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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772514/the-effect-of-polymer-aging-on-the-uptake-of-fuel-aromatics-and-ethers-by-microplastics
#1
Axel Müller, Roland Becker, Ute Dorgerloh, Franz-Georg Simon, Ulrike Braun
Microplastics are increasingly entering marine, limnic and terrestrial ecosystems worldwide, where they sorb hydrophobic organic contaminants. Here, the sorption behavior of the fuel-related water contaminants benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene (BTEX) and four tertiary butyl ethers to virgin and via UV radiation aged polypropylene (PP) and polystyrene (PS) pellets was investigated. Changes in material properties due to aging were recorded using appropriate polymer characterization methods, such as differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and microscopy...
May 14, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766652/mucosal-microflora-in-head-and-neck-cancer-patients
#2
A Almståhl, C Finizia, A Carlén, B Fagerberg-Mohlin, T Alstad
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the tongue and buccal microflora prospectively in head and neck cancer patients treated with radiation therapy (RT). METHODS: In 33 dentate patients, microbial samples from the tongue and buccal mucosa were collected pretreatment, during treatment, and 6 months, 1 year and 2 years post-treatment. Microorganisms associated with oral health and oral disorders were analysed using cultivation technique. Oral mucositis was scored at the appointment during treatment...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Dental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755085/-subdural-hematoma-after-open-heart-surgery-for-infective-endocarditis-presenting-with-pre-operative-intracranial-hemorrhage-infarction-report-of-a-case
#3
Ryuta Tai, Yosuke Kuroko, Makoto Mohri, Masakazu Yamaoka
A 47-year-old woman with a history of radiation enteritis and implantation of a central venous port was admitted to our intensive care unit(ICU) suffering from high fever. She was diagnosed with active infective endocarditis due to catheter-related blood stream infection. Although echocardiography showed a large vegetation on the mitral valve, surgical therapy was postponed for 5 weeks because of intracranial hemorrhage infarction. On the 3rd day after mitral valve repair, she developed consciousness disturbance and computed tomography(CT) revealed acute subdural hematoma of the posterior cranial fossa...
May 2018: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729484/high-efficiency-dual-cycle-conversion-system-using-kr-85
#4
Mark A Prelas, Modeste Tchakoua Tchouaso
This paper discusses the use of one of the safest isotopes known isotopes, Kr-85, as a candidate fuel source for deep space missions. This isotope comes from 0.286% of fission events. There is a vast quantity of Kr-85 stored in spent fuel and it is continually being produced by nuclear reactors. In using Kr-85 with a novel Dual Cycle Conversion System (DCCS) it is feasible to boost the system efficiency from 26% to 45% over a single cycle device while only increasing the system mass by less than 1%. The Kr-85 isotope is the ideal fuel for a Photon Intermediate Direct Energy Conversion (PIDEC) system...
April 26, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718179/influence-of-uvra-recj-and-recn-gene-mutations-on-nucleoid-reorganization-in-uv-treated-escherichia-coli-cells
#5
Carlos Felipe Estévez Castro, Jorge Humberto Serment-Guerrero, Jorge Luis Fuentes
Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation blocks DNA replication and arrests cellular division in Escherichia coli. Restoration of chromosome replication involves nucleoid reorganization, which involves the participation of the recombination-catalysing proteins RecA, RecO, RecR and RecN. In the present work, we evaluated the influence of recN, uvrA and recJ gene mutations on post-irradiation nucleoid reorganization. We used isogenic E. coli strains that are defective for these genes to study post-irradiation kinetics of the nucleoid shape fractions using fluorescence microscopy...
April 26, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718150/photothermal-treatment-with-egfrmab-aunps-induces-apoptosis-in-hypopharyngeal-carcinoma-cells-via-pi3k-akt-mtor-and-dna-damage-response-pathways
#6
Yingying Zhang, Linhai Cong, Jiayan He, Yu Wang, Yingying Zou, Zhihong Yang, Yuexin Hu, Shiwen Zhang, Xiaoguang He
Hypopharyngeal carcinoma (HC) is one of the most malignant tumors in the upper aerodigestive tract. Currently, there are no effective treatments for HC. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are a promising tool that can be used for plasmonic photothermal therapy (PPTT), which refers to the use of electromagnetic radiation, most often in near infrared (NIR) region, for the treatment of various medical conditions including cancer. AuNPs have been proved to be a promising tool for NIR spectroscopy-mediated photothermal therapies...
April 27, 2018: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685526/paediatric-magnetic-resonance-enterography-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#7
Mary-Louise C Greer
Paediatric magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) has been increasingly employed in the evaluation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in the past decade. This is in parallel with a global rise in paediatric-onset IBD, greater recognition of the hazards of ionizing radiation, especially in children, and improved treatment options. MRE is now the reference standard for assessing the small bowel in suspected or proven paediatric IBD, and is central to the diagnosis of Crohn's disease (CD), helping distinguish it from ulcerative colitis...
