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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098219/combined-lrrk2-mutation-aging-and-chronic-low-dose-oral-rotenone-as-a-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Hui-Fang Liu, Philip Wing-Lok Ho, Gideon Chi-Ting Leung, Colin Siu-Chi Lam, Shirley Yin-Yu Pang, Lingfei Li, Michelle Hiu-Wai Kung, David Boyer Ramsden, Shu-Leong Ho
Aging, genetics and environmental toxicity are important etiological factors in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, its pathogenesis remains unclear. A major obstacle is the lack of an appropriate experimental model which incorporates genetic susceptibility, aging and prolonged environmental toxicity. Here, we explored the interplay amongst these factors using mutant LRRK2(R1441G) (leucine-rich-repeat-kinase-2) knockin mice. We found that mutant primary cortical and mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons were more susceptible to rotenone-induced ATP deficiency and cell death...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095406/a-two-locus-model-of-the-evolution-of-insecticide-resistance-to-inform-and-optimise-public-health-insecticide-deployment-strategies
#2
Bethany Levick, Andy South, Ian M Hastings
We develop a flexible, two-locus model for the spread of insecticide resistance applicable to mosquito species that transmit human diseases such as malaria. The model allows differential exposure of males and females, allows them to encounter high or low concentrations of insecticide, and allows selection pressures and dominance values to differ depending on the concentration of insecticide encountered. We demonstrate its application by investigating the relative merits of sequential use of insecticides versus their deployment as a mixture to minimise the spread of resistance...
January 17, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093506/the-tyrosine-kinase-receptor-tyro3-enhances-lifespan-and-neuropeptide-y-npy-neuron-survival-in-the-mouse-anorexia-anx-mutation
#3
Dennis Y Kim, Joanna Yu, Ryan K Mui, Rieko Niibori, Hamza Bin Taufique, Rukhsana Aslam, John W Semple, Sabine P Cordes
Severe appetite and weight loss define the eating disorder anorexia nervosa, and can also accompany the progression of some neurodegenerative disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral scelerosis (ALS). While acute loss of hypothalamic neurons that produce appetite-stimulating neuropeptide Y (Npy) and agouti related peptide (AgRP) in adult mice or in mice homozygous for the anorexia (anx) mutation causes aphagia, our understanding of the factors that help maintain appetite regulatory circuitry is limited. Here we identify a mutation that converts an arginine to a tryptophan (R7W) in the Tyrosine receptor kinase 3 (Tyro3) gene, which resides within the anx critical interval, as contributing to the severity of anx phenotypes...
January 12, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093257/selective-preservation-of-cholinergic-mecp2-rescues-specific-rett-syndrome-like-phenotypes-in-mecp2-stop-mice
#4
Huanhuan Zhou, Wei Wu, Ying Zhang, Haiyang He, Zhefeng Yuan, Zhiwei Zhu, Zhengyan Zhao
RTT is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by growth regression, motor dysfunction, stereotypic hand movements, and autism features. Typical Rett syndrome (RTT) is predominantly caused by mutations in X-linked MeCP2 gene which encodes methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). The brain-abundant MeCP2 protein mainly functions as a transcriptional regulator for neurodevelopment-associated genes. Specific functions of MeCP2 in certain neuron types remain to be known. Although cholinergic system is an important modulating system in brain, how MeCP2 in cholinergic neurons contribute to RTT has not been clearly understood...
January 13, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092295/income-family-context-and-self-regulation-in-5-year-old-children
#5
Mengying Li, Jenna L Riis, Sharon R Ghazarian, Sara B Johnson
OBJECTIVE: Self-regulation (SR) is a core aspect of child development with enduring effects on health and wellbeing across the lifespan. Early childhood poverty may shape SR development. This study examined the cross-sectional relationship among family income, family context, and SR in 5-year-old children. METHODS: A total of 140 five-year-old children and their mothers participated in the study. Children completed a battery of SR tasks; mothers completed questionnaires...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086861/managing-shades-of-grey-a-focus-group-study-exploring-community-dwellers-views-on-advance-care-planning-in-older-people
#6
Natasha Michael, Clare O'Callaghan, Emma Sayers
BACKGROUND: Community-dwelling consumers of healthcare are increasing, many aging with life-limiting conditions and deteriorating cognition. However, few have had advance care planning discussions or completed documentation to ensure future care preferences are acted upon. This study examines the awareness, attitudes, and experiences of advance care planning amongst older people and unrelated offspring/caregivers of older people residing in the community. METHODS: Qualitative descriptive research, which included focus groups with older people (55+ years) and older people's offspring/caregivers living in an Australian city and surrounding rural region...
