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radiation enteritis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338016/ultrasound-mediated-delivery-and-distribution-of-polymeric-nanoparticles-in-the-normal-brain-parenchyma-of-a-metastatic-brain-tumour-model
#1
Habib Baghirov, Sofie Snipstad, Einar Sulheim, Sigrid Berg, Rune Hansen, Frits Thorsen, Yrr Mørch, Catharina de Lange Davies, Andreas K O Åslund
The treatment of brain diseases is hindered by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) preventing most drugs from entering the brain. Focused ultrasound (FUS) with microbubbles can open the BBB safely and reversibly. Systemic drug injection might induce toxicity, but encapsulation into nanoparticles reduces accumulation in normal tissue. Here we used a novel platform based on poly(2-ethyl-butyl cyanoacrylate) nanoparticle-stabilized microbubbles to permeabilize the BBB in a melanoma brain metastasis model. With a dual-frequency ultrasound transducer generating FUS at 1...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336348/optimizing-highly-noncoplanar-vmat-trajectories-the-novo-method
#2
Marco Langhans, Jan Unkelbach, Thomas Bortfeld, David Craft
We introduce a new method called NoVo (Noncoplanar VMAT Optimization) to produce volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment plans with noncoplanar trajectories. While the use of noncoplanar beam arrangements for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and in particular high fraction stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), is common, noncoplanar beam trajectories for VMAT are less common as the availability of treatment machines handling these is limited. For both IMRT and VMAT, the beam angle selection problem is highly nonconvex in nature, which is why automated beam angle selection procedures have not entered mainstream clinical usage...
January 16, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313134/the-effectiveness-of-zataria-extract-mouthwash-for-the-management-of-radiation-induced-oral-mucositis-in-patients-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-study
#3
Azar Aghamohammadi, Daryush Moslemi, Jafar Akbari, Arash Ghasemi, Mohammad Azadbakht, Askari Asgharpour, Seyed Jalal Hosseinimehr
OBJECTIVES: Oral mucositis (OM) is a common debilitating complication of chemoradiotherapy treatment of head and neck cancers. This randomized placebo-controlled double-blind clinical trial study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of Zataria multiflora (ZM) extract mouthwash in the prevention and reduction of OM related to local radiotherapy in the treatment of head and neck cancer patients. METHODS: Sixty-three patients with head and neck cancers, who underwent a conventional fractionated radiotherapy regimen, were entered into the study...
January 8, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302928/trends-in-md-phd-graduates-entering-psychiatry-assessing-the-physician-scientist-pipeline
#4
Melissa R Arbuckle, Sean X Luo, Harold Alan Pincus, Joshua A Gordon, Joyce Y Chung, Mark Chavez, Maria A Oquendo
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to identify trends in MD/PhD graduates entering psychiatry, to compare these trends with other specialties, and to review strategies for enhancing the physician-scientist pipeline. METHODS: Data on 226,588 medical students graduating from Liaison Committee on Medical Education accredited programs between 1999 and 2012 (6626 MD/PhDs) were used to evaluate the number, percentage, and proportion of MD/PhDs entering psychiatry in comparison with other specialties (neurology, neurosurgery, internal medicine, family medicine, and radiation oncology)...
January 4, 2018: Academic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286676/enhancing-coherent-light-matter-interactions-through-microcavity-engineered-plasmonic-resonances
#5
Pai Peng, Yong-Chun Liu, Da Xu, Qi-Tao Cao, Guowei Lu, Qihuang Gong, Yun-Feng Xiao
Quantum manipulation is challenging in localized-surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) due to strong dissipations. To enhance quantum coherence, here we propose to engineer the electromagnetic environment of LSPRs by placing metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) in optical microcavities. An analytical quantum model is first built to describe the LSPR-microcavity interaction, revealing the significantly enhanced coherent radiation and the reduced incoherent dissipation. Furthermore, when a quantum emitter interacts with the LSPRs in the cavity-engineered environment, its quantum yield is enhanced over 40 times and the radiative power over one order of magnitude, compared to those in the vacuum environment...
