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Susan Mills, R Paul Ross, Colin Hill
Bacteriocins and bacteriophage (phage) are biological tools which exhibit targeted microbial killing, a phenomenon which until recently was seen as a major drawback for their use as antimicrobial agents. However, in an age when the deleterious consequences of broad-spectrum antibiotics on human health have become apparent, there is an urgent need to develop narrow-spectrum substitutes. Indeed, disruption of the microbial communities which exist on and in our bodies can generate immediate and long-term negative effects and this is particularly borne out in the gut microbiota community whose disruption has been linked to a number of disorders reaching as far as the brain...
August 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
Adrian Florea, Constantin Puică, Sami Hamed, Mariana Tilinca, Horea Matei
We tested here the ability of bee venom (BV) to interfere with spermatogenesis in rats in two experimental conditions. The histopathological changes were assessed with brightfield microscopy using a novel staining technique, based on methylene blue, orange G and ponceau xylidine. Transmission electron microscopy was also used to identify fine subcellular changes. BV injection for 30days in daily doses of 700μg BV/kg resulted in reducing testicular weight, along with significant larger diameters of seminiferous tubules and reduced number of Sertoli cells (SCs)...
August 16, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Anne-Marie Dion-Côté, Daniel A Barbash
Genome stability ensures individual fitness and reliable transmission of genetic information. Hybridization between diverging lineages can trigger genome instability, highlighting its potential role in post-zygotic reproductive isolation. We argue that genome instability is not merely one of several types of hybrid incompatibility, but rather that genome stability is one of the very first and most fundamental traits that can break down when two diverged genomes are combined. Future work will reveal how frequent and predictable genome instability is in hybrids, how it affects hybrid fitness, and whether it is a direct cause or consequence of speciation...
August 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
G Di Cesare, A Errante, M Marchi, V Cuccio
In this fMRI study we evaluated whether the auditory processing of action verbs pronounced by a human or a robotic voice in the imperative mood differently modulates the activation of the mirror neuron system (MNs). The study produced three results. First, the activation pattern found during listening to action verbs was very similar in both the robot and human conditions. Second, the processing of action verbs compared to abstract verbs determined the activation of the fronto-parietal circuit classically involved during the action goal understanding...
August 19, 2017: Brain and Cognition
Urban M Fietzek, Lisa Stuhlinger, Annika Plate, Andres Ceballos-Baumann, Kai Bötzel
OBJECTIVE: Turning and limitations to step length were shown to trigger progressive shortening of steps, which can lead to freezing of gait. By reducing the base area in which the turn had to take place, we aimed to evaluate the contribution of spatial constraints on 360° axial turns in people with Parkinson's disease with and without freezing. METHODS: We evaluated 40 patients with and without freezing and 16 age-matched healthy subjects. We assessed clinical data, and used body-worn inertial sensors to describe stepping and turn duration of 360° in quadratic squares of different sizes marked on the floor...
July 25, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Dennis E Discher, Lawrence J Dooling
The cell and molecular mechanisms that cause a smooth epithelium to become topographically patterned during development are poorly understood. In a recent issue of Science, Shyer et al. (2017) show that myosin II contractility drives the smooth dermal mesenchyme into a pattern of surface bumps that triggers epithelial gene expression.
August 21, 2017: Developmental Cell
Khiem T Vu, Fang Zhang, John D Hulleman
Purpose: Nuclear factor κB (NFκB) is a ubiquitously expressed, proinflammatory transcription factor that controls the expression of genes involved in cell survival, angiogenesis, complement activation, and inflammation. Studies have implicated NFκB-dependent cytokines or complement-related factors as being detrimentally involved in retinal diseases, thus making inhibition of NFκB signaling a potential therapeutic target. We sought to develop a conditional and reversible method that could regulate pathogenic NFκB signaling by the addition of a small molecule...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Izabela Zalesna, Marta Osrodek, Mariusz L Hartman, Michal Rozanski, Malgorzata Sztiller-Sikorska, Karolina Niewinna, Dariusz Nejc, Malgorzata Czyz
It has been shown that the response of V600EBRAF melanoma cells to targeted therapeutics is affected by growth factors. We have investigated the influence of three different growth factors, bFGF, EGF and HGF used either alone or in combination, on the response of V600EBRAF melanoma cell populations established from surgical specimens to vemurafenib and trametinib, targeting V600EBRAF and MEK1/2, respectively. We report that proliferation and phenotype of V600EBRAF melanoma cell populations were not detectably influenced by exogenous growth factors...
