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Pre exposure hiv prophylaxis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919303/acquisition-of-wild-type-hiv-1-infection-in-a-patient-on-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-with-high-intracellular-concentrations-of-tenofovir-diphosphate-a-case-report
#1
Elske Hoornenborg, Maria Prins, Roel C A Achterbergh, Lycke R Woittiez, Marion Cornelissen, Suzanne Jurriaans, Neeltje A Kootstra, Peter L Anderson, Peter Reiss, Henry J C de Vries, Jan M Prins, Godelieve J de Bree
BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is highly effective against acquisition of HIV infection, and only two cases of infection with a multidrug-resistant virus have been reported under adequate long-term adherence, as evidenced by tenofovir diphosphate concentrations in dried blood spots. We report a case of wild-type HIV-1 infection despite consistent use of emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. METHODS: The patient participated in the Amsterdam PrEP project, a demonstration project of daily and event-driven PrEP...
September 14, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913659/will-gay-and-bisexual-men-taking-oral-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-switch-to-long-acting-injectable-prep-should-it-become-available
#2
Steven A John, Thomas H F Whitfield, H Jonathon Rendina, Jeffrey T Parsons, Christian Grov
Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is highly effective at reducing HIV transmission risk and is CDC recommended for many gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBM). We sought to investigate awareness of and preference for using long-acting injectable PrEP (LAI-PrEP) among GBM currently taking oral PrEP (n = 104), and identify their concerns. About half of GBM had heard of LAI-PrEP, and 30.8% specifically preferred LAI-PrEP. GBM with more concerns about the level of protection and drug half-life of LAI-PrEP had lower odds of preferring LAI-PrEP...
September 14, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905173/pharmacokinetic-and-tissue-distribution-profile-of-long-acting-tenofovir-alafenamide-and-elvitegravir-loaded-nanoparticles-in-humanized-mice-model
#3
Pavan Kumar Prathipati, Subhra Mandal, Gregory Pon, Renuga Vivekanandan, Christopher J Destache
PURPOSE: Non-adherence to the antiretroviral (ARV) regimen is a critical factor in determining efficacy of ARV drugs for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). A long-acting parenteral formulation may be an effective alternative to daily oral dosing. A pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution study of drug-loaded nanoparticle (NP) was performed in female humanized CD34(+)-NSG mice. METHODS: Mice received 200 mg/kg each of tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) and elvitegravir (EVG) as free drugs (TAF + EVG solution) or as drug loaded NP (TAF + EVG NP) formulation by subcutaneous (SubQ) administration...
September 13, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903628/what-motivates-serodiscordant-couples-to-prevent-hiv-transmission-within-their-relationships-findings-from-a-prep-implementation-study-in-kenya
#4
Rena C Patel, Anna M Leddy, Josephine Odoyo, Keerthana Anand, Gaelen Stanford-Moore, Imeldah Wakhungu, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Jared M Baeten, Joelle M Brown
With the planned scale-up of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention among serodiscordant couples in resource-limited settings, gaining an understanding of what motivates serodiscordant couples to prevent HIV is critical. We conducted 44 semi-structured, in-depth individual or couple interviews with 63 participants (33 HIV-infected and 30 HIV-uninfected participants) enrolled in a prospective implementation study of oral antiretroviral-based prevention in Kisumu, Kenya. Transcripts were iteratively analysed using inductive content analysis...
