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radiation enteritis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546910/plants-and-light-manipulation-the-integrated-mineral-system-in-okra-leaves
#1
Maria Pierantoni, Ron Tenne, Vlad Brumfeld, Vladimir Kiss, Dan Oron, Lia Addadi, Steve Weiner
Calcium oxalate and silica minerals are common components of a variety of plant leaves. These minerals are found at different locations within the leaf, and there is little conclusive evidence about the functions they perform. Here tools are used from the fields of biology, optics, and imaging to investigate the distributions of calcium oxalate, silica minerals, and chloroplasts in okra leaves, in relation to their functions. A correlative approach is developed to simultaneously visualize calcium oxalates, silica minerals, chloroplasts, and leaf soft tissue in 3D without affecting the minerals or the organic components...
May 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538806/development-of-a-new-model-of-actinic-enteritis-in-rats-using-a-cobalt-60-open-source-and-a-protection-device-as-a-collimator
#2
Vinicius Rodrigues Taranto Nunes, Paula Vieira Teixeira Vidigal, Márcio Tadeu Pereira, Luís Carlos Duarte Ladeira, Rafael Calvão Barbuto, Ivana Duval-Araujo
Purpose: To describe a new model of actinic enteritis that does not use radiotherapy machines. Methods: Sixteen Wistar rats were divided into four groups, consisting of four animals each: control (group A), two weeks after irradiation (group B), five weeks after irradiation (group C) and eight weeks after irradiation (group D). Animals were given a 10Gy radiation from a Cobalt-60 natural source in a nuclear technology research center. Protections of the surrounding tissues were obtained through the usage of plumb devices with a hole in the center, which served as a collimator...
April 2017: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536320/-stress-response-mechanism-in-hematopoietic-stem-cells
#3
Keiyo Takubo
At steady state, hematopoietic stem cells(HSCs), the most undifferentiated cells in the hematological system, are kept quiescent in the cell cycle. Upon hematological stresses, including radiation, anti-cancer medication, infection, and transplantation, bone marrow HSCs enter the cell cycle and robustly repopulate the entire hematopoietic system via multi-lineage differentiation and self-renewal, partly due to the alteration of their surrounding microenvironment or niche. Such hematological repopulation activity is termed "stress hematopoiesis," an activity essential for homeostatic maintenance of blood production...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533362/cgas-is-essential-for-cellular-senescence
#4
Hui Yang, Hanze Wang, Junyao Ren, Qi Chen, Zhijian J Chen
Cellular senescence is a natural barrier to tumorigenesis and it contributes to the antitumor effects of several therapies, including radiation and chemotherapeutic drugs. Senescence also plays an important role in aging, fibrosis, and tissue repair. The DNA damage response is a key event leading to senescence, which is characterized by the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) that includes expression of inflammatory cytokines. Here we show that cGMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS), a cytosolic DNA sensor that activates innate immunity, is essential for senescence...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532242/antioxidant-supplementation-a-linchpin-in-radiation-induced-enteritis
#5
Mumtaz Anwar, Shabeer Ahmad, Reyhan Akhtar, Akhtar Mahmood, Safrun Mahmood
Radiation enteritis is one of the most feared complications of abdominal and pelvic regions. Thus, radiation to abdominal or pelvic malignancies unavoidably injures the intestine. Because of rapid cell turnover, the intestine is highly sensitive to radiation injury, which is the limiting factor in the permissible dosage of irradiation. Bowel injuries such as fistulas, strictures, and chronic malabsorption are potentially life-threatening complications and have an impact on patient quality of life. The incidence of radiation enteritis is increasing because of the current trend of combined chemotherapy and radiation...
January 1, 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527967/feasibility-and-safety-of-the-transbronchial-access-tool-for-peripheral-pulmonary-nodule-and-mass
#6
Mark R Bowling, Craig Brown, Carlos J Anciano
BACKGROUND: Navigational bronchoscopy and other imaging modalities have improved the ability to evaluate pulmonary nodules/mass. Many of these lesions are located outside the bronchial airway and are difficult to access even with these devices. The Transbronchial Access Tool (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN) allows the bronchoscopist to create a pathway from the bronchial airway, across the lung parenchyma, and into the target lesion. We are reporting the feasibility and safety of this new device...
May 17, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526636/rebamipide-ameliorates-radiation-induced-intestinal-injury-in-a-mouse-model
#7
Sehwan Shim, Hyo-Sun Jang, Hyun-Wook Myung, Jae Kyung Myung, Jin-Kyu Kang, Min-Jung Kim, Seung Bum Lee, Won-Suk Jang, Sun-Joo Lee, Young-Woo Jin, Seung-Sook Lee, Sunhoo Park
Radiation-induced enteritis is a major side effect in cancer patients undergoing abdominopelvic radiotherapy. Radiation exposure produces an uncontrolled inflammatory cascade and epithelial cell loss leading to impaired epithelial barrier function. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of rebamipide on regeneration of the intestinal epithelia after radiation injury. The abdomens of C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 13Gy of irradiation (IR) and then the mice were treated with rebamipide. Upon IR, intestinal epithelia were destroyed structurally at the microscopic level and bacterial translocation was increased...