May 2018: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681770/compliance-with-bladder-protocol-during-concurrent-chemoradiation-for-cancer-of-the-cervix-and-its-impact-on-enteritis-a-prospective-observational-study
#8
Sweta Bandanatham, Janaki Manur Gururajachar, Mohan Kumar Somashekar
Aim: This prospective study aims to assess the compliance with bladder protocol and the correlation with enteritis during pelvic radiation. Background: Bladder protocol is routinely used for patients undergoing pelvic radiation to reduce radiation enteritis. It is very difficult to maintain constant volume especially in the last two weeks due to radiation enteritis and cystitis. Materials and methods: Histologically proven 35 cervical cancer patients treated with concurrent chemoradiation in a tertiary care center were the subjects of this prospective study...
March 2018: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677125/detrimental-effects-of-helium-ion-irradiation-on-cognitive-performance-and-cortical-levels-of-map-2-in-b6d2f1-mice
#9
Jacob Raber, Eileen Ruth S Torres, Tunde Akinyeke, Joanne Lee, Sydney J Weber Boutros, Mitchell S Turker, Amy Kronenberg
The space radiation environment includes helium (⁴He) ions that may impact brain function. As little is known about the effects of exposures to ⁴He ions on the brain, we assessed the behavioral and cognitive performance of C57BL/6J × DBA2/J F1 (B6D2F1) mice three months following irradiation with ⁴He ions (250 MeV/n; linear energy transfer (LET) = 1.6 keV/μm; 0, 21, 42 or 168 cGy). Sham-irradiated mice and mice irradiated with 21 or 168 cGy showed novel object recognition, but mice irradiated with 42 cGy did not...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667769/targeting-the-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-akt-mechanistic-target-of-rapamycin-signaling-pathway-in-b-lineage-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-an-update
#10
REVIEW
Carolina Simioni, Alberto M Martelli, Giorgio Zauli, Marco Vitale, James A McCubrey, Silvano Capitani, Luca M Neri
Despite considerable progress in treatment protocols, B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) displays a poor prognosis in about 15-20% of pediatric cases and about 60% of adult patients. In addition, life-long irreversible late effects from chemo- and radiation therapy, including secondary malignancies, are a growing problem for leukemia survivors. Targeted therapy holds promising perspectives for cancer treatment as it may be more effective and have fewer side effects than conventional therapies. The phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is a key regulatory cascade which controls proliferation, survival and drug-resistance of cancer cells, and it is frequently upregulated in the different subtypes of B-ALL, where it plays important roles in the pathophysiology, maintenance and progression of the disease...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661977/gravitational-wave-detection-using-laser-interferometry-beyond-the-standard-quantum-limit
#11
REVIEW
M Heurs
Interferometric gravitational wave detectors (such as advanced LIGO) employ high-power solid-state lasers to maximize their detection sensitivity and hence their reach into the universe. These sophisticated light sources are ultra-stabilized with regard to output power, emission frequency and beam geometry; this is crucial to obtain low detector noise. However, even when all laser noise is reduced as far as technically possible, unavoidable quantum noise of the laser still remains. This is a consequence of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, the basis of quantum mechanics: in this case, it is fundamentally impossible to simultaneously reduce both the phase noise and the amplitude noise of a laser to arbitrarily low levels...
May 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651045/dissolved-organic-carbon-leaching-from-plastics-stimulates-microbial-activity-in-the-ocean
#12
Cristina Romera-Castillo, Maria Pinto, Teresa M Langer, Xosé Antón Álvarez-Salgado, Gerhard J Herndl
Approximately 5.25 trillion plastic pieces are floating at the sea surface. The impact of plastic pollution on the lowest trophic levels of the food web, however, remains unknown. Here we show that plastics release dissolved organic carbon (DOC) into the ambient seawater stimulating the activity of heterotrophic microbes. Our estimates indicate that globally up to 23,600 metric tons of DOC are leaching from marine plastics annually. About 60% of it is available to microbial utilization in less than 5 days. If exposed to solar radiation, however, this DOC becomes less labile...
April 12, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650256/impact-of-route-and-adequacy-of-nutritional-intake-on-outcomes-of-allogeneic-haematopoietic-cell-transplantation-for-haematologic-malignancies
#13
Julie Beckerson, Richard M Szydlo, Mary Hickson, Catriona E Mactier, Andrew J Innes, Ian H Gabriel, Renuka Palanicawandar, Edward J Kanfer, Donald H Macdonald, Dragana Milojkovic, Amin Rahemtulla, Aristeidis Chaidos, Anastasios Karadimitris, Eduardo Olavarria, Jane F Apperley, Jiri Pavlu
BACKGROUND: Allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is often associated with poor oral intake due to painful mucositis and gastrointestinal sequalae that occur following a preparative regimen of intensive chemotherapy and/or total body radiation. Although attractive to assume that optimal nutrition improves HCT outcomes, there are limited data to support this. It is also unclear whether artificial nutrition support should be provided as enteral tube feeding or parenteral nutrition (PN)...
