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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215911/weird-animals-sex-and-genome-evolution
#1
Jennifer A Marshall Graves
Making my career in Australia exposed me to the tyranny of distance, but it gave me opportunities to study our unique native fauna. Distantly related animal species present genetic variation that we can use to explore the most fundamental biological structures and processes. I have compared chromosomes and genomes of kangaroos and platypus, tiger snakes and emus, devils (Tasmanian) and dragons (lizards). I particularly love the challenges posed by sex chromosomes, which, apart from determining sex, provide stunning examples of epigenetic control and break all the evolutionary rules that we currently understand...
December 7, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203823/three-dimensional-organotypic-matrices-from-alternative-collagen-sources-as-pre-clinical-models-for-cell-biology
#2
James R W Conway, Claire Vennin, Aurélie S Cazet, David Herrmann, Kendelle J Murphy, Sean C Warren, Lena Wullkopf, Alice Boulghourjian, Anaiis Zaratzian, Andrew M Da Silva, Marina Pajic, Jennifer P Morton, Thomas R Cox, Paul Timpson
Organotypic co-cultures bridge the gap between standard two-dimensional culture and mouse models. Such assays increase the fidelity of pre-clinical studies, to better inform lead compound development and address the increasing attrition rates of lead compounds within the pharmaceutical industry, which are often a result of screening in less faithful two-dimensional models. Using large-scale acid-extraction techniques, we demonstrate a step-by-step process to isolate collagen I from commercially available animal byproducts...
December 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196678/resolving-kangaroo-phylogeny-and-overcoming-retrotransposon-ascertainment-bias
#3
William G Dodt, Susanne Gallus, Matthew J Phillips, Maria A Nilsson
Reconstructing phylogeny from retrotransposon insertions is often limited by access to only a single reference genome, whereby support for clades that do not include the reference taxon cannot be directly observed. Here we have developed a new statistical framework that accounts for this ascertainment bias, allowing us to employ phylogenetically powerful retrotransposon markers to explore the radiation of the largest living marsupials, the kangaroos and wallabies of the genera Macropus and Wallabia. An exhaustive in silico screening of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) reference genome followed by experimental screening revealed 29 phylogenetically informative retrotransposon markers belonging to a family of endogenous retroviruses...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187158/associations-of-intimate-partner-violence-with-postnatal-health-practices-in-bihar-india
#4
Sabrina C Boyce, Lotus McDougal, Jay G Silverman, Yamini Atmavilas, Diva Dhar, Katherine Hay, Anita Raj
BACKGROUND: Reducing neonatal mortality is a global priority, and improvements in postnatal health (PNH) practices in India are needed to do so. Intimate partner violence (IPV) may be associated with PNH practices, but little research has assessed this relationship. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of data from a representative household sample of mothers of neonates 0-11 months old in Bihar, India was conducted. The relationship between lifetime IPV experience (physical violence only, sexual violence only, or both physical and sexual violence) and PNH practices [clean cord care, kangaroo mother care, early initiation of breastfeeding (EIBF), delayed bathing, receipt of a postnatal care visit, exclusive breastfeeding, and current post-partum contraceptive use] was assessed using multivariate logistic regression...
November 29, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184134/molecular-and-microscopic-characterization-of-a-novel-eastern-grey-kangaroopox-virus-genome-directly-from-a-clinical-sample
#5
Subir Sarker, Hayley K Roberts, Naomie Tidd, Shayne Ault, Georgia Ladmore, Andrew Peters, Jade K Forwood, Karla Helbig, Shane R Raidal
Poxviruses are large DNA viruses with varying zoonotic potential, and are recognised in a broad range of wildlife. Although poxviruses have been detected in kangaroos, their genetic relationships to poxviruses in other animals and humans is not well understood. Here, we present a novel genome sequence of a marsupial poxvirus, the Eastern grey kangaroopox virus (EKPV-NSW), isolated from a wild eastern grey kangaroo. In the present study, histopathologically confirmed epidermal pox lesions were used to recover the full-length viral genome and perform electron microscopic analysis, with both immature virions and intracellular mature virions detected...