May 16, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516155/phase-i-clinical-trial-of-everolimus-combined-with-trimodality-therapy-in-patients-with-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#8
Bassel G Bachir, Luis Souhami, Jose João Mansure, Fabio Cury, Marie Vanhuyse, Fadi Brimo, Armen G Aprikian, Simon Tanguay, Jeremy Sturgeon, Wassim Kassouf
Background: Local control following trimodality therapy (TMT) for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) requires further optimization. Objective: Evaluating the biologic endpoint, feasibility, and toxicity of integrating everolimus to TMT in patients with MIBC. Methods: This was a phase I trial in patients with MIBC who were not surgical candidates or who refused cystectomy. Following maximal transurethral tumor resection, patients were treated by radiotherapy (50 Gy/20 fractions), gemcitabine (100 mg/m2/weekly) and escalating doses of everolimus (2...
April 27, 2017: Bladder Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496398/growth-of-thalamocortical-fibers-to-the-somatosensory-cortex-in-the-human-fetal-brain
#9
Željka Krsnik, Visnja Majić, Lana Vasung, Hao Huang, Ivica Kostović
Thalamocortical (TH-C) fiber growth begins during the embryonic period and is completed by the third trimester of gestation in humans. Here we determined the timing and trajectories of somatosensory TH-C fibers in the developing human brain. We analyzed the periods of TH-C fiber outgrowth, path-finding, "waiting" in the subplate (SP), target selection, and ingrowth in the cortical plate (CP) using histological sections from post-mortem fetal brain [from 7 to 34 postconceptional weeks (PCW)] that were processed with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) histochemistry and immunohistochemical methods...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480607/adiponectin-enhances-quiescence-exit-of-murine-hematopoietic-stem-cells-and-hematopoietic-recovery-through-mtorc1-potentiation
#10
Yosuke Masamoto, Shunya Arai, Tomohiko Sato, Naoto Kubota, Iseki Takamoto, Takashi Kadowaki, Mineo Kurokawa
Myelotoxic injury, such as chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing radiation, unlocks the vigorous power of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to replenish the hematopoietic system, making quiescent HSCs enter the cell cycle. Considering that both HSC-intrinsic and -extrinsic mechanisms enforce quiescence of HSCs, the drastic change in bone marrow (BM) environment after injury, represented by massive expansion of BM adipocytes, might trigger HSC activation. BM adipocytes, the major cellular component in the ablated marrow, however, reportedly suppress proliferation of hematopoietic cells, which may indicate the BM adipocytogenesis is an irrational response of injured organism...
May 8, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479283/web-based-platform-for-patient-dose-surveys-in-diagnostic-and-interventional-radiology-in-bulgaria-functionality-testing-and-optimisation
#11
F Simeonov, N Palov, D Ivanova, D Kostova-Lefterova, E Georgiev, A Zagorska, R Madzharova, J Vassileva
In the period 2013-2016 the National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection (NCRRP) at the Ministry of Health of Bulgaria has developed a web based platform for performing national patient dose surveys and establishing Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs). It is accessible via internet browser, allowing the users to submit data remotely. Electronic questionnaires, specific for radiography, fluoroscopy, image guided interventional procedures, mammography and CT, were provided. Short and clear manuals were added to guide users and minimise human errors...
May 4, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461547/use-of-electromagnetic-device-to-insert-postpyloric-feeding-tubes-in-a-pediatric-intensive-care-unit
#12
Ann-Marie Brown, Christine Perebzak, Colleen Handwork, M David Gothard, Kristine Nagy
BACKGROUND: The preferred route for providing nutrition in the pediatric intensive care unit is enteral. Placement of postpyloric feeding tubes using an electromagnetic-tipped stylet that emits a signal detected by a device held over the patient's abdomen is effective in adult intensive care units, but has not been well studied in pediatric units. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of the electromagnetic device in reducing the numbers of radiation exposures, intrahospital transports, tubes used, and tube placement attempts in the pediatric intensive care unit...
May 2017: American Journal of Critical Care: An Official Publication, American Association of Critical-Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427169/therapeutic-role-of-glutamine-in-management-of-radiation-enteritis-a-meta-analysis-of-13-randomized-controlled-trials
#13
REVIEW
De-Dong Cao, Hui-Lin Xu, Min Xu, Xiang-Yun Qian, Zhu-Cheng Yin, Wei Ge
OBJECTIVE: To systematically evaluate the clinical efficacy of glutamine in treating radiation enteritis in cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. METHODS: Electronic databases including Pubmed, Embase, the Cochrane library, and CNKI were systematically searched, until April 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) of glutamine in the treatment of radiation enteritis in cancer patients were searched, and RevMan 5.3 software was used for Meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 13 RCTs were included, involving 979 patients...