March 28, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594911/analyzing-the-impact-of-compliance-with-national-guidelines-for-pancreatic-cancer-care-using-the-national-cancer-database
#14
Kathryn Jaap, Marcus Fluck, Marie Hunsinger, Jeffrey Wild, Tania Arora, Mohsen Shabahang, Joseph Blansfield
IMPORTANCE: Management of pancreatic cancer is complex, requiring coordination of multiple providers. National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines, developed for standardization and quality improvement, recommend a multimodal approach. OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed national rates of compliance with National Comprehensive Cancer Network recommendations, assessed factors affecting compliance, and evaluated whether compliance with evidence-based guidelines improved overall survival...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588880/endoscopic-endonasal-approach-to-a-suprasellar-craniopharyngioma
#15
Alexandre B Todeschini, Alaa S Montaser, Mostafa Shahein, Juan Manuel Revuelta, Bradley A Otto, Ricardo L Carrau, Daniel M Prevedello
We present the case of a 57-year-old male who presented with progressive right side vision loss whose workup revealed a large suprasellar lesion with invasion of the third ventricle. The pituitary stalk was not visible. Hormonal panel showed no hormonal deficits. The initial diagnosis was of a type II transinfundibular craniopharyngioma (as classified by Kassam et al). An endoscopic endonasal transplanum transtuberculum approach was done using a standard binostril four-hand technique, with the patient positioned supine with the head turned to the right side and tilted to the left, fixed in a three-pin head clamp, under imaging guidance...
April 2018: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578161/incidence-of-radiation-enteritis-in-cervical-cancer-patients-treated-with-definitive-radiotherapy-versus-adjuvant-radiotherapy
#16
Yinuo Wang, Weimin Kong, Nanan Lv, Fengshuang Li, Jiao Chen, Simeng Jiao, Ding Ding, Hui Zhao, Dan Song
Objective: The study aimed to evaluate the incidence of early and late radiation enteritis in cervical cancer patients receiving definitive or adjuvant radiotherapy (RT). Materials and Methods: Three hundred and twenty-four cervical cancer patients receiving definite or adjuvant RT in our hospital from January 2010 to December 2012 were divided into definitive (132 patients) or adjuvant RT (192 patients) and performed detailed analysis. Results: Early radiation enteritis was found in 54...
2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569035/-radiological-imaging-of-acute-infectious-and-non-infectious-enterocolitis
#17
REVIEW
J Wessling
BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) is often used as the initial diagnostic test in patients with inflammatory and infectious types of enterocolitis. The differential diagnosis is broad, including infectious, non-infectious and vascular causes, which have substantially different management strategies. Although a definitive diagnosis often relies on endoscopic biopsy results, stool culture results or other clinical features, radiologists often help to guide the diagnosis. OBJECTIVES: This article reviews the CT appearance of different infectious and inflammatory forms of enterocolitis...
April 2018: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566662/age-greater-than-60-years-portends-a-worse-prognosis-in-patients-with-papillary-thyroid-cancer-should-there-be-three-age-categories-for-staging
#18
Rondi M Kauffmann, J Blair Hamner, Philip H G Ituarte, John H Yim
BACKGROUND: Age is an important prognostic factor in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), with better survival observed in patients < 45 years of age, regardless of stage. Although the impact of increasing age on PTC-related survival is well-known, previous studies have focused on survival relative to age 45 years only. As the number of patients entering their 7th decade of life increases, PTC-related survival in this demographic becomes increasingly important. Survival in patients ≥ 60 years specifically compared to other groups has not previously been examined...
March 22, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547907/dietary-supplementation-with-a-bacillus-superoxide-dismutase-protects-against-%C3%AE-radiation-induced-oxidative-stress-and-ameliorates-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-ulcerative-colitis-in-mice
#19
Ji-Eun Kang, Hyun-Do Kim, Soo-Young Park, Jae-Gu Pan, Jeong Hyun Kim, Do-Young Yum
Background and Aims: Commercial superoxide dismutase (SOD) is derived from melon extract and has a potential as a dietary supplement due to its beneficial anti-oxidative effects. We aimed to improve the productivity of SOD compared with plant SOD by using a generally-regarded-as-safe (GRAS) microorganism, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, and assess its anti-oxidative effect using γ-radiation- and dextransulfate sodium (DSS)-induced oxidative models in mice. Methods: We identified the sodA gene encoding manganese-containing SODs (Mn-SOD) in B...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529335/improved-safety-and-efficacy-of-small-bore-feeding-tube-confirmation-using-an-electromagnetic-placement-device
#20
Jan Powers, Michael Luebbehusen, Lillian Aguirre, Julia Cluff, Mary Ann David, Vince Holly, Lorraine Linford, Nancy Park, Rocco Brunelle
BACKGROUND: Early enteral nutrition has been shown to decrease complications and improve patient outcomes. Post pyloric feeding is recommended for patients with gastric intolerance or at high risk for aspiration. Feeding tube placement can be challenging and pose risk of pulmonary complications. Reliance on radiographic confirmation for feeding tube placement exposes the patient to radiation. Electromagnetic placement device (EMPD) may offer a method to minimize pulmonary complications, increase successful placement, and decrease radiation exposure to the patient...
March 12, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
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