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Robert Brian Lowry, Tanya Bedard, Barbara Sibbald
Prevalence rates of amnion rupture sequence, limb body wall defect, and body wall defects vary widely. Comparisons are difficult due to small case numbers and the lack of agreement of definition, classification, and pathogenesis. This study reports the prevalence of cases classified in five distinct categories. The Alberta Congenital Anomalies Surveillance System data on live births, stillbirths, and terminations of pregnancy (<20 weeks gestation) occurring between 1980 through 2012 with the ICD-10 Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health Adaptation codes used for congenital constriction bands (Q79...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Kotaro Sasaki, Tomonori Nakamura, Ikuhiro Okamoto, Yukihiro Yabuta, Chizuru Iwatani, Hideaki Tsuchiya, Yasunari Seita, Shinichiro Nakamura, Naoto Shiraki, Tetsuya Takakuwa, Takuya Yamamoto, Mitinori Saitou
The germ cell lineage ensures reproduction and heredity. The mechanism for germ cell specification in primates, including humans, has remained unknown. In primates, upon implantation the pluripotent epiblast segregates the amnion, an extra-embryonic membrane eventually ensheathing an embryo, and thereafter initiates gastrulation to generate three germ layers. Here, we show that in cynomolgus monkeys, the SOX17/TFAP2C/BLIMP1-positive primordial germ cells (cyPGCs) originate from the dorsal amnion at embryonic day 11 (E11) prior to gastrulation...
October 6, 2016: Developmental Cell
Ivana Stefanoska, Jasmina Tadić, Aleksandra Vilotić, Milica Jovanović Krivokuća, Tamara Abu Rabi, Ljiljana Vićovac
PURPOSE: Gal-3, which can regulate immune responses upon infection and inflammation, was not studied so far in intrauterine infection leading to pre-term pre-labor rupture of the membranes (PPROM), although gal-1 was reported to be implicated in the process. Gal-3 mRNA and protein expression in amnion and its changes during histological chorioamnionitis were studied here. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fetal membranes were obtained from women with PPROM with (n =15) and without histological chorioamnionitis (n =15) during second and third trimester...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Wangsheng Wang, Chao Liu, Kang Sun
Rupture of fetal membranes (ROM) can initiate parturition at both term and preterm birth. Apoptosis of the amnion epithelium plays a key role in structural remodeling of the membranes preceding ROM. However, the causative factors for apoptosis remain unidentified. Toward the end of gestation, a feed-forward regeneration of cortisol via 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) exists in the fetal membranes. Here we have examined whether cortisol accumulation is a causative factor for amnion cells apoptosis...
October 3, 2016: Endocrinology
Edward P Miranda, Alex Friedman
Objective: Ulceration of free flaps in patients with venous insufficiency and/or lymphedema is an uncommon but challenging problem. We hypothesized that dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane (Epifix) grafts would accelerate healing of these challenging ulcers. Methods: Retrospective analysis of prospectively acquired data identified 8 lower extremity free flaps with ulcerations in the context of venous insufficiency and/or lymphedema. The first 4 were flaps that had been treated with conservative wound care to healing...
2016: Eplasty
Simon G Royce, Anna M Tominaga, Matthew Shen, Krupesh P Patel, Brooke M Huuskes, Rebecca Lim, Sharon D Ricardo, Chrishan S Samuel
Current asthma therapies primarily target airway inflammation (AI) and suppress episodes of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) but fail to treat airway remodelling (AWR), which can develop independently of AI and contribute to irreversible airway obstruction. This study compared the anti-remodelling and therapeutic efficacy of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to that of human amnion epithelial stem cells (AECs) in the setting of chronic allergic airways disease (AAD), in the absence or presence of an anti-fibrotic (serelaxin; RLX)...
September 19, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
Filip A Dabrowski, Anna Burdzinska, Agnieszka Kulesza, Marcin Chlebus, Beata Kaleta, Jan Borysowski, Aleksandra Zolocinska, Leszek Paczek, Miroslaw Wielgos
BACKGROUND/AIM: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are gaining rising interest in gynecology and obstetrics. MSCs immunomodulatory properties are suitable enough to reduce perinatal morbidity caused by inflammation in premature neonates. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the ability to inhibit allo-activated lymphocytes proliferation by MSCs derived from different sources: amniotic membrane (AM), umbilical cord (UC) and adipose tissue (AT). METHODS: MSCs were isolated from AM (n = 7) and UC (n = 6) and AT (n = 6) of healthy women...