2017: PloS One
Yi-Jin Chen, Wen-Hung Wang, Wan-Yu Wu, Chia-Chi Hsu, Ling-Rung Wei, Sheng-Fan Wang, Ya-Wen Hsu, Chih-Chuang Liaw, Wan-Chi Tsai
OBJECTIVE: Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer with a 5-year survival rate of ~5%. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) participate in many cellular processes, including carcinogenesis, and pharmacological inhibition of HDACs has emerged as a potential therapeutic strategy. In this study, we explored antitumor activity of the novel HDAC inhibitor AR-42 in pancreatic cancer. METHODS: Human pancreatic cancer cell lines BxPC-3 and PANC-1 were used in this study...
2017: PloS One
Balint Nagy, Anahit Hovhannisyan, Ruxandra Barzan, Ting-Jiun Chen, Maria Kukley
In the developing and adult brain, oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are influenced by neuronal activity: they are involved in synaptic signaling with neurons, and their proliferation and differentiation into myelinating glia can be altered by transient changes in neuronal firing. An important question that has been unanswered is whether OPCs can discriminate different patterns of neuronal activity and respond to them in a distinct way. Here, we demonstrate in brain slices that the pattern of neuronal activity determines the functional changes triggered at synapses between axons and OPCs...
August 2017: PLoS Biology
Cheng Zhou, Feiyue Li, Yue Xie, Lin Zhu, Xin Xiao, Zhongyou Ma, Jianfei Wang
Soil salinity-alkalinity is one of abiotic stresses that lead to plant growth inhibition and yield loss. It has recently been indicated that plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can enhance the capacity of plants to counteract negative effects caused by adverse environments. However, whether PGPR confers increased saline-alkaline resistance of plants and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We thus investigated the effects of Bacillus licheniformis (strain SA03) on Chrysanthemum plants grown under saline-alkaline conditions...
August 22, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Florent Beaufils, Natasa Cmiljanovic, Vladimir Cmiljanovic, Thomas Bohnacker, Anna Melone, Romina Marone, Eileen Jackson, Xuxiao Zhang, Alexander Sele, Chiara Borsari, Jürgen Mestan, Paul Hebeisen, Petra Hillmann, Bernd Giese, Marketa Zvelebil, Doriano Fabbro, Roger L Williams, Denise Rageot, Matthias P Wymann
Phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) is deregulated in a wide variety of human tumors, and triggers activation of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Here we describe the preclinical characterization of PQR309, a potent 4,6-dimorpholino-1,3,5-triazine-based pan-class I PI3K inhibitor, which targets mTOR kinase in a balanced fashion at higher concentrations. No off-target interactions were detected for PQR309 in a wide panel of protein kinase, enzyme, and receptor ligand assays. Moreover, PQR309 did not bind tubulin, which was observed for the structurally related BKM120 (buparlisib)...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Jamaluddin Nimah, Alexander Chen, Kelly N Gable, Alan R Felthous
A variety of medications, most notably tricyclic antidepressants, and other antidepressants including venlafaxine have been reported to have triggered manic episodes in patients with bipolar disorder. The synthetic opioid tramadol has also been associated with mania activation. This report describes an unusual case of tramadol-associated mania in a patient without a charted diagnosis of bipolar disorder. However, she had a history of two prior episodes of mania following administration of tramadol that were also believed to be related to medication-induced mood disorder rather than underlying bipolar disorder...
