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T1R1

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727170/methionine-regulates-mtorc1-via-the-t1r1-t1r3-plc%C3%AE-ca-2-erk1-2-signal-transduction-process-in-c2c12-cells
#1
Yuanfei Zhou, Jiao Ren, Tongxing Song, Jian Peng, Hongkui Wei
The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) integrates amino acid (AA) availability to support protein synthesis and cell growth. Taste receptor type 1 member (T1R) is a G protein-coupled receptor that functions as a direct sensor of extracellular AA availability to regulate mTORC1 through Ca(2+) stimulation and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) activation. However, the roles of specific AAs in T1R1/T1R3-regulated mTORC1 are poorly defined. In this study, T1R1 and T1R3 subunits were expressed in C2C12 myotubes, and l-AA sensing was accomplished by T1R1/T1R3 to activate mTORC1...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690010/recent-advances-in-understanding-amino-acid-sensing-mechanisms-that-regulate-mtorc1
#2
Liufeng Zheng, Wei Zhang, Yuanfei Zhou, Fengna Li, Hongkui Wei, Jian Peng
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is the central regulator of mammalian cell growth, and is essential for the formation of two structurally and functionally distinct complexes: mTORC1 and mTORC2. mTORC1 can sense multiple cues such as nutrients, energy status, growth factors and hormones to control cell growth and proliferation, angiogenesis, autophagy, and metabolism. As one of the key environmental stimuli, amino acids (AAs), especially leucine, glutamine and arginine, play a crucial role in mTORC1 activation, but where and how AAs are sensed and signal to mTORC1 are not fully understood...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539583/amino-acids-regulate-mtor-pathway-and-milk-protein-synthesis-in-a-mouse-mammary-epithelial-cell-line-is-partly-mediated-by-t1r1-t1r3
#3
YanHong Wang, JunQiang Liu, Hui Wu, XingTang Fang, Hong Chen, ChunLei Zhang
PURPOSE: The mechanism of dietary amino acids in regulating milk protein synthesis at the translational level is not well understood. Numerous studies have shown that the amino acid signal is transferred through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway; however, the extracellular amino acid-sensing mechanism that activates mTOR complex 1 is unknown. We tested the hypotheses that the T1R1/T1R3 heterodimer functions as a direct sensor of the fed state and amino acid availability preceding the mTOR pathway and affects milk protein synthesis in mammary epithelial cells...
August 18, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27387211/the-umami-taste-from-discovery-to-clinical-use
#4
Katarzyna Stańska, Antonii Krzeski
In the diversity of the flavor world only five basic tastes have been described. The newest one, umami, has been identified about one hundred years ago by Kikunae Ikeda but widely accepted just in the second half of the twentieth century by international scientific world. There are three umami substances: monosodium glutamate (MSG), inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP), guanylo-5'-monophosphate (GMP). A real breakthrough in umami history concerned the finding about independent receptors for umami: T1R1 and T1R3 (taste receptors type 1 member 1 and member 3)...
June 30, 2016: Otolaryngologia Polska. the Polish Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27327579/duplex-bioelectronic-tongue-for-sensing-umami-and-sweet-tastes-based-on-human-taste-receptor-nanovesicles
#5
Sae Ryun Ahn, Ji Hyun An, Hyun Seok Song, Jin Wook Park, Sang Hun Lee, Jae Hyun Kim, Jyongsik Jang, Tai Hyun Park
For several decades, significant efforts have been made in developing artificial taste sensors to recognize the five basic tastes. So far, the well-established taste sensor is an E-tongue, which is constructed with polymer and lipid membranes. However, the previous artificial taste sensors have limitations in various food, beverage, and cosmetic industries because of their failure to mimic human taste reception. There are many interactions between tastants. Therefore, detecting the interactions in a multiplexing system is required...
