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radiation enteritis

Carlos Gonzalez-Ballestero, Johannes Feist, Eduardo Gonzalo Badía, Esteban Moreno, Francisco J Garcia-Vidal
When a collection of quantum emitters interacts with an electromagnetic field, the whole system can enter into the collective strong coupling regime in which hybrid light-matter states, i.e., polaritons can be created. Only a small portion of excitations in the emitters are coupled to the light field, and there are many dark states that, in principle, retain their pure excitonic nature. Here we theoretically demonstrate that these dark states can have a delocalized character, which is inherent to polaritons, despite the fact that they do not have a photonic component...
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
J Lindert, O Hiort, L Tüshaus, K Tafazzoli-Lari, L Wünsch
A variable spectrum of urogenital malformations exists in girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). The vagina may enter the urethra at a variable level, and relations to the sphincter complex vary accordingly. Furthermore, an enlarged clitoris and variations in the bladder sphincter anatomy can be found. Endoscopy, genitography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are commonly used for the assessment of these anomalies, and to provide information for counselling and treatment. When surgery is planned, introitoplasty cosmetical reduction of the clitoris and labioplasty are discussed with the families; introitoplasty is the most demanding aspect...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Julia A Clarke, Sankar Chatterjee, Zhiheng Li, Tobias Riede, Federico Agnolin, Franz Goller, Marcelo P Isasi, Daniel R Martinioni, Francisco J Mussel, Fernando E Novas
From complex songs to simple honks, birds produce sounds using a unique vocal organ called the syrinx. Located close to the heart at the tracheobronchial junction, vocal folds or membranes attached to modified mineralized rings vibrate to produce sound. Syringeal components were not thought to commonly enter the fossil record, and the few reported fossilized parts of the syrinx are geologically young (from the Pleistocene and Holocene (approximately 2.5 million years ago to the present)). The only known older syrinx is an Eocene specimen that was not described or illustrated...
October 12, 2016: Nature
Niels-Christian Reichardt, Manuel Martín-Lomas, Soledad Penadés
In this feature article we discuss the particular relevance of glycans as components or targets of functionalized nanoparticles (NPs) for potential applications in personalized medicine but we will not enter into descriptions for their preparation. For a more general view covering the preparation and applications of glyconanomaterials the reader is referred to a number of recent reviews. The combination of glyco- and nanotechnology is already providing promising new tools for more personalized solutions to diagnostics and therapy...
September 14, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Kathleen A Bridges, Xingxing Chen, Huifeng Liu, Crosby Rock, Thomas A Buchholz, Stuart D Shumway, Heath D Skinner, Raymond E Meyn
Radiotherapy is commonly used to treat a variety of solid tumors but improvements in the therapeutic ratio are sorely needed. The aim of this study was to assess the Chk1 kinase inhibitor, MK-8776, for its ability to radiosensitize human tumor cells. Cells derived from NSCLC and HNSCC cancers were tested for radiosensitization by MK-8776. The ability of MK-8776 to abrogate the radiation-induced G2 block was determined using flow cytometry. Effects on repair of radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) were determined on the basis of rad51, γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci...
September 28, 2016: Oncotarget
Petko Chernev, Ivelina Zaharieva, Emanuele Rossini, Artur Galstyan, Holger Dau, Ernst-Walter Knapp
Structural data of the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) in photosystem II (PSII) determined by X-ray crystallography, quantum chemistry (QC), and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analyses are presently inconsistent. Therefore, a detailed study of what information can be gained about the OEC through a comparison of QC and crystallographic structure information combined with the information from range-extended EXAFS spectra was undertaken. An analysis for determining the precision of the atomic coordinates of the OEC by QC is carried out...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
J T Taylor, C Waltham, T Price, N M Allinson, P P Allport, G L Casse, A Kacperek, S Manger, N A Smith, I Tsurin
For many years, silicon micro-strip detectors have been successfully used as tracking detectors for particle and nuclear physics experiments. A new application of this technology is to the field of particle therapy where radiotherapy is carried out by use of charged particles such as protons or carbon ions. Such a treatment has been shown to have advantages over standard x-ray radiotherapy and as a result of this, many new centres offering particle therapy are currently under construction around the world today...
