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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727724/grandmothering-and-cognitive-resources-are-required-for-the-emergence-of-menopause-and-extensive-post-reproductive-lifespan
#1
Carla Aimé, Jean-Baptiste André, Michel Raymond
Menopause, the permanent cessation of ovulation, occurs in humans well before the end of the expected lifespan, leading to an extensive post-reproductive period which remains a puzzle for evolutionary biologists. All human populations display this particularity; thus, it is difficult to empirically evaluate the conditions for its emergence. In this study, we used artificial neural networks to model the emergence and evolution of allocation decisions related to reproduction in simulated populations. When allocation decisions were allowed to freely evolve, both menopause and extensive post-reproductive life-span emerged under some ecological conditions...
July 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726994/cell-biology-symposium-practical-application-of-the-basic-aspects-of-glut4-membrane-trafficking-and-insulin-signaling-on-issues-related-to-animal-agriculture
#2
S B Smith
Because of the relatively short lifespans of beef cattle, membrane trafficking in relation to inflammation is not considered important unless it overtly affects productivity. However, glucose uptake and utilization is important for adipose tissue development in beef cattle, and increasing glucose utilization in intramuscular adipose tissue can increase carcass quality. Research from the 1980s demonstrated a lack of insulin sensitivity in isolated bovine adipocytes and adipose tissue explants incubated in vitro...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726319/ultrastructure-of-lingual-papillae-in-common-chimpanzee-pan-troglodytes-foetus-newborn-and-adult-specimens
#3
J F Pastor, M Barbosa, F J De Paz, I San José, M Levanti, J M Potau, J A Vega, R Cabo
Among primates, the two recognized species of chimpanzees (common chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes; pygmy chimpanzee, Pan paniscus) are considered to be the most similar to humans. Importantly, in mammals, the food intake behaviour largely determines the tongue morphology, including the type, proportion and distribution of gustatory and non-gustatory tongue papillae. The lingual papillae form during its development and mature in post-natal life depending on the different feeding. In this study, we have used scanning electron microscopy to analyse the age-related changes in the lingual papillae of foetal, newborn and adult P...
July 20, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726285/a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-executive-function-in-down-syndrome-from-2-to-35%C3%A2-years
#4
S J Loveall, F A Conners, A S Tungate, L J Hahn, T D Osso
BACKGROUND: Previous research has indicated a unique profile of executive function (EF) in children and adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). However, there is a paucity of research on EF in adults with DS. This study aimed to gain a broader understanding of strengths and weaknesses in EF in DS from 2 to 35 years. METHOD: Parents of 112 individuals with DS between 2 and 35 years participated in this study. Parents either completed the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function - for individuals 6+ years - or the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function Preschool Version - for children 2-5 years...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725636/epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-the-female-reproductive-tract-from-normal-functioning-to-disease-pathology
#5
REVIEW
Olena Bilyk, Mackenzie Coatham, Michael Jewer, Lynne-Marie Postovit
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a physiological process that is vital throughout the human lifespan. In addition to contributing to the development of various tissues within the growing embryo, EMT is also responsible for wound healing and tissue regeneration later in adulthood. In this review, we highlight the importance of EMT in the development and normal functioning of the female reproductive organs (the ovaries and the uterus) and describe how dysregulation of EMT can lead to pathological conditions, such as endometriosis, adenomyosis, and carcinogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725529/recent-progress-on-piezoelectric-and-triboelectric-energy-harvesters-in-biomedical-systems
#6
REVIEW
Qiang Zheng, Bojing Shi, Zhou Li, Zhong Lin Wang
Implantable medical devices (IMDs) have become indispensable medical tools for improving the quality of life and prolonging the patient's lifespan. The minimization and extension of lifetime are main challenges for the development of IMDs. Current innovative research on this topic is focused on internal charging using the energy generated by the physiological environment or natural body activity. To harvest biomechanical energy efficiently, piezoelectric and triboelectric energy harvesters with sophisticated structural and material design have been developed...
July 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721811/moving-to-the-rhythm-with-clock-circadian-genes-autophagy-mtor-and-sirt1-in-degenerative-disease-and-cancer
#7
Kenneth Maiese
BACKGROUND: The mammalian circadian clock and its associated clock genes are increasingly be recognized as critical components for a number of physiological and disease processes that extend beyond hormone release, thermal regulation, and sleep-wake cycles. New evidence suggests that clinical behavior disruptions that involve prolonged shift work and even space travel may negatively impact circadian rhythm and lead to multi-system disease. METHODS: In light of the significant role circadian rhythm can hold over the body's normal physiology as well as disease processes, we examined and discussed the impact circadian rhythm and clock genes hold over lifespan, neurodegenerative disorders, and tumorigenesis...