December 8, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286493/twenty-five-years-of-the-national-academy-of-medical-sciences-of-ukraine-progress-and-priorities-for-future-of-radiation-medicine-and-biology
#6
D Bazyka
After the creation of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine in 1993 the Research Center for Radiation Medicine was among the first institutions to join the Academy (fig. 1). Estab lishing the Academy was among the first steps of the independent Ukrainian government and aimed to provide a high level health care for population. It was extremely needed for the minimization of Chornobyl medical consequences. This choice was related to a growing recognition of the scientific research in fulfilling the Сenter's mission - study of the effects of low dose radiation on human body and radiation protection of the exposed population...
December 2017: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282864/sun-protective-behaviors-at-an-outdoor-entertainment-event-in-australia
#7
Fiona Barrett, Kim Usher, Cindy Woods, Simone L Harrison, Jane Nikles, Jane Conway
An observational study was conducted to examine the use of sun protective hats, clothing, and sunglasses of people attending an outdoor entertainment event in an area of high-to-extreme ultraviolet radiation in New South Wales, Australia. Armidale is unique, as it is a highly-elevated area, almost 1000 m above sea level, and temperatures are often mild with very high-to-extreme levels of ultraviolet radiation. Four trained data collectors observed attendees as they entered the event, and recorded their use of sun protective hats, clothing, and sunglasses...
December 28, 2017: Nursing & Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279868/uretero-arterio-enteric-fistula-formation-and-stent-thrombosis-after-endovascular-treatment-of-ureteroarterial-fistula-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#8
Hailiu Yang, Ricardo Rios, Joseph Lombardi, Dean Matthew Marella, Allen D Seftel
Background: Ureteroarterial fistulas (UAFs) are rare life-threatening complications of indwelling ureteral stents. Endovascular repair of these fistulas is now commonly used but the long-term outcomes are unknown. Case Presentation: We present a 51-year-old African American female with history of cervical cancer status after a hysterectomy and radiation. She has bilateral ureteral strictures that were managed with chronic, indwelling ureteral stents. She subsequently developed a right UAF and was treated with an endovascular stent to the external iliac artery...
2017: Journal of Endourology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276749/hif-1%C3%AE-deletion-in-the-endothelium-but-not-in-the-epithelium-protects-from-radiation-induced-enteritis
#9
Aurore Toullec, Valérie Buard, Emilie Rannou, Georges Tarlet, Olivier Guipaud, Sylvie Robine, M Luisa Iruela-Arispe, Agnès François, Fabien Milliat
Background & Aims: Radiation therapy in the pelvic area is associated with side effects that impact the quality of life of cancer survivors. Interestingly, the gastrointestinal tract is able to adapt to significant changes in oxygen availability, suggesting that mechanisms related to hypoxia sensing help preserve tissue integrity in this organ. However, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-dependent responses to radiation-induced gut toxicity are unknown. Radiation-induced intestinal toxicity is a complex process involving multiple cellular compartments...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274087/human-enteric-viruses-in-a-wastewater-treatment-plant-evaluation-of-activated-sludge-combined-with-uv-disinfection-process-reveals-different-removal-performances-for-viruses-with-different-features
#10
A Lizasoain, L F L Tort, M García, L Gillman, A Alberti, J P G Leite, M P Miagostovich, S A Pou, A Cagiao, A Razsap, J Huertas, M Berois, M Victoria, R Colina
This study assess the quality of wastewater through the detection and quantification of important causing gastroenteritis viruses at different stages of the wastewater treatment process in an activated-sludge wastewater treatment plant with ultraviolet disinfection. Ten sampling events were carried out in a campaign along a period of 18 months collecting wastewater samples from the influent, after the activated sludge treatment, and after the final disinfection with UV radiation. Samples were concentrated through ultracentrifugation and analyzed using retro-transcription, PCR and real time quantitative PCR protocols, for detection and quantification of Group A Rotavirus (RVA), Human Astrovirus (HAstV), Norovirus Genogroup II (NoV GII) and Human Adenovirus (HAdV)...
