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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935856/environmental-pah-exposure-and-male-idiopathic-infertility-a-review-on-early-life-exposures-and-adult-diagnosis
#1
Erin P Madeen, David E Williams
The male reproductive system is acutely and uniquely sensitive to a variety of toxicities, including those induced by environmental pollutants throughout the lifespan. Early life hormonal and morphological development results in several especially sensitive critical windows of toxicity risk associated with lifelong decreased reproductive health and fitness. Male factor infertility can account for over 40% of infertility in couples seeking treatment, and 44% of infertile men are diagnosed with idiopathic male infertility...
December 9, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933724/comparative-analysis-reveals-amino-acids-critical-for-anticancer-activity-of-peptide-cigb-552
#2
Soledad Astrada, Yolanda Gomez, Exequiel Barrera, Gonzalo Obal, Otto Pritsch, Sergio Pantano, Maribel G Vallespí, Mariela Bollati-Fogolín
Because of resistance development by cancer cells against current anticancer drugs, there is a considerable interest in developing novel antitumor agents. We have previously demonstrated that CIGB-552, a novel cell-penetrating synthetic peptide, was effective in reducing tumor size and increasing lifespan in tumor-bearing mice. Studies of protein-peptide interactions have shown that COMMD1 protein is a major mediator of CIGB-552 antitumor activity. Furthermore, a typical serine-protease degradation pattern for CIGB-552 in BALB/c mice serum was identified, yielding peptides which differ from CIGB-552 in size and physical properties...
November 2016: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933583/looking-beyond-the-5-httlpr-polymorphism-genetic-and-epigenetic-layers-of-regulation-affecting-the-serotonin-transporter-gene-expression
#3
REVIEW
Sandra Iurescia, Davide Seripa, Monica Rinaldi
Serotonin (5-HT) is a neurotransmitter that regulates fundamental aspects of brain development, physiology and behaviour. The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is deputized to the reuptake of 5-HT from the intersynaptic space in the presynaptic neurons. 5-HTT governs duration and magnitude of 5-HT biological actions, acting as a master regulator of the fine-tuning of 5-HT signalling. Genetic variation at SLC6A4 gene locus, encoding 5-HTT, contributes to alteration in 5-HT reuptake. The 5-HTTLPR/rs25531/rs25532 polymorphisms located in the promoter region of SLC6A4 gene have been associated with stress-related psychopathology and functional brain phenotypes...
December 8, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933028/autism-in-action-reduced-bodily-connectedness-during-social-interactions
#4
C Lieke E Peper, Sija J van der Wal, Sander Begeer
Autism is a lifelong disorder, defined by deficits in social interactions and flexibility. To date, diagnostic markers for autism primarily include limitations in social behavior and cognition. However, such tests have often shown to be inadequate for individuals with autism who are either more cognitively able or intellectually disabled. The assessment of the social limitations of autism would benefit from new tests that capture the dynamics of social initiative and reciprocity in interaction processes, and that are not dependent on intellectual or verbal skills...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932997/characterization-of-reproductive-dormancy-in-male-drosophila-melanogaster
#5
Olga I Kubrak, Lucie Kučerová, Ulrich Theopold, Sören Nylin, Dick R Nässel
Insects are known to respond to seasonal and adverse environmental changes by entering dormancy, also known as diapause. In some insect species, including Drosophila melanogaster, dormancy occurs in the adult organism and postpones reproduction. This adult dormancy has been studied in female flies where it is characterized by arrested development of ovaries, altered nutrient stores, lowered metabolism, increased stress and immune resistance and drastically extended lifespan. Male dormancy, however, has not been investigated in D...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925233/quantification-and-analysis-of-leaflet-flutter-on-biological-prosthetic-cardiac-valves
#6
Artur H de F Avelar, Jean A Canestri, Camila Bim, Maíra G M Silva, Rudolf Huebner, Marcos Pinotti
The use of porcine or bovine pericardium biological cardiac valves has as its main disadvantage a relatively short lifespan, with failures due to calcification and fatigue. Increasing these valves' durability constitutes a great challenge. An understudied phenomenon is the effect of flutter, an oscillation of the leaflets that can cause regurgitation and accelerate calcification and fatigue. As a starting point to study how to reduce or prevent these oscillations, a method was developed to quantify the flutter frequencies occurring at the point of the valve's full opening...
