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radiation enteritis

Ji-Eun Kang, Hyun-Do Kim, Soo-Young Park, Jae-Gu Pan, Jeong Hyun Kim, Do-Young Yum
Background and Aims: Commercial superoxide dismutase (SOD) is derived from melon extract and has a potential as a dietary supplement due to its beneficial anti-oxidative effects. We aimed to improve the productivity of SOD compared with plant SOD by using a generally-regarded-as-safe (GRAS) microorganism, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, and assess its anti-oxidative effect using γ-radiation- and dextransulfate sodium (DSS)-induced oxidative models in mice. Methods: We identified the sodA gene encoding manganese-containing SODs (Mn-SOD) in B...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Jan Powers, Michael Luebbehusen, Lillian Aguirre, Julia Cluff, Mary Ann David, Vince Holly, Lorraine Linford, Nancy Park, Rocco Brunelle
BACKGROUND: Early enteral nutrition has been shown to decrease complications and improve patient outcomes. Post pyloric feeding is recommended for patients with gastric intolerance or at high risk for aspiration. Feeding tube placement can be challenging and pose risk of pulmonary complications. Reliance on radiographic confirmation for feeding tube placement exposes the patient to radiation. Electromagnetic placement device (EMPD) may offer a method to minimize pulmonary complications, increase successful placement, and decrease radiation exposure to the patient...
March 12, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Ju Yang, Juan Liu, Shanbao Gao, Yang Yang, Weiwei Kong, Wei Ren, Lijing Zhu, Mi Yang, Jia Wei, Zhengyun Zou, Xiaoping Qian, Baorui Liu, Jing Yan
Objective: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) could improve local control rates at different anatomic sites. However, little is known for its use in metastatic gastric cancer. Our study aimed to compare the treatment response rates of IMRI-SIB and conformal radiotherapy (CRT) in patients with metastatic gastric cancer. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively identified twenty patients with metastatic gastric cancer from 2013 to 2015, 12 given IMRT-SIB, and eight given CRT...
January 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
Gigin Lin, Chyong-Huey Lai, Tzu-Chen Yen
Molecular imaging (mainly PET and MR imaging) has played important roles in gynecologic oncology. Emerging MR-based technologies, including DWI, CEST, DCE-MR imaging, MRS, and DNP, as well as FDG-PET and many novel PET radiotracers, will continuously improve practices. In combination with radiomics analysis, a new era of decision making in personalized medicine and precisely guided radiation treatment planning or real-time surgical interventions is being entered into, which will directly impact on patient survival...
April 2018: PET Clinics
Emily S Bailey, Lisa M Casanova, Otto D Simmons, Mark D Sobsey
Treated wastewater is increasingly of interest for either nonpotable purposes, such as agriculture and industrial use, or as source water for drinking water supplies; however, this type of advanced treatment for water supply is not always possible for many low resource settings. As an alternative, multiple barriers of physical, chemical and biological treatment with lower cost and simpler operation and maintenance have been proposed as more globally applicable. One such water reclamation system for both non-potable and potable reuse, is that approved by the State of North Carolina "for Type 2" reclaimed water (NCT2RW)...
February 23, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
George X Ding, Parham Alaei, Bruce Curran, Ryan Flynn, Michael Gossman, T Rock Mackie, Moyed Miften, Richard Morin, X George Xu, Timothy C Zhu
With radiotherapy having entered the era of image guidance, or image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT), imaging procedures are routinely performed for patient positioning and target localization. The imaging dose delivered may result in excessive dose to sensitive organs and potentially increase the chance of secondary cancers and, therefore, needs to be managed. This task group was charged with: a) providing an overview on imaging dose, including megavoltage electronic portal imaging (MV EPI), kilovoltage digital radiography (kV DR), Tomotherapy MV-CT, megavoltage cone-beam CT (MV-CBCT) and kilovoltage cone-beam CT (kV-CBCT), and b) providing general guidelines for commissioning dose calculation methods and managing imaging dose to patients...
February 22, 2018: Medical Physics
Fernand Missohou
PURPOSE: Bowel is often the dose-limiting organ in curative pelvic irradiation because of radiation enteritis when dose exceeds 40 to 45 Gy. To limit radiation enteritis, a silicone tissue-expander prothesis (STEP) connected to a subcutaneous self-sealing valve was prospectively used in children undergoing pelvic or abdominal radiation therapy. This study reports the 15-year long-term outcomes of this prospective series. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 1987 and 2008, 29 children from 3 Paris institutions received pelvic radiation therapy after surgical placement of a STEP in the pelvis...