September 14, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902857/willingness-to-use-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-prevention-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-malaysia-findings-from-an-online-survey
#5
Sin How Lim, Gitau Mburu, Adam Bourne, Joselyn Pang, Jeffrey A Wickersham, Clayton Koh Thuan Wei, Ilias Adam Yee, Bangyuan Wang, Matteo Cassolato, Iskandar Azwa
OBJECTIVE: We examined willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Malaysia. METHODS: An online survey of 990 MSM was conducted between March and April 2016. Eligibility criteria included being biological male, Malaysian citizen, 18 years of age or above, identifying as MSM, and being HIV negative or unknown status. Participants' demographics, sexual and drug use behaviors, attitudes towards PrEP, and preferences regarding future access to PrEP were collected...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902704/hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-implementation-at-local-health-departments-a-statewide-assessment-of-activities-and-barriers
#6
Helen L Zhang, Sarah K Rhea, Christopher B Hurt, Victoria L Mobley, Heidi Swygard, Arlene C Seña, Mehri S McKellar
BACKGROUND: Expanding access to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) could help reduce rates of HIV infection in the United States. This study characterizes activities and barriers to PrEP implementation at local health departments (LHDs) in North Carolina (NC), which contains a large rural population. METHODS: In May 2016, a web-based survey was distributed to health directors of all county and district health departments in NC to assess PrEP-related activities, perceived barriers to PrEP implementation, and desired PrEP-related resources...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902074/plasma-tenofovir-levels-to-support-adherence-to-tdf-ftc-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-prevention-in-msm-in-los-angeles-california
#7
Raphael J Landovitz, Matthew Beymer, Ryan Kofron, K Rivet Amico, Christina Psaros, Lane Bushman, Peter L Anderson, Risa Flynn, David P Lee, Robert K Bolan, Wilbert C Jordan, Chi-Hong Tseng, Rhodri Dierst-Davies, Jim Rooney, Amy Rock Wohl
BACKGROUND: TDF/FTC PrEP is effective against rectal HIV acquisition when taken as prescribed. Strategies that identify and intervene with those challenged by adherence to daily medication are needed. SETTING: PATH-PrEP was an open-label single arm interventional cohort study conducted at 2 community-based clinical sites in Los Angeles, California. METHODS: We enrolled self-identified MSM and TGW ≥18 years of age at elevated risk of HIV acquisition...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902071/the-importance-of-risk-perception-predictors-of-prep-acceptance-among-thai-msm-and-tg-women-at-a-community-based-health-service
#8
Rosalyn Plotzker, Pich Seekaew, Jureeporn Jantarapakde, Supabhorn Pengnonyang, Deondara Trachunthong, Danai Lingjongrat, Surang Janyam, Thitiyanun Nakpor, Sutinee Charoenying, Stephen Mills, Ravipa Vannakit, Michael Cassell, Praphan Phanuphak, Cheewanan Lertpiriyasuwat, Nittaya Phanuphak
BACKGROUND: HIV prevalence among Thai men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TG) are 9.15% and 11.8% respectively, compared to 1.1% in the general population. To better understand early adopters of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) in Thailand, we analyzed bio-behavioral and socio-demographic characteristics of PrEP-eligible MSM and TG. SETTING: Four Thai urban community clinics between October 2015 and February 2016 METHODS:: Socio-demographics, HIV risk characteristics, and PrEP knowledge and attitudes, were analyzed in association with PrEP initiation among eligible Thai MSM and TG...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894986/fertility-intentions-pregnancy-and-use-of-prep-and-art-for-safer-conception-among-east-african-hiv-serodiscordant-couples
#9
Renee Heffron, Kerry Thomson, Connie Celum, Jessica Haberer, Kenneth Ngure, Nelly Mugo, Elizabeth Bukusi, Elly Katabira, Josephine Odoyo, Nulu Bulya, Stephen Asiimwe, Edna Tindimwebwa, Jared M Baeten
African HIV serodiscordant couples often desire pregnancy, despite sexual HIV transmission risk during pregnancy attempts. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduce HIV risk and can be leveraged for safer conception but how well these strategies are used for safer conception is not known. We conducted an open-label demonstration project of the integrated delivery of PrEP and ART among 1013 HIV serodiscordant couples from Kenya and Uganda followed quarterly for 2 years. We evaluated fertility intentions, pregnancy incidence, the use of PrEP and ART during peri-conception, and peri-conception HIV incidence...