December 7, 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924851/senescence-novel-insight-into-dlx3-mutations-leading-to-enhanced-bone-formation-in-tricho-dento-osseous-syndrome
#7
Na Zhao, Dong Han, Haochen Liu, Yue Li, Sing-Wai Wong, Zhengyi Cao, Jian Xu, Xiaowei Zhang, Tao Cai, Yixiang Wang, Hailan Feng
The homeodomain transcription factor distal-less homeobox 3 gene (DLX3) is required for hair, tooth and skeletal development. DLX3 mutations have been found to be responsible for Tricho-Dento-Osseous (TDO) syndrome, characterized by kinky hair, thin-pitted enamel and increased bone density. Here we show that the DLX3 mutation (c.533 A>G; Q178R) attenuates osteogenic potential and senescence of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) isolated from a TDO patient, providing a molecular explanation for abnormal increased bone density...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921031/amniotic-epithelial-cells-a-new-tool-to-combat-aging-and-age-related-diseases
#8
Clara Di Germanio, Michel Bernier, Rafael de Cabo, Barbara Barboni
The number of elderly people is growing at an unprecedented rate and this increase of the aging population is expected to have a direct impact on the incidence of age-related diseases and healthcare-associated costs. Thus, it is imperative that new tools are developed to fight and slow age-related diseases. Regenerative medicine is a promising strategy for the maintenance of health and function late in life; however, stem cell-based therapies face several challenges including rejection and tumor transformation...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919712/extracts-from-two-ubiquitous-mediterranean-plants-ameliorate-cellular-and-animal-models-of-neurodegenerative-proteinopathies
#9
Michelle Briffa, Stephanie Ghio, Johanna Neuner, Alison J Gauci, Rebecca Cacciottolo, Christelle Marchal, Mario Caruana, Christophe Cullin, Neville Vassallo, Ruben J Cauchi
A signature feature of age-related neurodegenerative proteinopathies is the misfolding and aggregation of proteins, typically amyloid-β (Aβ) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and α-synuclein (α-syn) in Parkinson's disease (PD), into soluble oligomeric structures that are highly neurotoxic. Cellular and animal models that faithfully replicate the hallmark features of these disorders are being increasing exploited to identify disease-modifying compounds. Natural compounds have been identified as a useful source of bioactive molecules with promising neuroprotective capabilities...
December 2, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918458/new-electrochemically-modified-carbon-paste-inclusion-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-and-carbon-nanotubes-sensors-for-quantification-of-dorzolamide-hydrochloride
#10
Nawal Ahmad Alarfaj, Maha Farouk El-Tohamy
The present article introduces a new approach to fabricate carbon paste sensors, including carbon paste, modified carbon paste inclusion β-cyclodextrin, and carbon nanotubes for the quantification of dorzolamide hydrochloride (DRZ). This study is mainly based on the construction of three different carbon paste sensors by the incorporation of DRZ with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) to form dorzolamide-phosphotungstate (DRZ-PT) as an electroactive material in the presence of the solvent mediator ortho-nitrophenyloctyl ether (o-NPOE)...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917284/the-neurobiology-of-dispositional-negativity-and-attentional-biases-to-threat-implications-for-understanding-anxiety-disorders-in-adults-and-youth
#11
Alexander J Shackman, Melissa D Stockbridge, Rachael M Tillman, Claire M Kaplan, Do P M Tromp, Andrew S Fox, Matthias Gamer
When extreme, anxiety can become debilitating. Anxiety disorders, which often first emerge early in development, are common and challenging to treat, yet the neurocognitive mechanisms that confer increased risk have only recently begun to come into focus. Here we review recent work highlighting the importance of neural circuits centered on the amygdala. We begin by describing dispositional negativity, a core dimension of childhood temperament and adult personality and an important risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders and other kinds of stress-sensitive psychopathology...
2016: Journal of Experimental Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911497/neural-plasticity-across-the-lifespan
#12
REVIEW
Jonathan D Power, Bradley L Schlaggar
An essential feature of the brain is its capacity to change. Neuroscientists use the term 'plasticity' to describe the malleability of neuronal connectivity and circuitry. How does plasticity work? A review of current data suggests that plasticity encompasses many distinct phenomena, some of which operate across most or all of the lifespan, and others that operate exclusively in early development. This essay surveys some of the key concepts related to neural plasticity, beginning with how current patterns of neural activity (e...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906881/stem-cells-and-clinical-practice-new-advances-and-challenges-at-the-time-of-emerging-problems-with-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-therapies
#13
Mariusz Z Ratajczak, Kamila Bujko, Wojciech Wojakowski
Humans, like other species that reproduce sexually, originate from a fertilized oocyte (zygote), which is a totipotent stem cell giving rise to an adult organism. During the process of embryogenesis, stem cells at different levels of the developmental hierarchy establish all 3 germ layers and give rise to tissue‑committed stem cells, which are responsible for rejuvenation of a given tissue or organ. The robustness of the stem cell compartment is one of the major factors that directly impact life quality as well as lifespan...
November 10, 2016: Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnętrznej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899768/effects-of-dietary-restriction-on-adipose-mass-and-biomarkers-of-healthy-aging-in-human
#14
Daniele Lettieri-Barbato, Esmeralda Giovannetti, Katia Aquilano
In developing countries the rise of obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes, reflects the changes in lifestyle habits and wrong dietary choices. Dietary restriction (DR) regimens have been shown to extend health span and lifespan in many animal models including primates. Identifying biomarkers predictive of clinical benefits of treatment is one of the primary goals of precision medicine. To monitor the clinical outcomes of DR interventions in humans, several biomarkers are commonly adopted...
