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Lifespan development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924334/from-the-cradle-to-the-grave-the-effect-of-adverse-caregiving-environments-on-attachment-and-relationships-throughout-the-lifespan
#1
Colleen Doyle, Dante Cicchetti
This paper reviews research examining the effects of adverse early caregiving on relationships throughout the lifespan. Central attachment constructs are summarized and integrated into a review of research on the long-term effects of institutional rearing and child maltreatment. Findings are interpreted within the organizational perspective on development, which conceptualizes attachment as a stage-salient task of infancy that influences the reorganization of adaptive/maladaptive functioning around subsequent stage-salient tasks...
June 2017: Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923277/animal-models-of-ischaemic-stroke-and-characterisation-of-the-ischaemic-penumbra
#2
REVIEW
Christopher McCabe, Mariana M Arroja, Emma Reid, I Mhairi Macrae
Over the past forty years, animal models of focal cerebral ischaemia have allowed us to identify the critical cerebral blood flow thresholds responsible for irreversible cell death, electrical failure, inhibition of protein synthesis, energy depletion and thereby the lifespan of the potentially salvageable penumbra. They have allowed us to understand the intricate biochemical and molecular mechanisms within the 'ischaemic cascade' that initiate cell death in the first minutes, hours and days following stroke...
September 16, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923162/food-and-nutrition-programs-for-aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-australians-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#3
Jennifer Browne, Karen Adams, Petah Atkinson, Deborah Gleeson, Rick Hayes
Objective To provide an overview of previous reviews of programs that aimed to improve nutritional status or diet-related health outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, in order to determine what programs are effective and why.Methods A systematic search of databases and relevant websites was undertaken to identify reviews of nutrition interventions for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. Pairs of reviewers undertook study selection and data extraction and performed quality assessment using a validated tool...
September 19, 2017: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919908/hepatic-s6k1-partially-regulates-lifespan-of-mice-with-mitochondrial-complex-i-deficiency
#4
Takashi K Ito, Chenhao Lu, Jacob Khan, Quy Nguyen, Heather Z Huang, Dayae Kim, James Phillips, Jo Tan, Yenna Lee, Tuyet Nguyen, Samy Khessib, Natalie Lim, Surapat Mekvanich, Joshua Oh, Victor V Pineda, Weirong Wang, Alessandro Bitto, Jonathan Y An, John F Morton, Mitsutoshi Setou, Warren C Ladiges, Matt Kaeberlein
The inactivation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) recapitulates aspects of caloric restriction and mTORC1 inhibition to achieve prolonged longevity in invertebrate and mouse models. In addition to delaying normative aging, inhibition of mTORC1 extends the shortened lifespan of yeast, fly, and mouse models with severe mitochondrial disease. Here we tested whether disruption of S6K1 can recapitulate the beneficial effects of mTORC1 inhibition in the Ndufs4 knockout (NKO) mouse model of Leigh Syndrome caused by Complex I deficiency...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919364/forward-and-reverse-genetics-approaches-to-uncover-metabolic-aging-pathways-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#5
REVIEW
Arwen W Gao, Jelmi Uit de Bos, Mark G Sterken, Jan E Kammenga, Reuben L Smith, Riekelt H Houtkooper
The biological mechanisms of aging have been studied in depth and prominent findings in this field promote the development of new therapies for age-associated disorders. Various model organisms are used for research on aging; among these, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been widely used and has provided valuable knowledge in determining the regulatory mechanisms driving the aging process. Many genes involved in lifespan regulation are associated with metabolic pathways and are influenced by genetic and environmental factors...
September 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919256/metabolic-links-between-plasma-cell-survival-secretion-and-stress
#6
REVIEW
Wing Y Lam, Deepta Bhattacharya
Humoral immunity is generated and maintained by antigen-specific antibodies that counter infectious pathogens. Plasma cells are the major producers of antibodies during and after infections, and each plasma cell produces some thousands of antibody molecules per second. This magnitude of secretion requires enormous quantities of amino acids and glycosylation sugars to properly build and fold antibodies, biosynthetic substrates to fuel endoplasmic reticulum (ER) biogenesis, and additional carbon sources to generate energy...
September 11, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919244/does-synaesthesia-age-changes-in-the-quality-and-consistency-of-synaesthetic-associations
#7
Julia Simner, Alberta Ipser, Rebecca Smees, James Alvarez
Developmental grapheme-colour synaesthesia is a rare condition in which colours become automatically paired with letters or digits in the minds of certain individuals during childhood, and remain paired into adulthood. Although synaesthesia is well understood in younger adults almost nothing is known about synaesthesia in aging. We present the first evidence that aging desaturates synaesthetic colours in the minds of older synaesthetes, and we show for the first time that aging affects the key diagnostic measure of synaesthesia (consistency of colours over time)...
