the epidemiology, management and outcome of children following such exposures in the greater Toronto community setting. Methods: A retrospective study of children <19 years of age who had community-based exposure to objects that could contain BBP between January 2001 and December 2014...
October 2017: Paediatrics & Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448948/occupational-exposure-to-hiv-in-a-developing-country-assessing-knowledge-and-attitude-of-healthcare-professional-before-and-after-an-awareness-symposium
#16
Samina Ismail, Safia Awan, Rubaba Naeem, Sarfraz Siddiqui, Badar Afzal, Bushra Jamil, Uzma Rahim Khan
OBJECTIVE: Health care providers (HCPs) are at risk of occupational exposure to HIV infection. In developing world these exposure occur due to general lack of awareness, education and structured training of HCPs. The objective of the study was to asses if continuing medical education symposium can be used as an effective educational tool to improve attitude, awareness and knowledge regarding occupational exposure to HIV infection. This quasi-experimental study was conducted among HCPs from Karachi, Pakistan...
February 15, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433965/hiv-preexposure-prophylaxis-an-essential-safe-and-effective-prevention-tool-for-sexual-health
#17
M Siguier, J-M Molina
Preexposure prophylaxis of HIV with antiretroviral drugs is a prevention tool available in France since 2016, combined with the prevention methods already used (condoms, post-exposure treatment, rapid treatment of diagnosed HIV infections, etc.). It is targeted at populations at high risk of HIV infection, especially men who have sex with men, for whom traditional prevention methods are insufficient. We collected clinical research data, which resulted in the launch of preexposure prophylaxis in the United States and then elsewhere in the world, safety, tolerability and cost data, as well as ongoing research data (new molecules/methods of administration)...
February 9, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429390/belgian-guidelines-for-non-occupational-hiv-post-exposure-prophylaxis-2017
#18
Agnès Libois, Eric Florence, Inge Derdelinckx, Jean Cyr Yombi, Sophie Henrard, Françoise Uurlings, Stefaan Vandecasteele, Sabine D Allard, Rémy Demeester, Filip Van Wanzeele, Nathalie Ausselet, Stéphane De Wit
We present the updated Belgian guidelines for the use of non-occupational HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (NONOPEP). This document is inspired by UK guidelines 2015, adapted to the Belgian situation and approved by all AIDS reference centers in Belgium. When recommended, NONOPEP should be initiated as soon as possible, preferably within 24 h of exposure but can be offered up to 72 h. The duration of NONOPEP should be 28 days. These current guidelines include epidemiologic estimations, which can be used to calculate the risk of infection after a potential exposure and help to decide whether or not to start prophylaxis...
February 12, 2018: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419570/hiv-post-exposure-prophylaxis-in-pocket-pip-for-individuals-with-low-frequency-high-risk-hiv-exposures
#19
Ethan Tumarkin, Amila Heendeniya, Pauline Murphy, Tania Placido, Darrell H S Tan, Isaac I Bogoch
BACKGROUND: On-demand PrEP may reduce one's risk of HIV acquisition, however it is unclear if individuals with a very low frequency of HIV exposures are conferred adequate protection. We evaluated a novel approach dubbed HIV Post-Exposure Prophylaxis-in-Pocket ('PIP'), for individuals with a low frequency of high risk HIV exposures. SETTING: Two HIV clinics in Toronto, Canada, managing HIV prevention cases. METHODS: A retrospective evaluation of patients referred to HIV clinics for PrEP between January 1, 2013 and September 30, 2017, inclusive...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389978/dendritic-cell-immunotherapy-followed-by-cart-interruption-during-hiv-1-infection-induces-plasma-protein-markers-of-cellular-immunity-and-neutrophil-recruitment
#20
Henk-Jan van den Ham, Jason D Cooper, Jakub Tomasik, Sabine Bahn, Joeri L Aerts, Albert D M E Osterhaus, Rob A Gruters, Arno C Andeweg
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the host response to dendritic cell-based immunotherapy and subsequent combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) interruption in HIV-1-infected individuals at the plasma protein level. DESIGN: An autologous dendritic cell (DC) therapeutic vaccine was administered to HIV-infected individuals, stable on cART. The effect of vaccination was evaluated at the plasma protein level during the period preceding cART interruption, during analytical therapy interruption and at viral reactivation...
2018: PloS One
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