September 21, 2016: Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
Jing Liu, Stephen J Blake, Michelle C R Yong, Heidi Harjunpaa, Shin Foong Ngiow, Kazuyoshi Takeda, Arabella Young, Jake S O'Donnell, Stacey Allen, Mark J Smyth, Michele W L Teng
Immunotherapy has recently entered a renaissance phase with the approval of multiple agents for the treatment of cancer. Immunotherapy stands ready to join traditional modalities, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, and hormone therapy, as a pillar of cancer treatment. Although immunotherapy has begun to have success in advanced cancer treatment, its scheduling and efficacy with surgery to treat earlier stages of cancer and prevent distant metastases has not been systematically examined. Here, we have used two models of spontaneously metastatic breast cancers in mice, to illustrate the significantly greater therapeutic power of neoadjuvant, compared with adjuvant immunotherapies in the context of primary tumor resection...
September 23, 2016: Cancer Discovery
Pradeep K Garg, Stephen J Lokitz, Rachid Nazih, Sudha Garg
: The main focus of this study was to assess the in vivo distribution and radiation absorbed dose of (11)C-nicotine derived from the whole body Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in humans. METHODS: After an initial Computed tomography (CT) attenuation scan, (11)C-nicotine was administered via an intravenous injection, and dynamic whole body PET scans were acquired in a 3-D mode on 11 normal healthy (5 male, 6 female) subjects. The first scan was acquired in a dynamic acquisition mode for 90 s with the brain in the field of view, followed by a series of whole body PET scans acquired over a 90 min time period...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Yuta Matsunaga, Ai Kawaguchi, Masanao Kobayashi, Shigetaka Suzuki, Shoichi Suzuki, Koichi Chida
The purposes of this study were (1) to compare the radiation doses for 320- and 80-row fetal-computed tomography (CT), estimated using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and the ImPACT Calculator (hereinafter referred to as the "CT dosimetry software"), for a woman in her late pregnancy and her fetus and (2) to estimate the overlapped fetal radiation dose from a 320-row CT examination using two different estimation methods of the CT dosimetry software. The direct TLD data in the present study were obtained from a previous study...
September 19, 2016: Radiological Physics and Technology
Gerhard G Grabenbauer, Göbel Holger
Possible toxic effects following radiation and chemotherapy of gastrointestinal tumours may cause a depletion of the mucosal barrier within the radiation volumes with severe mucositis. Diarrhoea, nausea, emesis and severe malabsorption followed by infections with dehydration and electrolyte disorders have to be encountered. For prevention and treatment of oropharyngeal mucositis an oral care protocol, oral cryotherapy together with benzydamine mouthwash may be recommended. Lower gastrointestinal diarrhoea is best treated by Octreotide (>100 μg s...
August 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
Tim Johannsen, Carlos Wang, Avery E Broderick, Sheperd S Doeleman, Vincent L Fish, Abraham Loeb, Dimitrios Psaltis
The Event Horizon Telescope is a global, very long baseline interferometer capable of probing potential deviations from the Kerr metric, which is believed to provide the unique description of astrophysical black holes. Here, we report an updated constraint on the quadrupolar deviation of Sagittarius A^{*} within the context of a radiatively inefficient accretion flow model in a quasi-Kerr background. We also simulate near-future constraints obtainable by the forthcoming eight-station array and show that in this model already a one-day observation can measure the spin magnitude to within 0...
August 26, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Anna Gasinska
Marie Sklodowska-Curie, an extraordinary woman, a Polish scientist who lived and worked in France, led to the development of nuclear energy and the treatment of cancer. She was the laureate of two Nobel Prizes, the first woman in Europe who obtained the degree of Doctor of Science and opened the way for women to enter fields which had been previously reserved for men only. As a result of her determination and her love of freedom, she has become an icon for many female scientists active in radiation sciences...