May 2017: Journal of Opioid Management
Maryam Malekigorji, Mohanad Alfahad, Paul Kong Thoo Lin, Stefanie Jones, Anthony Curtis, Clare Hoskins
Hybrid iron oxide-gold nanoparticles (HNPs) show the ability to bind drugs onto their surface with a triggered release at elevated temperatures. The iron oxide core allows for diagnostic imaging whilst heating of the gold shell upon laser irradiation reverses drug binding. This study exploits the reversible binding of novel polyamine based drugs in order to provide a specific and effective method for pancreatic cancer treatment. Here we used a novel bisnaphthalamido (BNIP) based drug series. Our hybrid nanoparticles (50 nm) showed the ability to load drugs onto their surface (3 : 1 : 0...
August 22, 2017: Nanoscale
Carlos R Cámara-Lemarroy, José R Azpiri-López, Luis A Vázquez-Díaz, Dionicio A Galarza-Delgado
Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) involves short exposures to air temperatures below -100°C and is purported to enhance recovery after exercise and accelerate rehabilitation after injury. It is generally considered a procedure with few side effects, but there are no large studies that have established its safety profile. We present the case of a 56-year-old patient who developed an abdominal aortic dissection after receiving 15 sessions of WBC. The patient had no other strong risk factors for aortic dissection...
September 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Huaicheng Yan, Hao Zhang, Fuwen Yang, Xisheng Zhan, Chen Peng
This paper is concerned with the guaranteed cost control problem for a class of Markov jump discrete-time neural networks (NNs) with event-triggered mechanism, asynchronous jumping, and fading channels. The Markov jump NNs are introduced to be close to reality, where the modes of the NNs and guaranteed cost controller are determined by two mutually independent Markov chains. The asynchronous phenomenon is considered, which increases the difficulty of designing required mode-dependent controller. The event-triggered mechanism is designed by comparing the relative measurement error with the last triggered state at the process of data transmission, which is used to eliminate dispensable transmission and reduce the networked energy consumption...
August 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
Wei Zhu, Dandan Wang, Lu Liu, Gang Feng
This paper investigates exponential stabilization of continuous-time dynamic systems (CDSs) via event-based impulsive control (EIC) approaches, where the impulsive instants are determined by certain state-dependent triggering condition. The global exponential stability criteria via EIC are derived for nonlinear and linear CDSs, respectively. It is also shown that there is no Zeno-behavior for the concerned closed loop control system. In addition, the developed event-based impulsive scheme is applied to the synchronization problem of master and slave memristive neural networks...
August 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
Jincai Wu, Feng Yu, Zheng Zhang, Yong Chen, Jie Du
Correction for 'Highly sensitive self-complementary DNA nanoswitches triggered by polyelectrolytes' by Jincai Wu et al., Nanoscale, 2016, 8, 464-470.
August 22, 2017: Nanoscale
Yulin Zhang, Fan Yang, Zhongyue Sun, Yu-Tao Li, Guo-Jun Zhang
This work reports a surface acoustic wave (SAW) DNA sensor that synergizes the surface mass effect for signal-amplified and sequence-specific DNA detection in blood serum. By combining an enzyme-mediated DNA extension reaction (both viscoelastic and mass fractions) with the in situ synthesis of silver nanoparticles (mass fraction), a highly sensitive SAW biosensing interface with synergistic mass loading was tailor-engineered. As target DNA hybridized with the surface-confined capture probes, the exposed 3'-OH terminal of the target sequence could be triggered to elongate in the presence of terminal deoxynucleoside transferase (TdT) and deoxy-ribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP), thereby producing an evident mass effect...
August 22, 2017: Analyst
Edna Suárez-Pozos, Donají Chi-Castañeda, Arturo Ortega
One of the most important processes of the synaptic transmission is neurotransmitter uptake, which is critical for the good performance of the nervous system by maintaining the neurotransmitter's baseline levels after its release. The major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system is glutamate; its extracellular levels are tightly regulated through high-affinity plasma membrane transporters. Most of the brain glutamate uptake activity is carried out by glial transporters that until recently have been regarded as important for the recycling of this excitatory amino acid...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
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