December 22, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246721/functional-outcomes-after-de-escalated-chemoradiation-therapy-for-human-papillomavirus-positive-oropharyngeal-cancer-secondary-analysis-of-a-phase-2-trial
#11
John V Hegde, Narek Shaverdian, Carol Felix, Pin-Chieh Wang, Darlene Veruttipong, Sophia Hsu, Jonathan W Riess, Shyam D Rao, Megan E Daly, Allen M Chen
PURPOSE: To analyze functional outcomes for patients treated on a phase 2 trial of de-escalated chemoradiation therapy for human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patient eligibility included p16-positive, stage III or IV oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma and a Zubrod performance status of 0 to 1. Treatment was induction chemotherapy with paclitaxel, 175 mg/m2, and carboplatin, area under the curve (AUC) of 6 mg/ml/min, for 2 cycles every 21 days, followed by concurrent paclitaxel, 30 mg/m2, every 7 days with dose-reduced radiation therapy of 54 or 60 Gy...
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245311/role-of-enteral-nutrition-in-pancreaticocolonic-fistulas-secondary-to-severe-acute-pancreatitis-a-case-report
#12
Binxin Cui, Lu Zhou, Samiullah Khan, Jianmin Cui, Wentian Liu
RATIONALE: Pancreaticocolonic fistula (PCF) is an exceedingly rare complication of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and has primarily been treated surgically, but a few reported cases are successfully treated with nonsurgical methods. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 32-year-old male presented to our hospital with chief complaints of sharp and persistent left upper quadrant abdominal pain radiating to the back. DIAGNOSES: Computed tomography showed a pancreatic pseudocyst replacing a majority of the pancreatic parenchyma and PCF that formed between the pancreas and the colon...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234099/characterization-of-ozone-in-the-lower-troposphere-during-the-2016-g20-conference-in-hangzhou
#13
Wenjing Su, Cheng Liu, Qihou Hu, Guangqiang Fan, Zhouqing Xie, Xin Huang, Tianshu Zhang, Zhenyi Chen, Yunsheng Dong, Xiangguang Ji, Haoran Liu, Zhuang Wang, Jianguo Liu
Recently, atmospheric ozone pollution has demonstrated an aggravating tendency in China. To date, most research about atmospheric ozone has been confined near the surface, and an understanding of the vertical ozone structure is limited. During the 2016 G20 conference, strict emission control measures were implemented in Hangzhou, a megacity in the Yangtze River Delta, and its surrounding regions. Here, we monitored the vertical profiles of ozone concentration and aerosol extinction coefficients in the lower troposphere using an ozone lidar, in addition to the vertical column densities (VCDs) of ozone and its precursors in the troposphere through satellite-based remote sensing...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225923/experimental-adaptation-of-human-echovirus-11-to-ultraviolet-radiation-leads-to-resistance-to-disinfection-and-ribavirin
#14
Anna Carratalà, Hyunjin Shim, Qingxia Zhong, Virginie Bachmann, Jeffrey D Jensen, Tamar Kohn
Ultraviolet light in the UVC range is a commonly used disinfectant to control viruses in clinical settings and water treatment. However, it is currently unknown whether human viral pathogens may develop resistance to such stressor. Here, we investigate the adaptation of an enteric pathogen, human echovirus 11, to disinfection by UVC, and characterized the underlying phenotypic and genotypic changes. Repeated exposure to UVC lead to a reduction in the UVC inactivation rate of approximately 15 per cent compared to that of the wild-type and the control populations...
July 2017: Virus Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225444/prevalence-and-correlates-of-major-depressive-symptoms-among-black-men-with-prostate-cancer
#15
Ballington L Kinlock, Lauren J Parker, Daniel L Howard, Janice V Bowie, Thomas A LaVeist, Roland J Thorpe
Objectives: The objectives of our study were to determine the prevalence of major depressive symptoms and identify factors that are associated with major depressive symptoms among Black men with prostate cancer (PCa). Design: This study consisted of 415 Black men aged 40-81 years that entered the North Carolina Central Cancer Registry during the years 2007-2008. The primary outcome variable was depressive symptoms (CES-D). Factors included age, income, education, insurance status, treatment received, time between diagnosis and treatment, Gleason score, medical mistrust and experience with racism/discrimination...