September 14, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918748/new-data-on-programmed-risks-of-death-in-normal-mice-and-mutants-with-growth-delay
#8
A G Malygin
Study of the lifespans of normal (non mutant) mice and growth delay mutants has shown that mortality rates for both kinds of animals exhibit reproducible fluctuations. In the case of the mutant mice, the positions of peaks on the differential mortality curves (mortality rate plotted against lifespan) coincided in different-sex groups of animals and in same-sex subgroups of animals. Differential mortality curves of the mutant mice also had a peak at 1 month of age that was absent from the differential mortality curves of the normal mice...
July 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918443/brief-report-personality-mediates-the-relationship-between-autism-quotient-and-well-being-a-conceptual-replication-using-self-report
#9
Jonathan D Rodgers, Jennifer Lodi-Smith, Patrick L Hill, Seth M Spain, Christopher Lopata, Marcus L Thomeer
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) impacts well-being across the lifespan. Individuals with ASD evidence differences in personality traits and self-concept clarity that are predictors of well-being in typically-developing individuals. The current research replicates a growing body of evidence demonstrating differences in well-being and personality between individuals low in ASD characteristics (n = 207) and individuals high in ASD characteristics (n = 46) collected from the general population using an online survey...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917697/trajectories-of-brain-system-maturation-from-childhood-to-older-adulthood-implications-for-lifespan-cognitive-functioning
#10
Raluca Petrican, Margot J Taylor, Cheryl L Grady
The human brain's intrinsic functional architecture reflects behavioural history and can help elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying age-related cognitive changes. To probe this issue, we used resting state (N = 586) and behavioural (N = 255) data from a lifespan sample and tested the interactions among ten intrinsic neural systems, derived from a well-established whole-brain parcellation. Our results revealed three distinguishable profiles, whose expression strengthened with increasing age and which characterized developmental differences in connectivity within the ten systems, between networks thought to underlie cognitive control and non-control systems, and among the non-control networks...
September 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916632/tissue-sex-and-age-specific-dna-methylation-of-rat-glucocorticoid-receptor-gene-promoter-and-insulin-like-growth-factor-2-imprinting-control-region
#11
Ogechukwu Brenda Agba, Ludwig Lausser, Klaus Huse, Christoph Bergmeier, Niels Jahn, Marco Groth, Martin Bens, Arne Sahm, Maria Gall, Otto W Witte, Hans A Kestler, Matthias Schwab, Matthias Platzer
Tissue-, sex- and age-specific epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation are largely unknown. Changes in DNA methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) and imprinting control region (ICR) of IGF2 and H19 genes during the lifespan are particularly interesting since these genes are susceptible to epigenetic modifications by prenatal stress or malnutrition. They are important regulators of development and aging. Methylation changes of NR3C1 affect glucocorticoid receptor expression, which is associated with stress sensitivity and stress-related diseases predominantly occurring during aging...
September 15, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915616/tdp-43-hdac6-axis-promoted-tumor-progression-and-regulated-nutrient-deprivation-induced-autophagy-in-glioblastoma
#12
Tzu-Wei Lin, Ming-Teh Chen, Liang-Ting Lin, Pin-I Huang, Wen-Liang Lo, Yi-Ping Yang, Kai-Hsi Lu, Yi-Wei Chen, Shih-Hwa Chiou, Cheng-Wen Wu
Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is a lethal primary brain tumor with poor survival lifespan and dismal outcome. Surgical resection of GBM is greatly limited due to the biological significance of brain, giving rise to tumor relapse in GBM patients. Transactive response DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is a DNA/RNA-binding protein known for causing neurodegenerative diseases through post-translational modification; but little is known about its involvement in cancer development. In this study, we found that nutrient deprivation in GBM cell lines elevated TDP-43 expression by a mechanism of evasion from ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic pathway, and subsequently activated the autophagy process...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914588/interstitial-telomeric-repeats-associated-dna-breaks
#13
Olga Shubernetskaya, Dmitry Skvortsov, Sergey Evfratov, Maria Rubtsova, Elena Belova, Olga Strelkova, Varvara Cherepaninets, Oxana Zhironkina, Alexey Olovnikov, Maria Zvereva, Olga Dontsova, Igor Kireev
During a cell's lifespan, DNA break formation is a common event, associated with many processes, from replication to apoptosis. Most of DNA breaks are readily repaired, but some are meant to persist in time, such as the chromosome ends, protected by telomeres. Besides them, eukaryotic genomes comprise shorter stretches of interstitial telomeric repeats. We assumed that the latter may also be associated with the formation of DNA breaks meant to persist in time. In zebrafish and mouse embryos, cells containing numerous breakage foci were identified...