July 17, 2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718225/proteostasis-and-ageing-insights-from-long-lived-mutant-mice
#8
William A Sands, Melissa M Page, Colin Selman
The global increase in life expectancy is creating significant medical, social and economic challenges to current and future generations. Consequently, there is a need to identify the fundamental mechanisms underlying the ageing process. This knowledge should help develop realistic interventions capable of combatting age-related disease, and thus improving late-life health and vitality. While several mechanisms have been proposed as conserved lifespan determinants, the loss of proteostasis- where proteostasis is defined here as the maintenance of the proteome- appears highly relevant to both ageing and disease...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715487/serum-variations-of-anti-mullerian-hormone-and-total-testosterone-with-aging-in-healthy-adult-iranian-men-a-population-based-study
#9
Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Masoud Solaymani-Dodaran, Sonia Minooee, Fereidoun Azizi
BACKGROUND: Literature proves anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) and total testosterone (TT) as two important reproductive hormones in male development, however evidence regarding age variations of these hormones is lacking. AIMS: To estimate the normal serum AMH values and to assess the age-specific TT levels in men aged 30-70, we conducted the present population-based study. METHODS: A total of 831 healthy eligible men, aged 30-70 years, were recruited from Tehran Lipid and Glucose study cohort...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714396/differential-effects-of-nicotine-exposure-on-the-hippocampus-across-lifespan
#10
Dana Zeid, Munir Gunes Kutlu, Thomas J Gould
Nicotine exposure affects the hippocampus through activation of hippocampal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which are present throughout excitatory and inhibitory hippocampal circuitry. The role of cholinergic functioning in the hippocampus varies across developmental stages so that nicotine exposure differentially affects this region depending upon timing of exposure, producing developmentally distinct changes in structure, function, and behavior. The hippocampus continues to mature well into adolescence, and this development is modulated by cholinergic activity...
July 13, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709470/the-effects-of-cognitive-bias-modification-training-and-oxytocin-administration-on-trust-in-maternal-support-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Martine W F T Verhees, Eva Ceulemans, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Simon de Winter, Guy Bosmans
BACKGROUND: Lack of trust in parental support is a transdiagnostic risk factor for the development of psychological problems throughout the lifespan. Research suggests that children's cognitive attachment representations and related information processing biases could be an important target for interventions aiming to build trust in the parent-child relationship. A paradigm that can alter these biases and increase trust is that of Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM), during which a target processing bias is systematically trained...
July 14, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707579/the-involvement-of-ercc2-xpd-and-ercc6-csb-wild-type-alleles-in-protection-against-aging-and-cancer
#12
Natalia Savina, Natalia Nikitchenko, Tatyana Kuzhir, Alexander Rolevich, Sergei Krasny, Roza Goncharova
BACKGROUND: DNA helicases maintain genome stability, and their deficiency is associated with disorders resembling premature aging as well as contributes to carcinogenesis. Their functions are determined by the respective genes encoding nucleotide excision repair initiating proteins, e.g. XPD and CSB. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to investigate the influence of genetic variations in ERCC2/XPD (rs1799793, rs13181) and ERCC6/CSB (rs2228526, rs2228528) loci on lifespan and developing age-related bladder cancer focusing on homozygous wild type alleles...
July 7, 2017: Current Aging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705812/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-metabolic-syndrome-the-expanding-role-of-the-adipocyte
#13
REVIEW
Andrea Armani, Alessandra Berry, Francesca Cirulli, Massimiliano Caprio
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined as a cluster of 3 or more metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors and represents a serious problem for public health. Altered function of adipose tissue has a significant impact on whole-body metabolism and represents a key driver for the development of these metabolic derangements, collectively referred as to MetS. In particular, increased visceral and ectopic fat deposition play a major role in the development of insulin resistance and MetS. A large body of evidence demonstrates that aging and MetS share several metabolic alterations...
July 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705245/abscisic-acid-induces-a-transient-shift-in-signaling-that-enhances-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mediated-parasite-killing-in-the-midgut-of-anopheles-stephensi-without-reducing-lifespan-or-fecundity
#14
Elizabeth K K Glennon, Brandi K Torrevillas, Shannon F Morrissey, Jadrian M Ejercito, Shirley Luckhart
BACKGROUND: Abscisic acid (ABA) is naturally present in mammalian blood and circulating levels can be increased by oral supplementation. We showed previously that oral ABA supplementation in a mouse model of Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL infection reduced parasitemia and gametocytemia, spleen and liver pathology, and parasite transmission to the mosquito Anopheles stephensi fed on these mice. Treatment of cultured Plasmodium falciparum with ABA at levels detected in our model had no effects on asexual growth or gametocyte formation in vitro...