January 13, 2017: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081519/interoception-and-psychopathology-a-developmental-neuroscience-perspective
#7
REVIEW
Jennifer Murphy, Rebecca Brewer, Caroline Catmur, Geoffrey Bird
Interoception refers to the perception of the physiological condition of the body, including hunger, temperature, and heart rate. There is a growing appreciation that interoception is integral to higher-order cognition. Indeed, existing research indicates an association between low interoceptive sensitivity and alexithymia (a difficulty identifying one's own emotion), underscoring the link between bodily and emotional awareness. Despite this appreciation, the developmental trajectory of interoception across the lifespan remains under-researched, with clear gaps in our understanding...
December 23, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079862/extra-neuronal-pathology-in-a-canine-model-of-cln2-neuronal-ceroid-lipofuscinosis-after-intracerebroventricular-gene-therapy-that-delays-neurological-disease-progression
#8
M L Katz, G C Johnson, S B Leach, B G Williamson, J R Coates, R E H Whiting, D P Vansteenkiste, M S Whitney
CLN2 neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis is a hereditary lysosomal storage disease with primarily neurological signs that results from mutations in TPP1 which encodes the lysosomal enzyme tripeptidyl peptidase-1 (TPP1). Studies using a canine model for this disorder demonstrated that delivery of TPP1 enzyme to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by intracerebroventricular administration of an AAV-TPP1 vector resulted in substantial delays in the onset and progression of neurological signs and prolongation of lifespan...
January 12, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079815/morning-breathing-exercises-prolong-lifespan-by-improving-hyperventilation-in-people-living-with-respiratory-cancer
#9
Wei-Jie Wu, Shan-Huan Wang, Wei Ling, Li-Jun Geng, Xiao-Xi Zhang, Lan Yu, Jun Chen, Jiang-Xi Luo, Hai-Lu Zhao
Disturbance of oxygen-carbon dioxide homeostasis has an impact on cancer. Little is known about the effect of breath training on cancer patients. Here we report our 10-year experience with morning breathing exercises (MBE) in peer-support programs for cancer survivors.We performed a cohort study to investigate long-term surviving patients with lung cancer (LC) and nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) who practiced MBE on a daily basis. End-tidal breath holding time (ETBHT) after MBE was measured to reflect improvement in alveolar O2 pressure and alveolar CO2 pressure capacity...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077803/gerosuppression-by-pan-mtor-inhibitors
#10
Olga V Leontieva, Mikhail V Blagosklonny
Rapamycin slows organismal aging and delays age-related diseases, extending lifespan in numerous species. In cells, rapamycin and other rapalogs such as everolimus suppress geroconversion from quiescence to senescence. Rapamycin inhibits some, but not all, activities of mTOR. Recently we and others demonstrated that pan-mTOR inhibitors, known also as dual mTORC1/C2 inhibitors, suppress senescent phenotype. As a continuation of these studies, here we investigated in detail a panel of pan-mTOR inhibitors, to determine their optimal gerosuppressive concentrations...
December 30, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077626/low-dose-or-low-dose-rate-ionizing-radiation-induced-bioeffects-in-animal-models
#11
REVIEW
Feng Ru Tang, Weng Keong Loke, Boo Cheong Khoo
Animal experimental studies indicate that acute or chronic low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) (≤100 mSv) or low-dose-rate ionizing radiation (LDRIR) (<6 mSv/h) exposures may be harmful. It induces genetic and epigenetic changes and is associated with a range of physiological disturbances that includes altered immune system, abnormal brain development with resultant cognitive impairment, cataractogenesis, abnormal embryonic development, circulatory diseases, weight gain, premature menopause in female animals, tumorigenesis and shortened lifespan...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076409/an-efficient-antioxidant-system-in-a-long-lived-termite-queen
#12
Eisuke Tasaki, Kazuya Kobayashi, Kenji Matsuura, Yoshihito Iuchi
The trade-off between reproduction and longevity is known in wide variety of animals. Social insect queens are rare organisms that can achieve a long lifespan without sacrificing fecundity. The extended longevity of social insect queens, which contradicts the trade-off, has attracted much attention because it implies the existence of an extraordinary anti-aging mechanism. Here, we show that queens of the termite Reticulitermes speratus incur significantly lower oxidative damage to DNA, protein and lipid and have higher activity of antioxidant enzymes than non-reproductive individuals (workers and soldiers)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069550/identification-characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-superoxide-dismutase-genes-in-dastarcus-helophoroides-coleoptera-bothrideridae
#13
Zhang Zhengqing, Guo Ruijian, Menglou Li
Dastarcus helophoroides, a predatory natural enemy of longhorned beetles, has a relatively longer lifespan compared to other insects. To determine the potential physiological roles of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) in longevity and aging of D. helophoroides, analyses including molecular information, bioinformatics research, phylogenetic relationship and expression patterns were combined for investigation. Four D.hSODs were classified into three groups: one cytoplasmic Cu/Zn-SOD, two extracellular Cu/Zn-SOD and one Mn-SOD, were identified and characterized by multiple alignments...
