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Sara Zahedi, Karim Shamsasenjan, Aliakbar Movassaghpour, Parvin Akbarzadehlaleh
Purpose: Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are one of the essential members of Bone Marrow (BM) microenvironment and the cells affect normal and malignant cells in BM milieu. One of the most important hematological malignancies is Multiple Myeloma (MM). Numerous studies reported various effects of MSCs on myeloma cells. MSCs initiate various signaling pathways in myeloma cells, particularly NF-kβ. NF-kβ signaling pathway plays pivotal role in the survival, proliferation and resistance of myeloma cells to the anticancer drugs, therefore this pathway can be said to be a vital target for cancer therapy...
September 2016: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
M Gokulnath, R Swetha, G Thejaswini, P Shilpa, N Selvamurugan
Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) plays a significant role in breast cancer mediated bone metastasis, and it stimulated expression of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13; an invasive and metastasis gene) via activating transcription factor-3 (ATF-3) in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB231). We further dissected the role of ATF-3 and its interacting proteins (activator protein-1; AP-1) for TGF-β1-stimulation of MMP-13 expression in these cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiment identified the TGF-β1-stimulation of ATF-3 interaction at the AP-1 site of the MMP-13 promoter in a sustained and prolonged manner in MDA-MB231 cells...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Xiaoling Zhang, Suju Luo, Joseph Wu, Long Zhang, Wen-Hui Wang, Simone Degan, Detlev Erdmann, Russell Hall, Jennifer Y Zhang
Loss-of-function of KIND1, a cytoskeletal protein involved in β1-integrin function, causes Kindler Syndrome (KS), a genetic disease characterized by skin fragility, photosensitivity and increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Dysregulation of β1-integrin underlies KS skin fragility. However, the mechanisms underlying SCC susceptibility are unclear. Here, we demonstrate that gene silencing of KIND1 decreased keratinocyte proliferation and increased apoptosis in vitro and in skin grafts regenerated on mice, which was correlated with reduced cyclinB1...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Ryuichiro Arakaki, Toshinari Yamasaki, Toru Kanno, Noboru Shibasaki, Hiromasa Sakamoto, Noriaki Utsunomiya, Takayuki Sumiyoshi, Shinsuke Shibuya, Tatsuaki Tsuruyama, Eijiro Nakamura, Osamu Ogawa, Tomomi Kamba
We previously reported that the pVHL-atypical PKC-JunB pathway contributed to promotion of cell invasiveness and angiogenesis in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), and we detected chemokine (C-C motif) ligand-2 (CCL2) as one of downstream effectors of JunB. CCL2 plays a critical role in tumorigenesis in other types of cancer, but its role in ccRCC remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the roles and therapeutic potential of CCL2 in ccRCC. Immunohistochemical analysis of CCL2 expression for ccRCC specimens showed that upregulation of CCL2 expression correlated with clinical stage, overall survival, and macrophage infiltration...
September 26, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Xuzhen Wang, Xiaoni Gan, Junbing Li, Yiyu Chen, Shunping He
Origin and diversification of the Tibetan polyploid cyprinids (schizothoracins) may help us to explore relationships between diversification of the cyprinids and the Tibetan Plateau uplift. Cyprininae phylogeny was analyzed using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences to trace origins of polyploidy and diversifications of schizothoracins. Ancestral states reconstruction for ploidy levels indicated that the Cyprininae was diploid origin and the schizothoracin clades tetraploid origins. There were two diversification rate shifts along with diversification of the cyprinine fishes in response to the Tibetan uplift...
September 20, 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
Christian H Gabriel, Fridolin Gross, Martin Karl, Heike Stephanowitz, Anna Floriane Hennig, Melanie Weber, Stefanie Gryzik, Ivo Bachmann, Katharina Hecklau, Jürgen Wienands, Johannes Schuchhardt, Hanspeter Herzel, Andreas Radbruch, Eberhard Krause, Ria Baumgrass
Transcription factors of the nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT)-family are essential for antigen-specific T cell activation and differentiation. Their cooperative DNA binding with other transcription factors, such as AP1-proteins (FOS, JUN, JUNB), FOXP3, IRFs and EGR1, dictate the gene regulatory action of NFATs. To identify as yet unknown interaction partners of NFAT, we purified biotin tagged NFATc1/αA, NFATc1/βC and NFATc2/C protein-complexes and analyzed their components by SILAC-based mass spectrometry...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Ki-Shuk Shim, Chung-Jo Lee, Nam-Hui Yim, Min Jung Gu, Jin Yeul Ma
Alpinia officinarum rhizome has been used as a traditional herbal remedy to treat inflammatory and internal diseases. Based on the previously observed inhibitory effect of A. officinarum rhizome in an arthritis model, we evaluated whether a water extract of A. officinarum rhizome (WEAO) would enhance in vitro osteoblast mineralization using calvarial osteoblast precursor cells or would inhibit in vitro osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption using bone marrow derived macrophages. In osteoblasts, WEAO enhanced the mRNA levels of transcription factor (runt-related transcription factor 2, smad1, smad5, and junB) and marker (bone morphogenetic protein-2, collagen type 1alpha1, and osteocalcin) genes related to osteoblast mineralization, consistent with increased alizarin red S staining intensity...