September 11, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893602/raltegravir-blocks-the-infectivity-of-red-fluorescent-protein-mcherry-labeled-hiv-1jr-fl-in-the-setting-of-post-exposure-prophylaxis-in-nod-scid-jak3-mice-transplanted-with-human-pbmcs
#10
Hiromi Ogata-Aoki, Nobuyo Higashi-Kuwata, Shin-Ichiro Hattori, Hironori Hayashi, Matthew Danish, Manabu Aoki, Chiemi Shiotsu, Yumi Hashiguchi, Akinobu Hamada, Hisataka Kobayashi, Hironobu Ihn, Seiji Okada, Hiroaki Mitsuya
Employing NOD/SCID/Jak3(-/-) mice transplanted with human PBMCs (hNOJ mice) and replication-competent, red-fluorescent-protein (mCherry; mC)-labeled HIV-1JR-FL (HIVmC), we examined whether early antiretroviral treatment blocked the establishment of HIV-1 infection. The use of hNOJ mice and HIVmC enabled us to visually locate infection foci and to examine the early dynamics of HIVmC infection without using a large amount of antiretroviral unlike in non-human primate models. Although when raltegravir (RAL) administration was begun 1 day after intraperitoneal (ip) inoculation of HIVmC, no plasma p24 or plasma HIV-1-RNA (pRNA) were detected in 10 of 12 hNOJ (hNOJmC(RAL+)) mice over 14-day observation, all 10 untreated hNOJmC (hNOJmC(RAL-)) mice became positive for p24 and pRNA and had significantly swollen lymph nodes in peritoneal cavity and abundant p24(+)/mC(+)/CD3(+)/CD4(+) T cells and p24(+)/mC(+)/CD68(+) monocytes/macrophages were identified in their omenta and mesenteric lymphoid tissues/lymph nodes...
September 8, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885420/a-missed-opportunity-for-u-s-perinatal-human-immunodeficiency-virus-elimination-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-during-pregnancy
#11
Timothee Fruhauf, Jenell S Coleman
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the proportion of women at increased risk of sexual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition during pregnancy in a high HIV incidence urban setting to identify those who may be eligible for pre-exposure prophylaxis. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of women who received prenatal care at a large academic center in 2012. Univariable analyses and multiple logistic regression models were built to identify correlates for pre-exposure prophylaxis eligibility...
September 5, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880948/prevention-of-vaginal-and-rectal-hiv-transmission-by-antiretroviral-combinations-in-humanized-mice
#12
Philippe A Gallay, Udayan Chatterji, Aaron Kirchhoff, Angel Gandarilla, Manjula Gunawardana, Richard B Pyles, Mark A Marzinke, John A Moss, Marc M Baum
With more than 7,000 new HIV infections daily worldwide, there is an urgent need for non-vaccine biomedical prevention (nBP) strategies that are safe, effective, and acceptable. Clinical trials have demonstrated that pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with antiretrovirals (ARVs) can be effective at preventing HIV infection. In contrast, other trials using the same ARVs failed to show consistent efficacy. Topical (vaginal and rectal) dosing is a promising regimen for HIV PrEP as it leads to low systematic drug exposure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880892/beyond-hiv-serodiscordance-partnership-communication-dynamics-that-affect-engagement-in-safer-conception-care
#13
Lynn T Matthews, Bridget F Burns, Francis Bajunirwe, Jerome Kabakyenga, Mwebesa Bwana, Courtney Ng, Jasmine Kastner, Annet Kembabazi, Naomi Sanyu, Adrine Kusasira, Jessica E Haberer, David R Bangsberg, Angela Kaida
INTRODUCTION: We explored acceptability and feasibility of safer conception methods among HIV-affected couples in Uganda. METHODS: We recruited HIV-positive men and women on antiretroviral therapy (ART) ('index') from the Uganda Antiretroviral Rural Treatment Outcomes cohort who reported an HIV-negative or unknown-serostatus partner ('partner'), HIV-serostatus disclosure to partner, and personal or partner desire for a child within two years. We conducted in-depth interviews with 40 individuals from 20 couples, using a narrative approach with tailored images to assess acceptability of five safer conception strategies: ART for the infected partner, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for the uninfected partner, condomless sex timed to peak fertility, manual insemination, and male circumcision...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877865/developing-a-web-based-geolocated-directory-of-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-providing-clinics-the-prep-locator-protocol-and-operating-procedures
#14
Aaron J Siegler, Susan Wirtz, Shannon Weber, Patrick S Sullivan
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is highly effective in preventing HIV transmission, yet patients interested in learning more about PrEP or in getting a PrEP prescription may not be able to find local medical providers willing to prescribe PrEP. OBJECTIVE: We sought to create a national database of PrEP-providing clinics to allow for patients to have access to a unified, vetted source of PrEP providers in an easily accessible database...