November 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182740/speciation-generates-mosaic-genomes-in-kangaroos
#6
Maria A Nilsson, Yichen Zheng, Vikas Kumar, Matthew J Phillips, Axel Janke
The iconic Australasian kangaroos and wallabies represent a successful marsupial radiation. However, the evolutionary relationship within the two genera, Macropus and Wallabia, is controversial: mitochondrial and nuclear genes, and morphological data have produced conflicting scenarios regarding the phylogenetic relationships, which in turn impact the classification and taxonomy. We sequenced and analyzed the genomes of eleven kangaroos to investigate the evolutionary cause of the observed phylogenetic conflict...
November 22, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166190/comparison-of-various-kangaroo-mother-care-carriers-on-maternal-comfort-a-pilot-study
#7
Sholihatul Amaliya, Yeni Rustina, Nur Agustini
Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is an evidence-based approach that has been scientifically proven to have a positive effect on mothers and infants. One of the barriers to performing KMC at home is the absence of a special KMC carrier. The most widely used KMC carriers in Indonesia are kangaroo pouch, thari, wrap and traditional wraps in the form of a long strip of fabric. This study's aim was to compare the level of maternal comfort when performing KMC with three different KMC carriers. The study used crossover design involving 20 mothers with low birth weight (LBW) infants as responders, selected through a consecutive sampling method...
2017: Comprehensive Child and Adolescent Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166182/increasing-confidence-and-ability-in-implementing-kangaroo-mother-care-method-among-young-mothers
#8
Eleni Kenanga Purbasary, Yeni Rustina, Tri Budiarti
Mothers giving birth to low birth weight babies (LBWBs) have low confidence in caring for their babies because they are often still young and may lack the knowledge, experience, and ability to care for the baby. This research aims to determine the effect of education about kangaroo mother care (KMC) on the confidence and ability of young mothers to implement KMC. The research methodology used was a controlled-random experimental approach with pre- and post-test equivalent groups of 13 mothers and their LBWBs in the intervention group and 13 mothers and their LBWBs in the control group...
2017: Comprehensive Child and Adolescent Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130829/comparison-of-conventional-phototherapy-and-phototherapy-along-with-kangaroo-mother-care-on-cutaneous-bilirubin-of-neonates-with-physiological-jaundice
#9
Laleh Goudarzvand, Akram Dabirian, Manizheh Nourian, Hadi Jafarianesh, Mehdi Ranjbaran
BACKGROUND: One of the adjuvant and desirable therapies is skin contact between mother and baby or Kangaroo mother care (KMC) that is a cheap, accessible, relaxing, noninvasive and easy method. This study aimed to compare the effect of conventional phototherapy method and phototherapy along with KMC on cutaneous bilirubin in neonates with physiological jaundice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this randomized clinical trial, all infants with physiological jaundice who referred for phototherapy to Mofid Hospital of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran were selected by convenience sampling based on inclusion criteria and were randomly assigned into two groups of conventional phototherapy (n = 35) and phototherapy along with KMC (n = 35)...
November 12, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127479/tall-young-females-get-ahead-size-specific-fecundity-in-wild-kangaroos-suggests-a-steep-trade-off-with-growth
#10
Louise Quesnel, Wendy J King, Graeme Coulson, Marco Festa-Bianchet
When resources are limited, organisms face allocation conflicts. Indeterminate growth creates a persistent conflict with reproduction, as growth may enhance future reproduction, but diverts resources from current reproduction. Little is known about allocation trade-offs in mammals with indeterminate growth. We studied growth and reproduction in adult female eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), an iteroparous mammal with indeterminate growth. Allocation trajectories varied with age and size: for 4-year-old females, fecundity increased from 30 to 82% from shortest to average-sized individuals...