January 6, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069465/effect-of-rnai-mediated-knockdown-of-nltor-gene-on-fertility-of-male-nilaparvata-lugens
#14
Ji-Chong Zhuo, Jian Xue, Jia-Bao Lu, Hai-Jian Huang, Hai-Jun Xu, Chuan-Xi Zhang
The target gene of rapamycin (TOR) is conserved from invertebrates to vertebrates, and plays critical roles in cell growth, nutrient sensing, lifespan and reproduction. In this paper, we employed RNA interference (RNAi) to study the function of TOR in male brown planthoppers (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens. Here we discovered that no offspring was produced when wildtype females BPH mated with NlTOR RNAi males. To understand the influence of NlTOR on male BPH infertility, we dissected the reproductive system of a NlTOR RNAi male, and found that the testes were normal and the seminal vesicles were full of sperm, while the accessory gland was poorly developed after knocking down NlTOR expression...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067402/ontogenetic-timing-as-a-condition-dependent-life-history-trait-high-condition-males-develop-quickly-peak-early-and-age-fast
#15
Amy K Hooper, Foteini Spagopoulou, Zachariah Wylde, Alexei A Maklakov, Russell Bonduriansky
Within-population variation in ageing remains poorly understood. In males, condition-dependent investment in secondary sexual traits may incur costs which limit ability to invest in somatic maintenance. Moreover, males often express morphological and behavioural secondary sexual traits simultaneously, but the relative effects on ageing of investment in these traits remain unclear. We investigated the condition-dependence of male life history in the neriid fly Telostylinus angusticollis. Using a fully factorial design, we manipulated male early-life condition by varying nutrient content of the larval diet and, subsequently, manipulated opportunity for adult males to interact with rival males...
January 9, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064165/nutritional-control-of-chronological-aging-and-heterochromatin-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#16
David F McCleary, Jasper Rine
Calorie restriction extends lifespan in organisms as diverse as yeast and mammals through incompletely understood mechanism(s). The role of NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases, known as Sirtuins, in this process, particularly in the yeast S. cerevisiae is controversial. We measured chronological lifespan of wild-type and sir2Δ strains over a higher glucose range than typically used for studying yeast calorie restriction. sir2Δ extended lifespan in high-glucose complete minimal medium, and had little effect in low glucose medium, revealing a partial role for Sir2 in the calorie restriction response under these conditions...
January 6, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062579/lactobacillus-plantarum-favors-the-early-emergence-of-fit-and-fertile-adult-drosophila-upon-chronic-undernutrition
#17
Mélisandre A Téfit, François Leulier
Animals are naturally surrounded by a variety of microorganisms with which they constantly interact. Among these microbes, some live closely associated with a host and form its microbiota. These communities are now extensively studied, owing to their contributions to shaping various aspects of animal physiology. One of these commensal species, Lactobacillus plantarum, and in particular the L.p.(WJL) strain, has been shown to promote the growth of Drosophila larvae upon nutrient scarcity, allowing earlier metamorphosis and adult emergence compared to axenic individuals...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058671/possible-muscle-repair-in-the-human-cardiovascular-system
#18
REVIEW
Linda Sommese, Alberto Zullo, Concetta Schiano, Francesco P Mancini, Claudio Napoli
The regenerative potential of tissues and organs could promote survival, extended lifespan and healthy life in multicellular organisms. Niches of adult stemness are widely distributed and lead to the anatomical and functional regeneration of the damaged organ. Conversely, muscular regeneration in mammals, and humans in particular, is very limited and not a single piece of muscle can fully regrow after a severe injury. Therefore, muscle repair after myocardial infarction is still a chimera. Recently, it has been recognized that epigenetics could play a role in tissue regrowth since it guarantees the maintenance of cellular identity in differentiated cells and, therefore, the stability of organs and tissues...
January 5, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042198/age-worksite-location-neuromodulators-and-task-performance-in-the-ant-pheidole-dentata
#19
Ysabel Milton Giraldo, Adina Rusakov, Alexandria Diloreto, Adrianna Kordek, James F A Traniello
Social insect workers modify task performance according to age-related schedules of behavioral development, and/or changing colony labor requirements based on flexible responses that may be independent of age. Using known-age minor workers of the ant Pheidole dentata throughout 68% of their 140-day laboratory lifespan, we asked whether workers found inside or outside the nest differed in task performance and if behaviors were correlated with and/or causally linked to changes in brain serotonin (5HT) and dopamine (DA)...
September 2016: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035423/a-reaction-diffusion-model-for-radiation-induced-bystander-effects
#20
Oluwole Olobatuyi, Gerda de Vries, Thomas Hillen
We develop and analyze a reaction-diffusion model to investigate the dynamics of the lifespan of a bystander signal emitted when cells are exposed to radiation. Experimental studies by Mothersill and Seymour 1997, using malignant epithelial cell lines, found that an emitted bystander signal can still cause bystander effects in cells even 60 h after its emission. Several other experiments have also shown that the signal can persist for months and even years. Also, bystander effects have been hypothesized as one of the factors responsible for the phenomenon of low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity and increased radioresistance (HRS/IRR)...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Mathematical Biology
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