August 23, 2016: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27160511/taste-substance-binding-elicits-conformational-change-of-taste-receptor-t1r-heterodimer-extracellular-domains
#6
Eriko Nango, Shuji Akiyama, Saori Maki-Yonekura, Yuji Ashikawa, Yuko Kusakabe, Elena Krayukhina, Takahiro Maruno, Susumu Uchiyama, Nipawan Nuemket, Koji Yonekura, Madoka Shimizu, Nanako Atsumi, Norihisa Yasui, Takaaki Hikima, Masaki Yamamoto, Yuji Kobayashi, Atsuko Yamashita
Sweet and umami tastes are perceived by T1r taste receptors in oral cavity. T1rs are class C G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), and the extracellular ligand binding domains (LBDs) of T1r1/T1r3 and T1r2/T1r3 heterodimers are responsible for binding of chemical substances eliciting umami or sweet taste. However, molecular analyses of T1r have been hampered due to the difficulties in recombinant expression and protein purification, and thus little is known about mechanisms for taste perception. Here we show the first molecular view of reception of a taste substance by a taste receptor, where the binding of the taste substance elicits a different conformational state of T1r2/T1r3 LBD heterodimer...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26912569/taste-information-derived-from-t1r-expressing-taste-cells-in-mice
#7
REVIEW
Ryusuke Yoshida, Yuzo Ninomiya
The taste system of animals is used to detect valuable nutrients and harmful compounds in foods. In humans and mice, sweet, bitter, salty, sour and umami tastes are considered the five basic taste qualities. Sweet and umami tastes are mediated by G-protein-coupled receptors, belonging to the T1R (taste receptor type 1) family. This family consists of three members (T1R1, T1R2 and T1R3). They function as sweet or umami taste receptors by forming heterodimeric complexes, T1R1+T1R3 (umami) or T1R2+T1R3 (sweet)...
March 1, 2016: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26882538/endoluminal-loco-regional-resection-by-tem-after-r1-endoscopic-removal-or-recurrence-of-rectal-tumors
#8
Silvia Quaresima, Andrea Balla, Giancarlo D'Ambrosio, Paolo Bruzzone, Pietro Ursi, Emanuele Lezoche, Alessandro M Paganini
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of endoluminal loco-regional resection (ELRR) by transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) after R1 endoscopic resection or local recurrence of early rectal cancer after operative endoscopy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty patients with early rectal cancer were enrolled, including patients with incomplete endoscopic resection, or complete endoscopic resection of a tumor with unfavorable prognostic factors (group A, ten patients), and local recurrence after endoscopic removal (group B, ten patients)...
2016: Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technologies: MITAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26701297/metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-are-involved-in-the-detection-of-imp-and-l-amino-acids-by-mouse-taste-sensory-cells
#9
S Pal Choudhuri, R J Delay, E R Delay
G-protein-coupled receptors are thought to be involved in the detection of umami and L-amino acid taste. These include the heterodimer taste receptor type 1 member 1 (T1r1)+taste receptor type 1 member 3 (T1r3), taste and brain variants of mGluR4 and mGluR1, and calcium sensors. While several studies suggest T1r1+T1r3 is a broadly tuned lLamino acid receptor, little is known about the function of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in L-amino acid taste transduction. Calcium imaging of isolated taste sensory cells (TSCs) of T1r3-GFP and T1r3 knock-out (T1r3 KO) mice was performed using the ratiometric dye Fura 2 AM to investigate the role of different mGluRs in detecting various L-amino acids and inosine 5' monophosphate (IMP)...
March 1, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26545778/muscle-regulatory-factors-regulate-t1r3-taste-receptor-expression
#10
Shoichiro Kokabu, Jonathan W Lowery, Takashi Toyono, Yuji Seta, Suzuro Hitomi, Tsuyoshi Sato, Yuichiro Enoki, Masahiko Okubo, Yosuke Fukushima, Tetsuya Yoda
T1R3 is a T1R class of G protein-coupled receptors, composing subunit of the umami taste receptor when complexed with T1R1. T1R3 was originally discovered in gustatory tissue but is now known to be expressed in a wide variety of tissues and cell types such the intestine, pancreatic β-cells, skeletal muscle, and heart. In addition to taste recognition, the T1R1/T1R3 complex functions as an amino acid sensor and has been proposed to be a control mechanism for the secretion of hormones, such as cholecystokinin, insulin, and duodenal HCO3(-) and activates the mammalian rapamycin complex 1 (MTORC1) to inhibit autophagy...
