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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412591/baseline-%C3%AE-catenin-programmed-death-ligand-1-expression-and-tumour-infiltrating-lymphocytes-predict-response-and-poor-prognosis-in-braf-inhibitor-treated-melanoma-patients
#1
Daniela Massi, Emanuela Romano, Eliana Rulli, Barbara Merelli, Romina Nassini, Francesco De Logu, Ivan Bieche, Gianna Baroni, Laura Cattaneo, Gongda Xue, Mario Mandalà
BACKGROUND: The activation of oncogenic Wnt/β-catenin pathway in melanoma contributes to a lack of T-cell infiltration. Whether baseline β-catenin expression in the context of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) overexpression correlates with prognosis of metastatic melanoma patients (MMPs) treated with mitogen-activated protein kinase, MAPK inhibitor (MAPKi) monotherapy, however, has not been fully clarified. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty-four pre-treatment formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded melanoma samples from MMP treated with a BRAF inhibitor (n = 39) or BRAF and MEK inhibitors (n = 25) were assessed for presence of β-catenin, PD-L1, cluster of differentiation (CD)8, CD103 and forkhead box protein P3 (FOXP3) expression by immunohistochemistry, and results were correlated with clinical outcome...
April 13, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401596/successful-retreatment-with-combined-braf-mek-inhibition-in-metastatic-brafv600-mutated-melanoma
#2
Valerie C Amann, Dorothée Hoffmann, Joanna Mangana, Reinhard Dummer, Simone M Goldinger
BACKGROUND: The combination treatment with BRAF- and MEK-inhibitors is amongst the current standard of care for stage IIIC/IV BRAF-mutated melanoma. However, therapeutic options are limited once patients have progressed upon both targeted and immunotherapy. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether retreatment with BRAF- and MEK-inhibitor combination is an option for patients with metastatic BRAF-mutated melanoma upon previous progression on kinase inhibitors. METHODS: Two patients with metastatic BRAF-mutated melanoma were rechallenged with BRAF- and MEK-inhibitor combination after progression on targeted therapy and subsequent immunotherapy with anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 antibodies...
April 12, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388240/emerging-treatment-using-tubulin-inhibitors-in-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#3
C Hardin, E Shum, A P Singh, R Perez-Soler, H Cheng
Tubulin inhibitors including taxanes and vinca alkaloids are important components of chemotherapy regimens used in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Despite a treatment paradigm shift due to molecularly-targeted therapies and immunotherapy, a majority of patients will receive chemotherapy during their treatment course. Either used alone or in combination, tubulin inhibitors have demonstrated clinical benefits in different settings of lung cancer management. Areas covered: This review first discusses FDA-approved tubulin inhibitors for NSCLC, such as paclitaxel, docetaxel, vinorelbine, and nab-paclitaxel...
April 17, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374786/targeted-agents-and-immunotherapies-optimizing-outcomes-in-melanoma
#4
REVIEW
Jason J Luke, Keith T Flaherty, Antoni Ribas, Georgina V Long
Treatment options for patients with metastatic melanoma, and especially BRAF-mutant melanoma, have changed dramatically in the past 5 years, with the FDA approval of eight new therapeutic agents. During this period, the treatment paradigm for BRAF-mutant disease has evolved rapidly: the standard-of-care BRAF-targeted approach has shifted from single-agent BRAF inhibition to combination therapy with a BRAF and a MEK inhibitor. Concurrently, immunotherapy has transitioned from cytokine-based treatment to antibody-mediated blockade of the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and, now, the programmed cell-death protein 1 (PD-1) immune checkpoints...
April 4, 2017: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374234/targeted-therapies-for-melanoma-brain-metastases
#5
REVIEW
Anna S Berghoff, Matthias Preusser
Brain metastases are a major clinical challenge occurring in up to 60% of patients suffering from metastatic melanoma. They cause significant clinical symptoms and impair the overall survival prognosis. The introduction of targeted therapies including BRAF and MEK inhibitors as well as CTLA-4 and PD-1 axis targeting immune checkpoint inhibitors have dramatically improved the treatment and prognosis of patients with extracranial metastatic melanoma. Although, similar response rates for extra- and intracranial metastases have been reported, only few data from brain metastasis specific trails are available so far...
April 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357489/molecular-genetic-and-immunotherapeutic-targets-in-metastatic-melanoma
#6
REVIEW
C Melis, A Rogiers, O Bechter, Joost J van den Oord
In recent years, melanoma treatment has radically changed with the emergence of targeted therapies and immunotherapies. Both have led to improved survival for patients with advanced or unresectable melanoma. Targeted therapies with BRAF inhibitors in the lead use the presence of activating driver mutations to inhibit tumour growth. Forty to 60% of melanomas harbour BRAF mutations, which makes them susceptible to treatment with BRAF and/or MEK inhibitors. In parallel, the development of immunotherapeutic agents has also expanded...
March 29, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353016/new-therapeutic-strategies-in-acute-lymphocytic-leukemia
#7
REVIEW
Louise M Man, Amy L Morris, Michael Keng
Most drugs used in standard regimens for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) were developed more than 30 years ago. Since that time, several new drugs have been developed and incorporated into ALL treatment. In spite of this, novel therapeutic approaches are still needed to improve outcomes for high-risk or relapsed ALL. This manuscript discusses newer treatment strategies, including purine nucleoside analogs, monoclonal antibodies, antibody drug conjugates, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, proteasome inhibitors, histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, hypomethylating agents, spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitors, Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors, Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) inhibitors, anti-programmed cell death protein (anti-PD-1) antibodies, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) inhibitors, CXCR4 antagonists, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, and FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) inhibitors...