September 15, 2016: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
Jorge Andrés Carvajal, Fernando Andrés Ferrer, Francisca Isabel Araya, Ana María Delpiano
INTRODUCTION: Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is synthesized by human fetal membranes, both the amnion and chorion. This locally produced BNP inhibits the contraction of the human myometrium, contributing to the maintenance of myometrial quiescence during pregnancy. Reference values for NT-proBNP concentrations in amniotic fluid at different gestational ages have not been completely defined. We aimed to investigate the range of fetal NT-proBNP values in amniotic fluid in normal pregnancy between 17 and 41weeks of gestation...
September 7, 2016: Clinical Biochemistry
Madhu Chauhan, Meena Balakrishnan, Alex Vidaeff, Uma Yallampalli, Fernando Lugo, Karin Fox, Michael Belfort, Chandra Yallampalli
RATIONALE: It is not known if decreases in trophoblast invasion promoting peptide, adrenomedullin2 (ADM2) system is associated with preeclampsia (PreE). OBJECTIVE: Assess the changes in ADM2 levels in Plasma, placenta and amniotic fluid (AF) and its receptor components in placenta from PreE pregnancy compared to the age-matched normal; and study the effect of ADM2 on synthesis of nitric oxide (NO), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), matrix-metalloproteinase-2 and -9 (MMP2/9) in trophoblast cells...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Manalee Vishnu Surve, Anjali Anil, Kshama Ganesh Kamath, Smita Bhutda, Lakshmi Kavitha Sthanam, Arpan Pradhan, Rohit Srivastava, Bhakti Basu, Suryendu Dutta, Shamik Sen, Deepak Modi, Anirban Banerjee
Infection of the genitourinary tract with Group B Streptococcus (GBS), an opportunistic gram positive pathogen, is associated with premature rupture of amniotic membrane and preterm birth. In this work, we demonstrate that GBS produces membrane vesicles (MVs) in a serotype independent manner. These MVs are loaded with virulence factors including extracellular matrix degrading proteases and pore forming toxins. Mice chorio-decidual membranes challenged with MVs ex vivo resulted in extensive collagen degradation leading to loss of stiffness and mechanical weakening...
September 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Chao Liu, Chunming Guo, Wangsheng Wang, Ping Zhu, Wenjiao Li, Yabing Mi, Leslie Myatt, Kang Sun
The mechanisms underlying human parturition are still not understood, yet we need this knowledge to combat preterm birth. Fetal membranes express abundant 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1), which converts inert cortisone to active cortisol. We examined whether cortisol regeneration in the amnion might play a role in human parturition through regulation of lysyl oxidase (LOX), a collagen cross-linking enzyme, thereby contributing to the rupture of fetal membranes. By using cultured human primary amnion fibroblasts, we demonstrated that, in addition to the induction of the key enzymes involved in prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis, cortisol stimulated 11β-HSD1 and inhibited LOX reciprocally...
October 2016: Endocrinology
M Sirakov, E Tomova
Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome is a part of the group of abnormalities known as "Anomalies of the fusion of the Müllerian ducts". It is characterized by normal development of breasts and hairs, normal appearance of external genitalia, normal feminine genotype (46XX), normal FSH, LH, E₂ and Test. levels, normal ovaries and congenital absence of uterus and the whole or the upper two thirds of the vagina. It is observed in about 15% of the cases with primary amenorrhea and the incidence is about 1:4500-6000...
2016: Akusherstvo i Ginekologii︠a︡
Nicholas J Barrows, Rafael K Campos, Steven T Powell, K Reddisiva Prasanth, Geraldine Schott-Lerner, Ruben Soto-Acosta, Gaddiel Galarza-Muñoz, Erica L McGrath, Rheanna Urrabaz-Garza, Junling Gao, Ping Wu, Ramkumar Menon, George Saade, Ildefonso Fernandez-Salas, Shannan L Rossi, Nikos Vasilakis, Andrew Routh, Shelton S Bradrick, Mariano A Garcia-Blanco
Currently there are no approved vaccines or specific therapies to prevent or treat Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. We interrogated a library of FDA-approved drugs for their ability to block infection of human HuH-7 cells by a newly isolated ZIKV strain (ZIKV MEX_I_7). More than 20 out of 774 tested compounds decreased ZIKV infection in our in vitro screening assay. Selected compounds were further validated for inhibition of ZIKV infection in human cervical, placental, and neural stem cell lines, as well as primary human amnion cells...