December 14, 2017: Practical Radiation Oncology
Ehsan Fathi Aghdam, Charlotte Scheutz, Peter Kjeldsen
The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of four pre-selected meteorological parameters (barometric pressure, wind speed, ambient temperature and solar radiation) on recovered landfill gas (LFG) flow, methane (CH 4 ) content of the LFG and the recovered CH 4 flow by performing statistical correlation tests and a visual check on correlations in scatterplots. Meteorological parameters were recorded at an on-site weather station, while LFG data were recorded when entering the gas engine. LFG CH 4 concentration, LFG flow and CH 4 flow correlated highly with both barometric pressure and changes in barometric pressure, and the correlations were statistically significant...
February 12, 2018: Waste Management
R El Khoury, C Kabir, V K Maker, M Banulescu, M Wasserman, A V Maker
INTRODUCTION: Conflicting evidence exists from randomized controlled trials supporting both increased complications/fistulae and improved outcomes with drain placement after pancreatectomy. The objective was to determine drain practice patterns in the USA, and to identify if drain placement was associated with fistula formation. METHODS: Demographic, perioperative, and patient outcome data were captured from the most recent annual NSQIP pancreatic demonstration project database, including components of the fistula risk score...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
Zhaofu Hu, Shichang Kang, Fangping Yan, Yulan Zhang, Yang Li, Pengfei Chen, Xiang Qin, Kun Wang, Shaopeng Gao, Chaoliu Li
In glacierized regions, melting process has a significant effect on concentrations and light absorption characteristics of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), potentially resulting in variations of its radiative forcing, which is not yet relevant research at glacier region of the Tibetan Plateau (TP). In this study, DOC fractionation and its radiative forcing change during the melting process were investigated at Laohugou glacier No. 12 (LHG glacier) in western Qilian Mts., northern TP. DOC concentrations in fresh snow, snowpit and surface ice samples were 0...
February 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Venni Heinonen, Timo J Ruotsalainen, Lauri Paavola, Jopi J Mikkonen, Pekka Asikainen, Arto P Koistinen, Arja M Kullaa
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study is to investigate the morphological and cellular changes in dental extraction socket that has been irradiated after the tooth extraction and to describe morphological characteristics of the osteocytes and osteocyte-lacunar-canalicular network (LCN) by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five beagle dogs aged 1-2 years were used in this study. One side of each mandible was irradiated in two sessions and the other side of mandible (non-irradiated) served as a control...
February 9, 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Kurt R Weiss, Melissa N Zimel
Sarcomas are primary malignancies of the connective tissues. They are exceedingly rare in adults, but much more common in children. The historically recent advent of cytotoxic chemotherapy for pediatric sarcomas has revolutionized the treatment of these diseases and dramatically improved their prognoses. There is thus a population of pediatric sarcoma survivors that are "coming of age" as adults. However, this progress is not without consequences. Due to aggressive treatment protocols that include various combinations of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, pediatric sarcoma survivors are at risk of myriad physical, medical, and psychological difficulties as they enter adulthood...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
Oleg N Vassiliev, Stephen F Kry, David R Grosshans, Radhe Mohan
This study concerns calculation of the average electronic stopping power for photon and electron sources. It addresses two problems that have not yet been fully resolved. The first is defining the electron spectrum used for averaging in a way that is most suitable for radiobiological modeling. We define it as the spectrum of electrons entering the sensitive to radiation volume (SV) within the cell nucleus, at the moment they enter the SV. For this spectrum we derive a formula that combines linearly the fluence spectrum and the source spectrum...
February 7, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
María Benito, Alexandra Muñoz, Isabel Beltrán, Elena Labajo, Bernardo Perea, José Antonio Sánchez
It is a fact that in recent years requests have greatly increased to obtain estimates of the legal age of undocumented individuals alleged to be minors who have been forced to enter different European Community countries for socioeconomic reasons or due to war. Spain is one of the countries most affected by this illegal immigration because of its proximity to North Africa. Therefore, it has become necessary to develop new standards which help provide a response to the demands of the justice administration. In recent years, the Superior Justice Court has rejected several pieces of expert evidence on the grounds that the age intervals therein were not sufficiently reliable and that the radiographic techniques used to determine age were invasive, potentially causing harm to the alleged minor...