2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Yiming Shao, Junbing He, Feng Chen, Yujie Cai, Jianghao Zhao, Yao Lin, Zihan Yin, Hua Tao, Xin Shao, Pengru Huang, Mingkang Yin, Wenying Zhang, Zhou Liu, Lili Cui
BACKGROUND: A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) has been confirmed to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of sepsis. However, little is known about the clinical relevance of ADAM17 polymorphisms to sepsis onset and development. METHODS: This study analyzed the associations of five ADAM17 promoter polymorphisms (rs55790676, rs12692386, rs11684747, rs1524668 and rs11689958) with sepsis (370 sepsis cases and 400 controls). Genotyping was performed using pyrosequencing and polymerase chain reaction-length polymorphism method...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Cachétne S X Barrett, Ana C Millena, Shafiq A Khan
BACKGROUND: Activator Protein-1 (AP-1) family (cJun, JunB, JunD, cFos, FosB, Fra1, and Fra2) plays a central role in the transcriptional regulation of many genes that are associated with cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, metastasis, and survival. Many oncogenic signaling pathways converge at the AP-1 transcription complex. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a multifunctional regulatory cytokine that regulates many aspects of cellular function, including cellular proliferation, differentiation, migration, apoptosis, adhesion, angiogenesis, immune surveillance, and survival...
September 7, 2016: Prostate
Alexandra Papoudou-Bai, Eleftheria Hatzimichael, Alexandra Barbouti, Panagiotis Kanavaros
The activator protein-1 (AP-1) is a dimeric transcription factor composed of proteins belonging to the Jun (c-Jun, JunB and JunD), Fos (c-Fos, FosB, Fra1 and Fra2) and activating transcription factor protein families. AP-1 is involved in various cellular events including differentiation, proliferation, survival and apoptosis. Deregulated expression of AP-1 transcription factors is implicated in the pathogenesis of various lymphomas such as classical Hodgkin lymphomas, anaplastic large cell lymphomas, diffuse large B cell lymphomas and adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma...
September 6, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Medicine
D W Chan, W W Y Hui, J J Wang, M M H Yung, L M N Hui, Y Qin, R R Liang, T H Y Leung, D Xu, K K L Chan, K-M Yao, B K Tsang, H Y S Ngan
Recent evidence from a comprehensive genome analysis and functional studies have revealed that FOXM1 is a crucial metastatic regulator that drives cancer progression. However, the regulatory mechanism by which FOXM1 exerts its metastatic functions in cancer cells remains obscure. Here, we report that DLX1 acts as a FOXM1 downstream target, exerting pro-metastatic function in ovarian cancers. Both FOXM1 isoforms (FOXM1B or FOXM1C) could transcriptionally upregulate DLX1 through two conserved binding sites, located at +61 to +69bp downstream (TFBS1) and -675 to -667bp upstream (TFBS2) of the DLX1 promoter, respectively...
September 5, 2016: Oncogene
Christophe Glorieux, Juan Marcelo Sandoval, Antoine Fattaccioli, Nicolas Dejeans, James C Garbe, Marc Dieu, Julien Verrax, Patricia Renard, Peng Huang, Pedro Buc Calderon
Regulation of ROS metabolism plays a major role in cellular adaptation to oxidative stress in cancer cells, but the molecular mechanism that regulates catalase, a key antioxidant enzyme responsible for conversion of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen, remains to be elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the transcriptional regulatory mechanism controlling catalase expression in three human mammary cell lines: the normal mammary epithelial 250MK primary cells, the breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells and an experimental model of MCF-7 cells resistant against oxidative stress resulting from chronic exposure to H2O2 (Resox), in which catalase was overexpressed...
August 31, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Özge Uluçkan, Erwin F Wagner
Inflammation is a physiological reaction to tissue injury, pathogen invasion and a natural response to various stress stimuli. Innate and adaptive immune cells are activated and recruited to the site of inflammation to suppress or promote inflammation. The recruitment and activation of immune cells is modulated by cytokines and chemokines, which are regulated by transcription factors, such as AP-1 (Fos/Jun), NF-kB, NFATs and STATs. Moreover, it is now appreciated that chronic inflammation can lead to systemic effects affecting the whole organism by mechanisms which are not well understood...