May 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417061/rates-of-morphological-evolution-in-captorhinidae-an-adaptive-radiation-of-permian-herbivores
#14
Neil Brocklehurst
The evolution of herbivory in early tetrapods was crucial in the establishment of terrestrial ecosystems, although it is so far unclear what effect this innovation had on the macro-evolutionary patterns observed within this clade. The clades that entered this under-filled region of ecospace might be expected to have experienced an "adaptive radiation": an increase in rates of morphological evolution and speciation driven by the evolution of a key innovation. However such inferences are often circumstantial, being based on the coincidence of a rate shift with the origin of an evolutionary novelty...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416838/-clinical-research-on-robot-assisted-percutaneous-pelvic-and-acetabular-screws-surgery
#15
C P Zhao, J Q Wang, Y G Su, W Han, L Zhou, M Y Wang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the security and efficiency of a surgical robotic assisted percutaneous screw fixation for the treatment of pelvic and acetabular fractures. METHODS: In the study, 12 patients with pelvic and acetabular fractures who were treated in Beijing Jishuitan Hospital from January to April in 2016 were involved in this research. The research subjects were randomly divided into two groups: the experimental group and the control group. Robotic-assisted percutaneous sacroiliac screw internal fixations were performed under the guidance of fluoroscopy navigation in the experimental group; in the control group, doctors operated manually guided by fluoroscopy...
April 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415717/the-imidazoacridinone-c-1311-induces-p53-dependent-senescence-or-p53-independent-apoptosis-and-sensitizes-cancer-cells-to-radiation
#16
Anna Skwarska, Shaliny Ramachandran, Grzegorz Dobrynin, Katarzyna B Leszczynska, Ester M Hammond
C-1311 is a small molecule, which has shown promise in a number of pre-clinical and clinical studies. However, the biological response to C-1311 exposure is complicated and has been reported to involve a number of cell fates. Here, we investigated the molecular signaling which determines the response to C-1311 in both cancer and non-cancer cell lines. For the first time we demonstrate that the tumor suppressor, p53 plays a key role in cell fate determination after C-1311 treatment. In the presence of wild-type p53, cells exposed to C-1311 entered senescence...
May 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387434/incidence-of-secondary-glaucoma-after-treatment-of-uveal-melanoma-with-robotic-radiosurgery-versus-brachytherapy
#17
Jakob Siedlecki, Veronika Reiterer, Simon Leicht, Paul Foerster, Karsten Kortüm, Ulrich Schaller, Siegfried Priglinger, Christoph Fuerweger, Alexander Muacevic, Kirsten Eibl-Lindner
PURPOSE: Different modalities of radiation therapy nowadays allow for effective treatment of uveal melanoma combined with the advantage of eye preservation. However, this advantage can secondarily be impaired by radiation-related side effects. After local recurrence, secondary glaucoma (SG) has been described as second most frequent complication leading to need of enucleation. This study compares the incidence of SG after conventional Ruthenium (Ru)-106 brachytherapy (BT) versus CyberKnife robotic radiosurgery (RRS) which has been gaining importance lately as an efficient treatment option offering improved patient comfort...
April 7, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381782/a-case-of-ileus-due-to-radiation-enteritis-19-years-after-radiotherapy
#18
Tomoyo Okumoto, Toshio Kuwai, Toshiki Yamaguchi, Sumio Iio, Hiroki Imagawa, Atsushi Yamaguchi, Hirotaka Kouno, Hiroshi Kohno
A 73-year-old female visited our hospital complaining of nausea and epigastric pain because of ileus. She had a history of two laparotomy procedures in her youth, interferon treatment for chronic hepatitis C, and radiation therapy for uterine cervical cancer 19 years ago. Transanal double-balloon enteroscopy demonstrated annular stenosis with ulceration of the anal side of the dilated small intestine. Therefore, surgical resection was performed, and late radiation enteritis was diagnosed on histopathological examination...
2017: Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi, the Japanese Journal of Gastro-enterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358595/treatment-of-enterocutaneous-fistulas-then-and-now
#19
Luis Alfonso Ortiz, Bin Zhang, Maureen Walsh McCarthy, Haytham M A Kaafarani, Peter Fagenholz, David R King, Marc De Moya, George Velmahos, Daniel Dante Yeh
BACKGROUND: An enterocutaneous fistula (ECF) is an aberrant connection between the gastrointestinal tract and the skin or atmosphere (enteroatmospheric fistula [EAF]). Multimodal treatment includes surgical procedures, nutrition support, and wound care. We evaluated our practice and compared our outcomes with previous results published from our institution. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of hospitalized ECF/EAF patients admitted between January 2011 and November 2015...
March 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341529/radiation-enteritis-diagnosed-through-capsule-endoscopy-an-uncommon-cause-of-iron-deficiency-anemia
#20
J F Juanmartiñena Fernández, A Elosua-González, L Casanova-Ortiz, S Pardo-González, B Zabalza Ollo, I Fernández-Urién
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2017: Revista de Gastroenterología de México
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