2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225308/evaluation-of-radioactivity-in-the-bodies-of-mice-induced-by-neutron-exposure-from-an-epi-thermal-neutron-source-of-an-accelerator-based-boron-neutron-capture-therapy-system
#16
Satoshi Nakamura, Shoji Imamichi, Kazuyoshi Masumoto, Masashi Ito, Akihisa Wakita, Hiroyuki Okamoto, Shie Nishioka, Kotaro Iijima, Kazuma Kobayashi, Yoshihisa Abe, Hiroshi Igaki, Kazuyoshi Kurita, Teiji Nishio, Mitsuko Masutani, Jun Itami
This study aimed to evaluate the residual radioactivity in mice induced by neutron irradiation with an accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) system using a solid Li target. The radionuclides and their activities were evaluated using a high-purity germanium (HP-Ge) detector. The saturated radioactivity of the irradiated mouse was estimated to assess the radiation protection needs for using the accelerator-based BNCT system. 24Na, 38Cl, 80mBr, 82Br, 56Mn, and 42K were identified, and their saturated radioactivities were (1...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218267/radiomics-in-precision-medicine-for-lung-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Julie Constanzo, Lise Wei, Huan-Hsin Tseng, Issam El Naqa
With the improvement of external radiotherapy delivery accuracy, such as intensity-modulated and stereotactic body radiation therapy, radiation oncology has recently entered in the era of precision medicine. Despite these precise irradiation modalities, lung cancers remain one of the most aggressive human cancers worldwide, possibly because of diverse genotypic alterations that drive and maintain lung tumorigenesis. It has been long recognized that imaging could aid in the diagnosis, tumor delineation, and monitoring of lung cancer...
December 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217944/analysis-and-economic-implication-of-x-ray-film-reject-in-diagnostic-radiology-department-of-jimma-university-specialized-hospital-southwest-ethiopia
#18
Mesfin Zewdu, Elias Kadir, Melkamu Berhane
Background: Patients usually undergo repeated X-ray examinations after their initial X-ray radiographs are rejected due to poor image quality. This subjects the patients to excess radiation exposure and extra cost.It is therefore investigating the magnitude and causes of reject is mandatory. This study aimed to assess the reject rate of X-ray films and its economic implication in order to obtain information for further recommendations on image quality, cost and radiation exposure. Method: A cross-sectional study approaches was employed...
July 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181216/endovascular-repair-with-a-stent-graft-in-a-patient-with-aortoduodenal-fistula-after-radiation-therapy
#19
Kazuhiko Morikawa, Hirokazu Ashida, Yosuke Nozawa, Kenji Motohashi, Takao Igarashi, Hiroya Ojiri, Yuji Kanaoka, Takao Ohki
Primary aortoduodenal fistula (ADF) is a direct communication between the abdominal aorta and the gastrointestinal tract without any previous vascular intervention and represents a rare but critical cause of repeated and massive gastrointestinal bleeding. Primary ADF often occurs as a result of atherosclerotic aneurysm and infection, but ADF involving a normal-size aorta is rare; furthermore, ADF related to radiation therapy is extremely rare. We present the case of a 56-year-old man with a history of bowel obstruction due to radiation enteritis who was admitted with severe hematemesis and hemorrhagic shock...
2017: Case Reports in Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178091/-surgical-treatment-of-chronic-radiation-enteropathy
#20
Lei Wang, Qiyuan Qin, Binjie Huang
Chronic radiation enteropathy(CRE) represents a latent intestinal injury resulting from abdominal-pelvic radiotherapy. Severe complications like refractory bleeding, intestinal obstruction, perforation and fistula may occur during CRE progression. Surgical treatment is the most effective way to handle these complications. Since radiotherapy has become an important and common way to relieve or even cure many malignant tumors, the incidence of severe complications of CRE is likely to rise. Thus the value of surgical treatment in managing severe complications of CRE should gain more attention...
November 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
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