January 29, 2018: Forensic Science International
Troy Sukhu, Sherry Ross, R Matthew Coward
BACKGROUND: Urological survivorship issues encompass an area that may potentially be overlooked after treatment of childhood cancer in adolescent boys and young men. Side effects of cancer therapy may include subsequent development of erectile dysfunction (ED), hypogonadism, and infertility in adulthood. AIM: The purpose of this review is to focus on the etiology and prevalence of the range of sexual and gonadal dysfunction in adolescent boys and young men who are cancer survivors, while discussing current recommendations for evaluation and treatment...
January 27, 2018: Sexual Medicine Reviews
Hiroki Imamura, Kohei Murata, Yoshinori Kagawa, Rieko Okubo, Takuya Sakamoto, Atsushi Naito, Kohei Murakami, Yoshiteru Katsura, Yoshiaki Ohmura, Atsushi Takeno, Shinichi Nakatsuka, Kimihiko Ito, Yutaka Takeda, Takeshi Kato, Shigeyuki Tamura
We report a case of a woman who was suffering from post-radiochemotherapy perineum abscess concurrent with the recurrence of vaginal cancer for which total pelvic exenteration was performed. A 66-year-oldwoman presentedat our hospital with irregular genital bleeding in November 2014. A series of examinations showedthat she was suffering from vaginal cancer(cT2N0M0, cStage II ). A radiochemotherapy regimen(external irradiation 45 Gy/25 Fr, CDDP 40mg/m2, 5 course)was commencedin January 2015. In the meantime, MRI revealedsome therapeutic effect, but in October 2015, MRI indicated the enlargement of the primary tumor(PD)...
November 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Dong HongYu, Huang ZhongCheng, Zhang HongLian, Xiao ZhiGang, Liu Qi
BACKGROUND: RE (Radiation enteritis) has been characterized by the inflammation reaction, and in this study, we aim to explore inflammatory cytokines and underlying mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of RE. METHOD: Luciferase assay was performed to explore whether polymorphism affected the expression of let-7, and also validated let-7 directly regulated f IL-6 expression. Then Elisa was performed to study the mechanism of rs13293512 polymorphism associated with enteritis occurrence...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
I-Yun Lee, Yin-Yin Lin, Yao-Hsu Yang, Yu-Shin Lin, Chun-Liang Lin, Wei-Yu Lin, Yu-Ching Cheng, Li-Hsin Shu, Ching-Yuan Wu
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy plays an important role in the treatment of prostate cancer. Despite that sophisticated techniques of radiotherapy and radiation combined with chemotherapy were applied to the patients, some tumors may recur. Therefore, the study investigated the effect of dihydroisotanshinone I (DT) and the combination treatment of 5 μM DT and 5Gy irradiation (IR) against the migration ability of prostate cancer cells. METHODS: DT and the combination treatment were studied for its biological activity against migration ability of prostate cancer cells with transwell migration assay...
January 31, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Yan-Mei Liu, Ling-Qin Ni, Sai-Sai Wang, Qian-Ling Lv, Wei-Jun Chen, Shen-Peng Ying
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to analyze the treatment outcome and secondary reactions in 98 patients with stage I-III cervical carcinoma who underwent postoperative radiotherapy. METHODS: From 2006 to 2014, 98 patients with stage I-III cervical carcinoma were treated with postoperative radiotherapy. The major histological type, found in 92.86% of the patients (91 cases), was squamous cell carcinoma. Patients were staged according to the 2002 TNM guidelines...
January 29, 2018: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
Arivalagan Pugazhendhi, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel Edison, Indira Karuppusamy, Brindhadevi Kathirvel
Cancer is an abnormal condition leading to uncontrolled cell division which causes damage to the body tissues. Around 100 types of cancer are studied so far namely breast cancer, lung cancer, skin cancer, prostate cancer, colon cancer and lymphoma. Major cancer therapies include chemotherapy, surgery and radiations but their major drawbacks are non-specifically distributed antitumor agents, uneven delivery of drug concentration to the tumour and low monitoring. Nanoparticles (NPs) are the newly trending field of nanomedicine implied in cancer therapy...
January 20, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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