December 25, 2015: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26453050/arecoline-alters-taste-bud-cell-morphology-reduces-body-weight-and-induces-behavioral-preference-changes-in-gustatory-discrimination-in-c57bl-6-mice
#11
Wei-Hau Peng, Yat-Pang Chau, Kuo-Shyan Lu, Hsiu-Ni Kung
Arecoline, a major alkaloid in areca nuts, is involved in the pathogenesis of oral diseases. Mammalian taste buds are the structural unit for detecting taste stimuli in the oral cavity. The effects of arecoline on taste bud morphology are poorly understood. Arecoline was injected intraperitoneally (IP) into C57BL/6 mice twice daily for 1-4 weeks. After arecoline treatment, the vallate papillae were processed for electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry analysis of taste receptor proteins (T1R2, T1R3, T1R1, and T2R) and taste associated proteins (α-gustducin, PLCβ2, and SNAP25)...
January 2016: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26255284/co-dependence-of-genotype-and-dietary-protein-intake-to-affect-expression-on-amino-acid-peptide-transporters-in-porcine-skeletal-muscle
#12
Y Liu, X Kong, F Li, B Tan, Y Li, Y Duan, Y Yin, J He, C Hu, F Blachier, Guoyao Wu
A total of 96 barrows (48 pure-bred Bama mini-pigs representing fatty genotype, and 48 Landrace pigs representing lean genotype) were randomly assigned to either a low- or adequate-protein treatment diet. The experimental period commenced at 5 weeks of age and extended to the finishing period. After euthanasia, blood and skeletal muscle samples were collected from pigs at the nursery, growing, and finishing phases. Our results indicate that the concentrations of free AAs in the plasma and muscle decreased as the age of the pigs increased...
January 2016: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26247011/umami-the-fifth-basic-taste-history-of-studies-on-receptor-mechanisms-and-role-as-a-food-flavor
#13
REVIEW
Kenzo Kurihara
Three umami substances (glutamate, 5'-inosinate, and 5'-guanylate) were found by Japanese scientists, but umami has not been recognized in Europe and America for a long time. In the late 1900s, umami was internationally recognized as the fifth basic taste based on psychophysical, electrophysiological, and biochemical studies. Three umami receptors (T1R1 + T1R3, mGluR4, and mGluR1) were identified. There is a synergism between glutamate and the 5'-nucleotides. Among the above receptors, only T1R1 + T1R3 receptor exhibits the synergism...
2015: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26168033/differential-regulation-of-erk1-2-and-mtorc1-through-t1r1-t1r3-in-min6-cells
#14
Eric M Wauson, Marcy L Guerra, Julia Dyachok, Kathleen McGlynn, Jennifer Giles, Elliott M Ross, Melanie H Cobb
The MAPKs ERK1/2 respond to nutrients and other insulin secretagogues in pancreatic β-cells and mediate nutrient-dependent insulin gene transcription. Nutrients also stimulate the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) to regulate protein synthesis. We showed previously that activation of both ERK1/2 and mTORC1 in the MIN6 pancreatic β-cell-derived line by extracellular amino acids (AAs) is at least in part mediated by the heterodimeric T1R1/T1R3, a G protein-coupled receptor. We show here that AAs differentially activate these two signaling pathways in MIN6 cells...
August 2015: Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26110622/l-amino-acids-elicit-diverse-response-patterns-in-taste-sensory-cells-a-role-for-multiple-receptors
#15
Shreoshi Pal Choudhuri, Rona J Delay, Eugene R Delay
Umami, the fifth basic taste, is elicited by the L-amino acid, glutamate. A unique characteristic of umami taste is the response potentiation by 5' ribonucleotide monophosphates, which are also capable of eliciting an umami taste. Initial reports using human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells suggested that there is one broadly tuned receptor heterodimer, T1r1+T1r3, which detects L-glutamate and all other L-amino acids. However, there is growing evidence that multiple receptors detect glutamate in the oral cavity...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26061673/production-of-monoclonal-antibodies-against-gpcr-using-cell-free-synthesized-gpcr-antigen-and-biotinylated-liposome-based-interaction-assay
#16
Hiroyuki Takeda, Tomio Ogasawara, Tatsuhiko Ozawa, Atsushi Muraguchi, Pei-Ju Jih, Ryo Morishita, Motokazu Uchigashima, Masahiko Watanabe, Toyoshi Fujimoto, Takahiro Iwasaki, Yaeta Endo, Tatsuya Sawasaki
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are one of the most important drug targets, and anti-GPCR monoclonal antibody (mAb) is an essential tool for functional analysis of GPCRs. However, it is very difficult to develop GPCR-specific mAbs due to difficulties in production of recombinant GPCR antigens, and lack of efficient mAb screening method. Here we describe a novel approach for the production of mAbs against GPCR using two original methods, bilayer-dialysis method and biotinylated liposome-based interaction assay (BiLIA), both of which are developed using wheat cell-free protein synthesis system and liposome technology...