November 10, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065922/persisting-demand-and-supply-gap-for-maternal-and-newborn-care-in-eastern-uganda-a-mixed-method-cross-sectional-study
#11
Rornald Muhumuza Kananura, Suzanne Namusoke Kiwanuka, Elizabeth Ekirapa-Kiracho, Peter Waiswa
BACKGROUND: The slow progress in reducing maternal and newborn death in low and middle-income countries is attributed to both demand and supply-side factors. This study assessed the changes in maternal and newborn services in health facilities as well as demand for maternal and newborn health services in Eastern Uganda. METHODS: The health assessment data were collected in August 2013 and September 2015 in the districts of Kamuli, Pallisa, and Kibuku. We purposively collected data on the availability of services from 40 health facilities that provided maternal and newborn services...
October 24, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057074/consensus-based-approach-to-develop-a-measurement-framework-and-identify-a-core-set-of-indicators-to-track-implementation-and-progress-towards-effective-coverage-of-facility-based-kangaroo-mother-care
#12
Tanya Guenther, Sarah Moxon, Bina Valsangkar, Greta Wetzel, Juan Ruiz, Kate Kerber, Hannah Blencowe, Queen Dube, Shashi N Vani, Donna Vivio, Hema Magge, Socorro De Leon-Mendoza, Janna Patterson, Goldy Mazia
BACKGROUND: As efforts to scale up the delivery of Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) in facilities are increasing, a standardized approach to measure implementation and progress towards effective coverage is needed. Here, we describe a consensus-based approach to develop a measurement framework and identify a core set of indicators for monitoring facility-based KMC that would be feasible to measure within existing systems. METHODS: The KMC measurement framework and core list of indicators were developed through: 1) scoping exercise to identify potential indicators through literature review and requests from researchers and program implementers; and 2) face-to-face consultations with KMC and measurement experts working at country and global levels to review candidate indicators and finalize selection and definitions...
December 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034479/scaling-of-the-ankle-extensor-muscle-tendon-units-and-the-biomechanical-implications-for-bipedal-hopping-locomotion-in-the-post-pouch-kangaroo-macropus-fuliginosus
#13
Edward P Snelling, Andrew A Biewener, Qiaohui Hu, David A Taggart, Andrea Fuller, Duncan Mitchell, Shane K Maloney, Roger S Seymour
Bipedal hopping is used by macropods, including rat-kangaroos, wallabies and kangaroos (superfamily Macropodoidea). Interspecific scaling of the ankle extensor muscle-tendon units in the lower hindlimbs of these hopping bipeds shows that peak tendon stress increases disproportionately with body size. Consequently, large kangaroos store and recover more strain energy in their tendons, making hopping more efficient, but their tendons are at greater risk of rupture. This is the first intraspecific scaling analysis on the functional morphology of the ankle extensor muscle-tendon units (gastrocnemius, plantaris and flexor digitorum longus) in one of the largest extant species of hopping mammal, the western grey kangaroo Macropus fuliginosus (5...
December 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033998/effect-of-kangaroo-care-combined-with-music-on-the-mother-premature-neonate-attachment-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Maryam Vahdati, Majid Mohammadizadeh, Sedigheh Talakoub
BACKGROUND: Premature birth may complicate the development and quality of the mother-infant attachment relationship. Music and kangaroo care are two common complementary cares performed in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The present study investigated the effect of kangaroo care combined with music on the mother-premature neonate attachment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this clinical trial, 64 mothers with premature neonates were selected and assigned to the control and study groups through random allocation...
September 2017: Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994322/viewpoints-of-parents-and-nurses-on-how-to-design-products-to-enhance-parent-infant-bonding-at-neonatal-intensive-care-units-a-qualitative-study-based-on-existing-designs
#15
Laura Schrauwen, Deedee R Kommers, Sidarto Bambang Oetomo
AIM: To investigate how product design can be used to improve parent-infant bonding in a neonatal intensive care unit. BACKGROUND: Impaired parent-infant bonding is an inevitable consequence of premature birth, which negatively influences development. Products, systems, or services that support the bonding process might counter these negative influences. METHOD: The first step was to trace existing products by performing a literature search in PubMed, the university library, and Google...
