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Pre exposure hiv prophylaxis

Kednapa Thavorn, Howsikan Kugathasan, Darrell H S Tan, Nasheed Moqueet, Stefan D Baral, Becky Skidmore, Derek MacFadden, Anna Simkin, Sharmistha Mishra
BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with antiretrovirals is an efficacious and effective intervention to decrease the risk of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) acquisition. Yet drug and delivery costs prohibit access in many jurisdictions. In the absence of guidelines for the synthesis of economic evaluations, we developed a protocol for a systematic review of economic evaluation studies for PrEP by drawing on best practices in systematic reviews and the conduct and reporting of economic evaluations...
March 15, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Hyun Ha Chang, Shin Woo Kim, Hyejin Jung, Sang Ah Lee, Han Ki Park, Sujeong Kim, Jong Myung Lee, Jun Yong Choi
BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the awareness of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among high-risk individuals, including men who have sex with men (MSM) and medical personnel (MP) in Korea through a cross-sectional survey, identify possible obstacles hindering their access to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). METHODS: In 2016, the first questionnaire survey was sent to randomly selected MSM and MP. To compare the changes in attitudes and knowledge of MSM, a second questionnaire survey was conducted in August 2017...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Philippe A Gallay, Udayan Chatterji, Aaron Kirchhoff, Angel Gandarilla, Richard B Pyles, Marc M Baum, John A Moss
Introduction: In the absence of a vaccine, there is an urgent need for the identification of effective agents that prevent HIV transmission in uninfected individuals. Non-vaccine Biomedical Prevention (nBP) methods, such as topical or systemic pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), are promising strategies to slow down the spread of AIDS. Methods: In this study, we investigated the microbicidal efficacy of the viral membrane-disrupting amphipathic SWLRDIWDWICEVLSDFK peptide called C5A...
2018: Open Virology Journal
Christopher B Hurt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Loraine Van Slyke, Mia Scott
HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with emtricitabine (FTC) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) fixed-dose combination (FTC/TDF) is undergoing rapid scale-up in the United States. While FTC/TDF is typically well tolerated, to our knowledge, cranial nerve pathology associated with FTC/TDF has not been previously described. We report the case of a 35-year-old patient who began FTC/TDF PrEP and developed acute trigeminal neuralgia. The neurologic symptoms resolved after treatment discontinuation and recurred upon rechallenge, resulting in permanent discontinuation of PrEP treatment...
January 2018: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
Richard A Crosby, Leandro Mena, Rachel Vickers Smith
The aim of this study is to determine, among young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM), the 12-month efficacy of a single-session, clinic-based intervention promoting condom use to enhance sexual pleasure (purpose 1) and the use of condoms from the start-to-finish of anal sex (purpose 2). A pre-test, post-test randomized controlled trial was conducted, using a 12-month period of follow-up observation, in STI clinics. Data from 394 YBMSM completing baseline and 12-month follow-up assessments were analyzed...
March 9, 2018: Health Education Research
Ahizechukwu C Eke, Nahida Chakhtoura, Angela Kashuba, Brookie M Best, Craig Sykes, Jiajia Wang, Alice M Stek, Elizabeth Smith, Samantha Calabrese, Edmund V Capparelli, Mark Mirochnick
BACKGROUND: Concentrations of antiretrovirals (ARVs) in the genital tract play a key role in pre-exposure prophylaxis. This study aims to describe rilpivirine (Edurant) concentrations in the genital tract in pregnant and postpartum women. METHODS: International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials Protocol P1026s is an ongoing, prospective study of antiretroviral pharmacokinetics (PK) in HIV infected pregnant women that include a cohort receiving rilpivirine combination regimen...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Ronnye Rutledge, Lynn Madden, Onyema Ogbuagu, Jaimie P Meyer
Women involved in the criminal justice system (WICJ) are at high risk of acquiring HIV and would benefit from HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) but there are no studies in this population to inform PrEP implementation programs. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of HIV-uninfected, cis-gender women on probation, parole and/or recently released from prison/jail to assess PrEP awareness, eligibility, potential barriers to uptake, and the PrEP care continuum. The 125 WICJ surveyed reported high rates of HIV risk behaviors including recent transactional sex (22...
March 11, 2018: AIDS Care
Mohamed A Hammoud, Stefanie Vaccher, Fengyi Jin, Adam Bourne, Bridget Haire, Lisa Maher, Toby Lea, Garrett Prestage
INTRODUCTION: Gay and bisexual men (GBM) often use illicit drugs to enhance sexual pleasure, commonly referred to as 'chemsex' or 'party n play'. In particular, the use of methamphetamine and Viagra™, and other erectile dysfunction medications, both together and separately are strongly predictive of subsequent HIV infection. Truvada™, as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), virtually eliminates HIV transmission during condomless anal intercourse (CLAI). HIV-negative GBM in intensive sex partying networks may be adding PrEP to their drug regimen to actively reduce the possibility of HIV transmission during chemsex...