2015: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25990784/expression-of-umami-taste-related-genes-in-the-tongue-a-pilot-study-for-genetic-taste-diagnosis
#17
N Shoji, N Kaneta, S Satoh-Kuriwada, M Tsuchiya, N Hashimoto, H Uneyama, M Kawai, T Sasano
OBJECTIVE: Expression of taste-related genes in the tongue was analysed to develop a technique for genetic diagnosis of umami taste disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tissue samples were collected from healthy volunteers by scraping the foliate papillae of the tongue. Immunocytochemistry staining of gustducin, a taste-cell-specific G protein, and gene expression analysis by real-time polymerase chain reaction of β-actin, gustducin (GNAT3) and umami receptors (T1R1, T1R3 and mGluR1) were performed...
September 2015: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25981296/role-of-post-translational-modifications-on-structure-function-and-pharmacology-of-class-c-g-protein-coupled-receptors
#18
REVIEW
Lenea Nørskov-Lauritsen, Hans Bräuner-Osborne
G protein-coupled receptors are divided into three classes (A, B and C) based on homology of their seven transmembrane domains. Class C is the smallest class with 22 human receptor subtypes including eight metabotropic glutamate (mGlu1-8) receptors, two GABAB receptors (GABAB1 and GABAB2), three taste receptors (T1R1-3), one calcium-sensing (CaS) receptor, one GPCR, class C, group 6, subtype A (GPRC6) receptor, and seven orphan receptors. G protein-coupled receptors undergo a number of post-translational modifications, which regulate their structure, function and/or pharmacology...
September 15, 2015: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25604941/dried-bonito-dashi-taste-qualities-evaluated-using-conditioned-taste-aversion-methods-in-wild-type-and-t1r1-knockout-mice
#19
Eugene R Delay, Takashi Kondoh
The primary taste of dried bonito dashi is thought to be umami, elicited by inosine 5'-monphosphate (IMP) and L-amino acids. The present study compared the taste qualities of 25% dashi with 5 basic tastes and amino acids using conditioned taste aversion methods. Although wild-type C57BL/6J mice with compromised olfactory systems generalized an aversion of dashi to all 5 basic tastes, generalization was greater to sucrose (sweet), citric acid (sour), and quinine (bitter) than to NaCl (salty) or monosodium L-glutamate (umami) with amiloride...
February 2015: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25529865/involvement-of-multiple-taste-receptors-in-umami-taste-analysis-of-gustatory-nerve-responses-in-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-4-knockout-mice
#20
Keiko Yasumatsu, Tomohiro Manabe, Ryusuke Yoshida, Ken Iwatsuki, Hisayuki Uneyama, Ichiro Takahashi, Yuzo Ninomiya
KEY POINTS: The taste receptor T1R1 + T1R3 heterodimer and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) may function as umami taste receptors. Here, we used mGluR4 knockout (mGluR4-KO) mice and examined the function of mGluR4 in peripheral taste responses of mice. The mGluR4-KO mice showed reduced responses to glutamate and L-AP4 (mGluR4 agonist) in the chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerves without affecting responses to other taste stimuli. Residual glutamate responses in mGluR4-KO mice were suppressed by gurmarin (T1R3 blocker) and AIDA (group I mGluR antagonist)...
February 15, 2015: Journal of Physiology
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