July 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
S Nishad, Anu Ghosh
Ionizing radiation (IR) is considered ubiquitous in nature. The immediate early genes are considered the earliest nuclear targets of IR and are induced in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. Many of these genes encode transcription factors that constitute the first step in signal transduction to couple cytoplasmic effects with long-term cellular response. In this paper, coordinated transcript response of fos and jun family members which constitute activator protein 1 transcription factor was studied in response to IR in human peripheral blood lymphocytes at the G0 stage...
September 1, 2016: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
Huan Qi, Junbing Pan, Feng-Ling Qing, Kelu Yan, Gang Sun
1,2,3,4-Butane tetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) has been considered as one of the most promising crosslinking agent to replace dimethylol dihydroxy ethylene urea (DMDHEU) for anti-wrinkle finishing on cotton fabrics. However, it could cause significant strength loss of the treated fabrics. In this study, a 5-(carbonyloxy succinic)-benzene-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid (BSTA) was synthesized and applied as an effective crosslinking agent. The results show that fabrics treated with BSTA present the same or even better anti-wrinkle properties as that with BTCA...
December 10, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Hayeong Kwon, Jaewoong Lee, Kyuho Jeong, Donghwan Jang, Moonjeong Choi, Yunbae Pak
Association of Caveolin-2 in the inner nuclear membrane specifically with A-type lamin is crucial for the maintenance of its Tyr-19 phosphorylation to promote insulin-response epigenetic activation at the nuclear periphery. Here, we identify that pY19-Caveolin-2 in the inner nuclear membrane exists as homo-oligomeric forms and the A-type lamin is required for sustenance of its oligomeric status. Oligomerization-defective and hence pY19-dephosphorylated monomeric Caveolin-2 in the inner nuclear membrane is unable to carry out Caveolin-2-mediated epigenetic activation of Egr-1 and JunB genes and transactivation of Elk-1 and STAT3 in response to insulin...
August 20, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Dongmei Wang, Ellen S Mitchell
Brain glucose hypometabolism is a common feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies have shown that cognition is improved by providing AD patients with an alternate energy source: ketones derived from either ketogenic diet or supplementation with medium chain triglycerides (MCT). Recently, data on the neuroprotective capacity of MCT-derived medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) suggest 8-carbon and 10-carbon MCFA may have cognition-enhancing properties which are not related to ketone production. We investigated the effect of 8 week treatment with MCT8, MCT10 or sunflower oil supplementation (5% by weight of chow diet) in 21 month old Wistar rats...
2016: PloS One
Shwu-Yuan Wu, Dawn Sijin Nin, A-Young Lee, Scott Simanski, Thomas Kodadek, Cheng-Ming Chiang
Post-translational modification can modulate protein conformation and alter binding partner recruitment within gene regulatory regions. Here, we report that bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4), a transcription co-factor and chromatin regulator, uses a phosphorylation-induced switch mechanism to recruit E2 protein encoded by cancer-associated human papillomavirus (HPV) to viral early gene and cellular matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) promoters. Enhanced MMP-9 expression, induced upon keratinocyte differentiation, occurs via BRD4-dependent recruitment of active AP-1 and NF-κB to their target sequences...
August 9, 2016: Cell Reports
Mousumi Sahu, Bibekanand Mallick
The differentiation of human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESCs) is accompanied by the formation of different intermediary cells, gradually losing its stemness and acquiring differentiation. The precise mechanisms underlying hESCs integrity and its differentiation into fibroblast (Fib) are still elusive. Here, we aimed to assess important genes and co-expression sub-networks responsible for stemness, early differentiation of hESCs into embryoid bodies (EBs) and its lineage specification into Fibs. To achieve this, we compared transcriptional profiles of hESCs-EBs and EBs-Fibs and obtained differentially expressed genes (DEGs) exclusive to hESCs-EBs (early differentiation), EBs-Fibs (late differentiation) and common DEGs in hESCs-EBs and EBs-Fibs...
July 18, 2016: Computational Biology and Chemistry
Sara Sabatasso, Patrice Mangin, Tony Fracasso, Milena Moretti, Mylène Docquier, Valentin Djonov
The post-mortem diagnosis of acute myocardial ischemia remains a challenge for both clinical and forensic pathologists. We performed an experimental study (ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery in rats) in order to identify early markers of myocardial ischemia, to further apply to forensic and clinical pathology in cases of sudden cardiac death. Using immunohistochemistry, Western blots, and gene expression analyses, we investigated a number of markers, selected among those which are currently used in emergency departments to diagnose myocardial infarction and those which are under investigation in basic research and autopsy pathology studies on cardiovascular diseases...
September 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
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