March 8, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Liesl A Nydegger, Jennifer L Walsh
Although pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use is increasing among men who have sex with men (MSM), condoms remain key to HIV prevention. Implementation intentions-which link a behavioral action plan with a situation or cue-may predict condom use. The Strength of Implementation Intentions Scale (SIIS), which assesses condom use implementation intentions, has not been evaluated among MSM. A structural model tested whether the SIIS mediated the relationship between condom use intentions and condomless sex acts among 266 sexually-active MSM (56% White, 26% Black, 15% Latino, Mage = 32...
March 9, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Mara Farcasanu, Douglas S Kwon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Young women in sub-Saharan Africa bear a disproportionate burden of the global HIV epidemic. In this review, we examine how cervicovaginal microbiota modulate structural and immune defenses in the female genital tract and influence HIV susceptibility. RECENT FINDINGS: Highly diverse, anaerobic cervicovaginal microbiota prevalent in sub-Saharan African women increase HIV acquisition risk by over fourfold. These bacteria weaken the barrier properties of the vaginal mucosa and increase local inflammation and HIV target cell recruitment, creating an environment permissive to HIV...
March 8, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein, Emily Dauria, Marina Tolou-Shams, Katerina Christopoulos, Philip A Chan, Curt G Beckwith, Sharon Parker, Jaimie Meyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Michael W Traeger, Sophia E Schroeder, Edwina J Wright, Margaret E Hellard, Vincent J Cornelisse, Joseph S Doyle, Mark A Stoové
Background: HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is effective in reducing HIV risk in men who have sex with men (MSM). However concerns remain that risk compensation in PrEP users may lead to decreased condom use and increased incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We assessed the impact of PrEP on sexual risk outcomes in MSM. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of open-label trials and observational studies published to August 2017 reporting sexual risk outcomes (STI diagnoses, condom use, number of sexual partners) in the context of daily oral PrEP use in HIV-negative MSM and transgender women...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Dvora Joseph Davey, Elise Farley, Yolanda Gomba, Thomas Coates, Landon Myer
BACKGROUND: HIV acquisition in pregnancy and breastfeeding contributes significantly toward pediatric HIV infection. However, little is known about how sexual behavior changes during pregnancy and postpartum periods which will help develop targeted HIV prevention and transmission interventions, including pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). METHODS: Cross-sectional study in HIV-infected and uninfected pregnant and postpartum women in Cape Town, South Africa. Interviewers collected survey data on demographic, sexual behaviors, and alcohol use among pregnant and post-partum women...
2018: PloS One
Tafireyi Marukutira, Mark Stoové, Shahin Lockman, Lisa A Mills, Tendani Gaolathe, Refeletswe Lebelonyane, Joseph N Jarvis, Sherrie L Kelly, David P Wilson, Stanley Luchters, Suzanne M Crowe, Margaret Hellard
UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets and Fast-Track commitments are presented as precursors to ending the AIDS epidemic by 2030, through effecting a 90% reduction in new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths from 2010 levels (HIV epidemic control). Botswana, a low to middle-income country with the third-highest HIV prevalence, and Australia, a low-prevalence high-income country with an epidemic concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM), have made significant strides towards achieving the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets...
March 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Erik M Volz, Stephane Le Vu, Oliver Ratmann, Anna Tostevin, David Dunn, Chloe Orkin, Siobhan O'Shea, Valerie Delpech, Alison Brown, Noel Gill, Christophe Fraser
Background: The impact of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) depends on infections averted by protecting vulnerable individuals as well as infections averted by preventing transmission by those who would have been infected if not receiving PrEP. Analysis of HIV phylogenies reveals risk factors for transmission, which we examine as potential criteria for allocating PrEP. Methods: We analyzed 6912 HIV-1 partial pol sequences from men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United Kingdom combined with global reference sequences and patient-level metadata...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Eileen P Scully
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will outline the multilevel effects of biological sex on HIV acquisition, pathogenesis, treatment response, and prospects for cure. Potential mechanisms will be discussed along with future research directions. RECENT FINDINGS: HIV acquisition risk is modified by sex hormones and the vaginal microbiome, with the latter acting through both inflammation and local metabolism of pre-exposure prophylaxis drugs. Female sex associates with enhanced risk for non-AIDS morbidities including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, suggesting different inflammatory profiles in men and women...
March 5, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Hanh Thi Pham, Thibault Mesplède
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection remains a major health issue worldwide. In developed countries, antiretroviral therapy has extended its reach from treatment of people living with HIV-1 to post-exposure prophylaxis, treatment as prevention, and, more recently, pre-exposure prophylaxis. These healthcare strategies offer the epidemiological tools to curve the epidemic in rich settings and will be concomitantly implemented in developing countries. One of the remaining challenges is to identify an efficacious curative strategy...
2018: Drugs in Context
Marwa F Ismail, David K Wong, Isaac I Bogoch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2018: AIDS
Iryna B Zablotska, Christine Selvey, Rebecca Guy, Karen Price, Jo Holden, Heather-Marie Schmidt, Anna McNulty, David Smith, Fengyi Jin, Janaki Amin, David A Cooper, Andrew E Grulich
After publication of the article [1], it has been brought to our attention that one of the members of the EPIC-NSW study group has had their name spelt incorrectly in the acknowledgements. The article mentions "Muhammad Hammoud" when in fact the correct spelling is "Mohamed Hammoud".
February 28, 2018: BMC Public Health
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