January 1, 2017: HERD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977331/relationship-between-the-use-of-kangaroo-position-on-preterm-babies-and-mother-child-interaction-upon-discharge
#16
Cynthia Ribeiro do Nascimento Nunes, Luís Gustavo Campos, Aline Moreira Lucena, Janser Moura Pereira, Patrícia Rodrigues da Costa, Flávia Aparecida Felipe de Lima, Vivian Mara Gonçalves de Oliveira Azevedo
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influence of the Kangaroo Position duration in the initial interactions between mothers and preterm infants. METHODS: This is an exploratory prospective observational study that analyzed the mother-infant interaction during breastfeeding, before hospital discharge. All eligible newborns, with a gestational age of 28-32 weeks and a birth weight of 1,000-1,800 g from June 11 to September 31, 2014 were included. The films of the interaction were evaluated by the "Mother-Baby Interaction Protocol 0-6 months" tool...
April 2017: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973515/barriers-and-enablers-of-kangaroo-mother-care-implementation-from-a-health-systems-perspective-a-systematic-review
#17
Grace Chan, Ilana Bergelson, Emily R Smith, Tobi Skotnes, Stephen Wall
Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) is an evidence-based intervention that reduces neonatal morbidity and mortality. However, adoption among health systems has varied. Understanding the interaction between health system functions-leadership, financing, healthcare workers (HCWs), technologies, information and research, and service delivery-and KMC is essential to understanding KMC adoption. We present a systematic review of the barriers and enablers of KMC implementation from the perspective of health systems, with a focus on HCWs and health facilities...
December 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958947/complete-genomic-characterisation-of-two-novel-poxviruses-wkpv-and-ekpv-from-western-and-eastern-grey-kangaroos
#18
Mark Bennett, Shin-Lin Tu, Chris Upton, Cassie McArtor, Amber Gillett, Tanya Laird, Mark O'Dea
Poxviruses have previously been detected in macropods with cutaneous papillomatous lesions, however to date, no comprehensive analysis of a poxvirus from kangaroos has been performed. Here we report the genome sequences of a western grey kangaroo poxvirus (WKPV) and an eastern grey kangaroo poxvirus (EKPV), named for the host species from which they were isolated, western grey (Macropus fuliginosus) and eastern grey (Macropus giganteus) kangaroos. Poxvirus DNA from WKPV and EKPV was isolated and entire coding genome regions determined through Roche GS Junior and Illumina Miseq sequencing, respectively...
September 27, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950108/systematic-review-of-skin-to-skin-care-for-full-term-healthy-newborns
#19
REVIEW
Lisa Cleveland, Catherine M Hill, Wendi Strauss Pulse, Heather Condo DiCioccio, Tiffany Field, Rosemary White-Traut
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of skin-to-skin mother-infant holding, touch, and/or massage on full-term, healthy newborns and their primary caregivers. DATA SOURCES: A seven-member scientific advisory panel searched the databases PubMed, CINAHL, and Scopus using the search terms massage, skin-to-skin contact, kangaroo care, touch, therapeutic touch, and full-term newborns for research with human participants published in English with no date parameters. STUDY SELECTION: The initial search yielded 416 articles...
November 2017: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930483/breastfeeding-characteristics-of-late-preterm-infants-in-a-kangaroo-mother-care-unit
#20
Melissa Pike, Alta Kritzinger, Esedra Krüger
OBJECTIVE: To describe the breastfeeding characteristics of late-preterm infants (LPIs) in a kangaroo mother care (KMC) unit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a 20-bed KMC unit, the breastfeeding of 73 purposively-selected LPIs' (mean gestational age: 34.8 weeks) was observed once-off, using the Preterm Infant Breastfeeding Behavior Scale. Participants' mean age was 9.5 days, mean number of days in the unit was 3.1 days, and mean number of days breastfeeding was 7.5 on observation...
September 20, 2017: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
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