September 6, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875351/parents-perspectives-about-adolescent-boys-involvement-in-biomedical-hiv-prevention-research
#15
Brian Mustanski, Kathryn Macapagal, Matthew Thomann, Brian A Feinstein, Michael E Newcomb, Darnell Motley, Celia B Fisher
Research on the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among adolescents at high risk for HIV is urgently needed, and parents' perspectives on these studies are essential for guiding the responsible conduct of adolescent PrEP research. We conducted interviews with 30 parents of adolescent boys (50% known/presumed heterosexual; 50% sexual minority) to understand their views of research risks and benefits and parental permission regarding their son's involvement in a hypothetical PrEP adherence trial. Parents identified several health and educational benefits of the study and expressed that waiving parental permission would overcome barriers to accessing PrEP, particularly for youth who may benefit most...
September 5, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872441/negotiating-sexual-safety-in-the-era-of-biomedical-hiv-prevention-relationship-dynamics-among-male-couples-using-pre-exposure-prophylaxis
#16
Jowanna Malone, Jennifer L Syvertsen, Blake E Johnson, Matthew J Mimiaga, Kenneth H Mayer, Angela R Bazzi
Up to two-thirds of new cases of HIV transmission between gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men in the USA are attributed to primary relationships. Understanding the relationship dynamics and sexual agreements of male-male couples can provide insight into HIV transmission patterns and prevention needs in this population. The daily use of antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is highly effective in preventing HIV, but its negotiation and use within social and intimate relationship contexts remain understudied...
September 5, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868979/ethical-public-health-issues-for-the-use-of-informal-prep
#17
Julien Brisson
This article presents the phenomenon of the use of informal pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), also known colloquially as 'wild PrEP'. The related ethical public health issues of the use of informal PrEP are discussed. From the approach of an ethical framework of risk reduction in public health, the main objective of this article is to encourage health-related practices and policies that do not stop the informal access to PrEP, but rather promote the wellbeing of users by providing them with the necessary knowledge and resources related to PrEP and HIV prevention (i...
September 3, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863154/the-impact-of-hiv-infection-and-socioeconomic-factors-on-the-incidence-of-gonorrhea-a-county-level-us-wide-analysis
#18
Nikolaos Andreatos, Christos Grigoras, Fadi Shehadeh, Elina Eleftheria Pliakos, Georgianna Stoukides, Jenna Port, Myrto Eleni Flokas, Eleftherios Mylonakis
BACKGROUND: Gonorrhea is the second most commonly reported identifiable disease in the United States (U.S.). Importantly, more than 25% of gonorrheal infections demonstrate antibiotic resistance, leading the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to classify gonorrhea as an "urgent threat". METHODS: We examined the association of gonorrhea infection rates with the incidence of HIV and socioeconomic factors. A county-level multivariable model was then constructed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862483/prep-chicago-a-randomized-controlled-peer-change-agent-intervention-to-promote-the-adoption-of-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-prevention-among-young-black-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#19
Lindsay E Young, Phil Schumm, Leigh Alon, Alida Bouris, Matthew Ferreira, Brandon Hill, Aditya S Khanna, Thomas W Valente, John A Schneider
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Advances in biomedical prevention strategies such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) represent a new opportunity for reducing HIV incidence among young Black men who have sex with men, for whom the number of new HIV infections continues to rise. However, studies have documented low rates of PrEP uptake in this community. Research suggests that the peer networks of young Black men who have sex with men play important roles in their sexual health decisions. PrEP Chicago is a randomized controlled trial network intervention designed to increase PrEP uptake among young Black men who have sex with men living in Chicago...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859729/factors-influencing-uptake-of-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-some-qualitative-insights-from-an-intervention-study-of-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-china
#20
Chunxing Liu, Yingying Ding, Zhen Ning, Meiyang Gao, Xing Liu, Frank Y Wong, Na He
Background: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a biomedical approach for preventing the acquisition of HIV in populations at substantial risk for HIV. However, its uptake among men who have sex with men (MSM) is low in China. The study aimed to identify factors that might influence MSM's uptake and use of PrEP. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 32 self-identified MSM from a PrEP intervention study evaluating daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) to prevent HIV infection. Of these men, 11 were presently using the 'TDF' group; 8 from the 'change-over' group (i...
September 1, 2017: Sexual Health
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