July 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705195/peto-s-paradox-how-has-evolution-solved-the-problem-of-cancer-prevention
#15
Marc Tollis, Amy M Boddy, Carlo C Maley
The risk of developing cancer should theoretically increase with both the number of cells and the lifespan of an organism. However, gigantic animals do not get more cancer than humans, suggesting that super-human cancer suppression has evolved numerous times across the tree of life. This is the essence and promise of Peto's Paradox. We discuss what is known about Peto's Paradox and provide hints of what is yet to be discovered.
July 13, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702021/combination-of-metabolomic-and-proteomic-analysis-revealed-different-features-among-lactobacillus-delbrueckii-subspecies-bulgaricus-and-lactis-strains-while-in-vivo-testing-in-the-model-organism-caenorhabditis-elegans-highlighted-probiotic-properties
#16
Elena Zanni, Emily Schifano, Sara Motta, Fabio Sciubba, Claudio Palleschi, Pierluigi Mauri, Giuditta Perozzi, Daniela Uccelletti, Chiara Devirgiliis, Alfredo Miccheli
Lactobacillus delbrueckii represents a technologically relevant member of lactic acid bacteria, since the two subspecies bulgaricus and lactis are widely associated with fermented dairy products. In the present work, we report the characterization of two commercial strains belonging to L. delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus, lactis and a novel strain previously isolated from a traditional fermented fresh cheese. A phenomic approach was performed by combining metabolomic and proteomic analysis of the three strains, which were subsequently supplemented as food source to the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, with the final aim to evaluate their possible probiotic effects...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698578/dopamine-2-receptor-activation-entrains-circadian-clocks-in-mouse-retinal-pigment-epithelium
#17
Kenkichi Baba, Jason P DeBruyne, Gianluca Tosini
Many of the physiological, cellular, and molecular rhythms that are present within the eye are under the control of circadian clocks. Experimental evidence suggests that the retinal circadian clock, or its output signals (e.g., dopamine and melatonin), may contribute to eye disease and pathology. We recently developed a retinal pigment ephithelium (RPE)-choroid preparation to monitor the circadian clock using PERIOD2 (PER2)::LUC knock-in mouse. In this study we report that dopamine, but not melatonin, is responsible for entrainment of the PER2::LUC bioluminescence rhythm in mouse RPE-choroid...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694157/how-methamphetamine-exposure-during-different-neurodevelopmental-stages-affects-social-behavior-of-adult-rats
#18
Ivana Hrebíčková, Mária Ševčíková, Eva Macúchová, Romana Šlamberová
Social behavior involves complex of different forms of interactions between individuals that is essential for healthy mental and physical development throughout lifespan. Psychostimulants, including methamphetamine (MA), have neurotoxic effect, especially, if they are targeting CNS during its critical periods of development. The present study was aimed on evaluation of changes in social interactions (SI) following scheduled prenatal/neonatal MA treatment in combination with acute application in adulthood. Eight groups of male and eight groups of female rats were tested in adulthood: rats, whose mothers were exposed to MA (5mg/ml/kg) or saline (SA, 1ml/kg) during the first half of gestation (ED 1-11), the second half of gestation (ED 12-22) and neonatal period (PD 1-11)...
July 8, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694052/group-housing-during-adolescence-has-long-term-effects-on-the-adult-stress-response-in-female-but-not-male-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata
#19
Michael G Emmerson, Karen A Spencer
Adolescent social interactions can have long-term effects on physiological responses to stressors in later-life. A larger adolescent group size can result in higher stressor-induced secretion of glucocorticoids in adulthood. The effect may be due to a socially-mediated modulation of gonadal hormones, e.g. testosterone. However, group size (number of animals) has been conflated with social density (space per animal). Therefore it is hard to determine the mechanisms through which adolescent group size can affect the stress response...
July 7, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692786/chemically-addressable-perovskite-nanocrystals-for-light-emitting-applications
#20
Haizhu Sun, Zhenyu Yang, Mingyang Wei, Wei Sun, Xiyan Li, Shuyang Ye, Yongbiao Zhao, Hairen Tan, Emily L Kynaston, Tyler B Schon, Han Yan, Zheng-Hong Lu, Geoffrey A Ozin, Edward H Sargent, Dwight S Seferos
Whereas organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite nanocrystals (PNCs) have remarkable potential in the development of optoelectronic materials, their relatively poor chemical and colloidal stability undermines their performance in optoelectronic devices. Herein, this issue is addressed by passivating PNCs with a class of chemically addressable ligands. The robust ligands effectively protect the PNC surfaces, enhance PNC solution processability, and can be chemically addressed by thermally induced crosslinking or radical-induced polymerization...
July 10, 2017: Advanced Materials
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