May 2016: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
Zhiming Wang, Li Liang, Yiyi Yu, Yan Wang, Rongyuan Zhuang, Yong Chen, Yuehong Cui, Yuhong Zhou, Tianshu Liu
BACKGROUND: The effect of primary tumour resection (PTR) among metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients remains controversial. Combination chemotherapy with bevacizumab could improve the clinical outcomes of these patients, which might change the importance of PTR in the multi-disciplinary treatment pattern. METHODS: We performed a non-randomized prospective controlled study of mCRC pts whose performance status (PS) scored ≤2 and who received bevacizumab combination chemotherapy (FOLFOX/XELOX/FOLFIRI) as a first-line therapy...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
L Palacio, V Krishnan, N L O Le, N E Sharpless, C M Beauséjour
Exposure of murine and human tissues to ionizing radiation (IR) induces the expression of p16(INK4a), a tumor suppressor gene and senescence/aging biomarker. Increased p16(INK4a) expression is often delayed several weeks post exposure to IR. In this context, it remains unclear if it occurs to suppress aberrant cellular growth of potentially transformed cells or is simply a result of IR-induced loss of tissue homeostasis. To address this question, we used a conditional p16(INK4a) null mouse model and determined the impact of p16(INK4a) inactivation long-term post exposure to IR...
August 29, 2016: Oncogene
Yuhua Huang, Feilong Guo, Danhua Yao, Yousheng Li, Jieshou Li
BACKGROUND: Surgery is required in approximately one-third of patients with chronic radiation enteritis (CRE). The aim of this study was to explore the short- and long-term outcomes after surgery for CRE and risk factors of postoperative morbidity. METHODS: Clinical features and surgical outcomes of patients undergoing surgery for CRE were retrospectively reviewed. Risk factors of postoperative morbidity were analyzed using univariate and multivariate analysis...
August 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
Hiroto Kuwabara, Yongjun Gao, Michael Stabin, Jennifer Coughlin, Sridhar Nimmagadda, Robert F Dannals, Martin G Pomper, Andrew G Horti
PURPOSE: Currently available positron-emitting radiotracers for imaging of the α4β2 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) exhibit high and moderate specific binding in the thalamus and extra-thalamic brain regions, respectively. In many neuropsychiatric disorders, α4β2-nAChRs are altered in the extra-thalamic brain regions, but not necessarily in the thalamus. The purpose of this study was to evaluate [(18)F]XTRA, a new α4β2-nAChR positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand with improved specific binding in extra-thalamic brain regions, in non-human primates...
August 26, 2016: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Xu Rui Zhang, Yong Ai Liu, Fang Sun, He Li, Su Wen Lei, Ju Fang Wang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of p21 in ionizing radiation-induced changes in protein levels during the G2/M transition and long-term G2 arrest. METHODS: Protein expression levels were assessed by western blot in the human uveal melanoma 92-1 cells after treatment with ionizing radiation. Depletion of p21 was carried out by employing the siRNA technique. Cell cycle distribution was determined by flow cytometry combined with histone H3 phosphorylation at Ser28, an M-phase marker...
July 2016: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
María Jesús Abeledo-Lameiro, Elvira Ares-Mazás, Hipólito Gómez-Couso
Cryptosporidium is a genus of enteric protozoan parasites of medical and veterinary importance, whose oocysts have been reported to occur in different types of water worldwide, offering a great resistant to the water treatment processes. Heterogeneous solar photocatalysis using titanium dioxide (TiO2) slurry was evaluated on inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in water. Suspensions of TiO2 (0, 63, 100 and 200mg/L) in distilled water (DW) or simulated municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) effluent spiked with C...
October 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Jari Pohjola, Jari Turunen, Tarmo Lipping, Ari T K Ikonen
The assessment processes concerning the safety of nuclear waste repositories include the modelling of radionuclide transport in biosphere and the evaluation of the doses to the most affected humans. In this paper, a scenario, in which a contaminated lake is the water source for drinking water, irrigation water and watering of livestock, is presented. The objective of the paper is to probabilistically study the influence of lake properties as parameters in the assessment scenario. The properties of the lake are a result of previously conducted probabilistic studies, where the land uplift of the terrain surrounding the repositories and the formation of water bodies were studied in a 10,000-year time span using Monte Carlo simulation...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
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