August 10, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
Stephen C Strom, Roberto Gramignoli
Despite routine liver transplantation and supporting medical therapies, thousands of patients currently wait for an organ and there is an unmet need for more refined and widely available regenerative strategies to treat liver diseases. Cell transplants attempt to maximize the potential for repair and/or regeneration in liver and other organs. Over 40years of laboratory pre-clinical research and 25years of clinical procedures have shown that certain liver diseases can be treated by the infusion of isolated cells (hepatocyte transplant)...
September 2016: Human Immunology
Brittany L Sato, Eric S Collier, Sheryl Anne Vermudez, Anthony D Junker, Claire E Kendal-Wright
INTRODUCTION: Infection accounts for over 40% of preterm premature rupture of the fetal membranes (PPROM), a major cause of preterm birth. Toll-like receptors (TLR) play key roles in pathogen surveillance but their expression and function in amnion mesenchymal cells (AMC) is unclear. The aims of this study were to determine the expression of all TLR isoforms and the effect of macrophage-activating lipoprotein-2 (MALP-2), derived from a common pathogen involved in PPROM, on human AMC. METHODS: AMC were isolated from normal, term amnion from repeat cesarean section...
August 2016: Placenta
Cecilia Y Cheung, Debra F Anderson, Robert A Brace
Aquaporins (AQPs) are transmembrane channel proteins that facilitate rapid water movement across cell membranes. In amniotic membrane, the AQP-facilitated transfer of water across amnion cells has been proposed as a mechanism for amniotic fluid volume (AFV) regulation. To investigate whether AQPs modulate AFV by altering intramembranous absorption (IMA) rate, we tested the hypothesis that AQP gene expression in the amnion is positively correlated with IMA rate during experimental conditions when IMA rate and AFV are modified over a wide range...
July 2016: Physiological Reports
Urs Schmidt-Ott, Chun Wai Kwan
Morphogenetic functions of the amnioserosa, the serosa, the amnion, and the yolk sac are reviewed on the basis of recent studies in flies (Drosophila, Megaselia), beetles (Tribolium), and hemipteran bugs (Oncopeltus). Three hypotheses are presented. First, it is suggested that the amnioserosa of Drosophila and the dorsal amnion of other fly species function in a similar manner. Second, it is proposed that in many species with an amniotic cavity, the amnion determines the site of serosa rupture, which, through interactions between the serosa and the amnion, enables the embryo to break free from the amniotic cavity and to close its backside...
February 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Thorsten Horn, Kristen A Panfilio
Epithelial morphogenesis, the progressive restructuring of tissue sheets, is fundamental to embryogenesis. In insects, not only embryonic tissues but also extraembryonic (EE) epithelia play a crucial role in shaping the embryo. In Drosophila, the T-box transcription factor Dorsocross (Doc) is essential for EE tissue maintenance and therefore embryo survival. However, Drosophila possesses a single amnioserosa, whereas most insects have a distinct amnion and serosa. How does this derived situation compare with Doc function in the ancestral context of two EE epithelia? Here, we investigate the Doc orthologue in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, which is an excellent model for EE tissue complement and for functional, fluorescent live imaging approaches...
August 15, 2016: Development
Po-Huang Lee, Chi-Tang Tu, Chih-Chiang Hsiao, Ming-Song Tsai, Cheng-Maw Ho, Nai-Chen Cheng, Tzu-Min Hung, Daniel Tzu-Bi Shih
: : Liver fibrosis represents the end stage of chronic liver inflammatory diseases and is defined by the abnormal accumulation of extracellular matrix in the liver. Advanced liver fibrosis results in cirrhosis, liver failure, and portal hypertension. Liver transplantation has been the most effective treatment for these diseases, but the procedure is limited by the shortage of suitable donors. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have shown great potential in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases associated with fibrosis...
July 12, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
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