November 29, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895165/rats-with-a-missense-mutation-in-atm-display-neuroinflammation-and-neurodegeneration-subsequent-to-accumulation-of-cytosolic-dna-following-unrepaired-dna-damage
#15
Hazel Quek, John Luff, KaGeen Cheung, Sergei Kozlov, Magtouf Gatei, C Soon Lee, Mark C Bellingham, Peter G Noakes, Yi Chieh Lim, Nigel L Barnett, Steven Dingwall, Ernst Wolvetang, Tomoji Mashimo, Tara L Roberts, Martin F Lavin
Mutations in the ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T)-mutated (ATM) gene give rise to the human genetic disorder A-T, characterized by immunodeficiency, cancer predisposition, and neurodegeneration. Whereas a series of animal models recapitulate much of the A-T phenotype, they fail to present with ataxia or neurodegeneration. We describe here the generation of an Atm missense mutant [amino acid change of leucine (L) to proline (P) at position 2262 (L2262P)] rat by intracytoplasmic injection (ICSI) of mutant sperm into oocytes...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892635/electrically-rechargeable-zinc-air-batteries-progress-challenges-and-perspectives
#16
Jing Fu, Zachary Paul Cano, Moon Gyu Park, Aiping Yu, Michael Fowler, Zhongwei Chen
Zinc-air batteries have attracted much attention and received revived research efforts recently due to their high energy density, which makes them a promising candidate for emerging mobile and electronic applications. Besides their high energy density, they also demonstrate other desirable characteristics, such as abundant raw materials, environmental friendliness, safety, and low cost. Here, the reaction mechanism of electrically rechargeable zinc-air batteries is discussed, different battery configurations are compared, and an in depth discussion is offered of the major issues that affect individual cellular components, along with respective strategies to alleviate these issues to enhance battery performance...
November 28, 2016: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889707/transgenerational-programming-of-longevity-through-e-z-mediated-histone-h3k27-trimethylation-in-drosophila
#17
Brian Xia, Ed Gerstin, Dustin E Schones, Wendong Huang, J Steven de Belle
Transgenerational effects on health and development of early-life nutrition have gained increased attention recently. However, the underlying mechanisms of transgenerational transmission are only starting to emerge, with epigenetics as perhaps the most important mechanism. We recently reported the first animal model to study transgenerational programming of longevity after early-life dietary manipulations, enabling investigations to identify underlying epigenetic mechanisms. We report here that post-eclosion dietary manipulation (PDM) with a low-protein (LP) diet upregulates the protein level of E(z), an H3K27 specific methyltransferase, leading to higher levels of H3K27 trimethylation (H3K27me3)...
November 25, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884932/drosophila-wash-is-required-for-integrin-mediated-cell-adhesion-cell-motility-and-lysosomal-neutralization
#18
Benedikt M Nagel, Meike Bechtold, Luis Garcia Rodriguez, Sven Bogdan
The Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein and SCAR Homologue (WASH) is a conserved actin nucleation promoting factor controlling Arp2/3 complex activity in endosomal sorting and recycling. Previous studies have identified WASH as an essential regulator in Drosophila development. Here, we show that homozygous wash mutant flies are viable and fertile. We demonstrate that Drosophila WASH has conserved functions in integrin receptor recycling and lysosome neutralization. WASH generates actin patches on endosomes and lysosomes mediating both functions...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883035/telomeres-are-elongated-in-older-individuals-in-a-hibernating-rodent-the-edible-dormouse-glis-glis
#19
Franz Hoelzl, Steve Smith, Jessica S Cornils, Denise Aydinonat, Claudia Bieber, Thomas Ruf
Telomere shortening is thought to be an important biomarker for life history traits such as lifespan and aging, and can be indicative of genome integrity, survival probability and the risk of cancer development. In humans and other animals, telomeres almost always shorten with age, with more rapid telomere attrition in short-lived species. Here, we show that in the edible dormouse (Glis glis) telomere length significantly increases from an age of 6 to an age of 9 years. While this finding could be due to higher survival of individuals with longer telomeres, we also found, using longitudinal measurements, a positive effect of age on the rate of telomere elongation within older individuals...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881780/negative-allosteric-modulation-of-mglur5-partially-corrects-pathophysiology-in-a-mouse-model-of-rett-syndrome
#20
Jifang Tao, Hao Wu, Amanda A Coronado, Elizabeth de Laittre, Emily K Osterweil, Yi Zhang, Mark F Bear
: Rett syndrome (RTT) is caused by mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2), an epigenetic regulator of mRNA transcription. Here, we report a test of the hypothesis of shared pathophysiology of RTT and fragile X, another monogenic cause of autism and intellectual disability. In fragile X, the loss of the mRNA translational repressor FMRP leads to exaggerated protein synthesis downstream of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5). We found that mGluR5- and protein-synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity were similarly altered in area CA1 of Mecp2 KO mice...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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