September 15, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913170/comparison-of-tissue-processing-methods-for-microvascular-visualization-in-axolotls
#14
Rodrigo Montoro, Renee Dickie
The vascular system, the pipeline for oxygen and nutrient delivery to tissues, is essential for vertebrate development, growth, injury repair, and regeneration. With their capacity to regenerate entire appendages throughout their lifespan, axolotls are an unparalleled model for vertebrate regeneration, but they lack many of the molecular tools that facilitate vascular imaging in other animal models. The determination of vascular metrics requires high quality image data for the discrimination of vessels from background tissue...
2017: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912686/roles-of-microglial-phagocytosis-and-inflammatory-mediators-in-the-pathophysiology-of-sleep-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Agnes Nadjar, Henna-Kaisa M Wigren, Marie-Eve Tremblay
Sleep serves crucial learning and memory functions in both nervous and immune systems. Microglia are brain immune cells that actively maintain health through their crucial physiological roles exerted across the lifespan, including phagocytosis of cellular debris and orchestration of neuroinflammation. The past decade has witnessed an explosive growth of microglial research. Considering the recent developments in the field of microglia and sleep, we examine their possible impact on various pathological conditions associated with a gain, disruption, or loss of sleep in this focused mini-review...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911882/aromatase-inhibitors-a-new-approach-for-controlling-ovarian-function-in-cattle
#16
M J Yapura, E M Zwiefelhofer, R A Pierson, G P Adams
Numerous treatments and protocols have been used to control the reproductive cycle in cattle, with varying effectiveness and many involving the administration of steroid hormones. Steroid hormones, such as estradiol, are perceived as having a negative impact on consumer health. This internationally shared opinion has led to a ban on the use of steroid hormones in food producing animals in many countries (i.e., European Union, New Zealand, and Australia). Letrozole, a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor, inactivates the aromatase enzyme responsible for the synthesis of estrogens by reversibly binding to the "heme" group of the P450 subunit...
September 11, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903177/changes-in-bacteria-composition-and-efficiency-of-constructed-wetlands-under-sustained-overloads-a-modeling-experiment
#17
F Boano, A Rizzo, R Samsó, J García, R Revelli, L Ridolfi
The average organic and hydraulic loads that Constructed Wetlands (CWs) receive are key parameters for their adequate long-term functioning. However, over their lifespan they will inevitably be subject to either episodic or sustained overloadings. Despite that the consequences of sustained overloading are well known (e.g., clogging), the threshold of overloads that these systems can tolerate is difficult to determine. Moreover, the mechanisms that might sustain the buffering capacity (i.e., the reduction of peaks in nutrient load) during overloads are not well understood...
September 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900276/highly-variable-lifespan-in-an-annual-reptile-labord-s-chameleon-furcifer-labordi
#18
Falk Eckhardt, Peter M Kappeler, Cornelia Kraus
Among tetrapods, the current record holder for shortest lifespan is Labord's chameleon, Furcifer labordi. These reptiles from the arid southwest of Madagascar have a reported lifespan of 4-5 months during the annual rainy season and spend the majority of their life (8-9 months) as a developing embryo. This semelparous, annual life history is unique among tetrapods, but only one population (Ranobe) in the southernmost distribution range has been studied. We therefore investigated the potential for environmentally-dependent variability in lifespan in a population in Kirindy Forest, which has a much longer warm rainy season...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899387/cognitive-performance-of-children-living-in-endemic-areas-for-plasmodium-vivax
#19
Laélia M B F Brasil, José L F Vieira, Eliete C Araújo, Pedro P F Piani, Rosa M Dias, Ana M R S Ventura, Bianca C Cabral, Renée C R Santa Brígida, Marcieni A de Andrade
BACKGROUND: The role of repeated episodes of malaria on the cognitive development of children is a relevant issue in endemic areas since it can have a long-lasting impact on individual lifespan. The aim of the current paper was to investigate whether the history of malaria can impair the verbal and performance skills of children living in an endemic area with low transmission of Plasmodium vivax malaria. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with children living in an endemic area of P...
September 12, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899197/personality-psychopathology-and-health-through-the-lens-of-interpersonal-relatedness-and-self-definition
#20
Patrick Luyten
Sidney Blatt's seminal contributions in the domain of personality development, psychopathology, and health rank among the best researched and most empirically supported theories in psychoanalysis. Blatt is known primarily for his two-polarities model of personality development, which he viewed as evolving through a dialectical, synergistic interaction between two fundamental processes across the lifespan: the development of interpersonal relatedness on the one hand, and of self-definition on the other. In this model, psychopathology is viewed as an attempt to find a balance, however distorted, between relatedness and self-definition...
June 2017: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
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