March 28, 2017: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325255/mucosal-melanoma-of-the-head-and-neck
#8
REVIEW
Paolo Antonio Ascierto, Remo Accorona, Gerardo Botti, Davide Farina, Piero Fossati, Gemma Gatta, Helen Gogas, Davide Lombardi, Roberto Maroldi, Piero Nicolai, Marco Ravanelli, Vito Vanella
Mucosal melanoma of the head and neck is a very rare and aggressive malignancy with a very poor prognosis. The nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and oral cavity are the most common locations. One-, 3- and 5-year survival rates between 2000 and 2007 were 63%, 30% and 20%, respectively. Cigarette smoking seems to be a risk factor even though the evidence for this is very low. Clinical signs and symptoms are usually nonspecific. While surgery is considered the mainstay of treatment for most mucosal melanomas of the head and neck region, radiotherapy has a role in local control of the disease after surgery...
April 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323504/pembrolizumab-use-for-the-treatment-of-advanced-melanoma
#9
Pol Specenier
Until recently, overall long term survival in patients with stage IV melanoma was lower than 10 %. However, the treatment of melanoma has evolved rapidly over the last few years, with the advent of inhibitors of BRAF and MEK and of immunotherapeutic agents including ipilimumab, nivolumab, and pembrolizumab. Areas covered: This is a comprehensive review of the literature on the role of pembrolizumab in melanoma. Pembrolizumab is a Programmed Death Receptor 1 (PD-1) directed monoclonal antibody which is approved by FDA and EMA for the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma...
March 21, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321769/n-propargyl-caffeamide-paca-ameliorates-dopaminergic-neuronal-loss-and-motor-dysfunctions-in-mptp-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-and-in-mpp-induced-neurons-via-promoting-the-conversion-of-prongf-to-ngf
#10
Dan Luo, Jia Zhao, Yuanyuan Cheng, Simon Ming-Yuen Lee, Jianhui Rong
Insufficient production of nerve growth factor (NGF) is implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD). We recently discovered that caffeic acid derivative N-propargyl caffeamide (PACA) not only potentiated NGF-induced neurite outgrowth but also attenuated 6-hydroxydopamine neurotoxicity in neuronal culture. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether PACA could increase NGF levels against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) neurotoxicity in a mouse PD model. We induced parkinsonism in mice by intraperitoneal injection of MPTP for seven consecutive days...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293123/pembrolizumab-in-the-treatment-of-metastatic-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patient-selection-and-perspectives
#11
REVIEW
Ashwin Somasundaram, Timothy F Burns
Lung cancer is the leading killer of both men and women in the US, and the 5-year survival remains poor. However, the approval of checkpoint blockade immunotherapy has shifted the treatment paradigm and provides hope for improved survival. The ability of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to evade the host immune system can be overcome by agents such as pembrolizumab (MK-3475/lambrolizumab), which is a monoclonal antibody targeting the programmed death 1 (PD-1) receptor. In early studies, treatment with pembrolizumab led to dramatic and durable responses in select patients (PD-L1+ tumors)...
2017: Lung Cancer: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275910/mechanisms-of-drug-resistance-in-melanoma
#12
Matthew Winder, Amaya Virós
Metastatic melanoma is associated with poor outcome and is largely refractory to the historic standard of care. In recent years, the development of targeted small-molecule inhibitors and immunotherapy has revolutionised the care and improved the overall survival of these patients. Therapies targeting BRAF and MEK to block the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway were the first to show unprecedented clinical responses. Following these encouraging results, antibodies targeting immune checkpoint inhibition molecules cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell death (PD)-1, and PD-ligand1(PD-L1) demonstrated sustained tumour regression in a significant subset of patients by enabling an anti-tumour immunologic response...
March 9, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224120/oncolytic-virotherapy-including-rigvir-and-standard-therapies-in-malignant-melanoma
#13
REVIEW
Hani M Babiker, Irbaz Bin Riaz, Muhammad Husnain, Mitesh J Borad
The treatment of metastatic melanoma has evolved from an era where interferon and chemotherapy were the mainstay of treatments to an era where immunotherapy has become the frontline. Ipilimumab (IgG1 CTLA-4 inhibitor), nivolumab (IgG4 PD-1 inhibitor), pembrolizumab (IgG4 PD-1 inhibitor) and nivolumab combined with ipilimumab have become first-line therapies in patients with metastatic melanoma. In addition, the high prevalence of BRAF mutations in melanoma has led to the discovery and approval of targeted molecules, such as vemurafenib (BRAF kinase inhibitor) and trametinib (MEK inhibitor), as they yielded improved responses and survival in malignant melanoma patients...
2017: Oncolytic Virotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181070/combining-forces-the-promise-and-peril-of-synergistic-immune-checkpoint-blockade-and-targeted-therapy-in-metastatic-melanoma
#14
David J Hermel, Patrick A Ott
Both immune checkpoint inhibitors and molecularly targeted agents have dramatically improved clinical outcomes for patients with metastatic melanoma. These two therapeutic approaches harness distinct mechanistic pathways-on the one hand, monoclonal antibodies against the immune checkpoints CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1 stimulate the T cell mediated host immune response, while targeted inhibitors of the proto-oncogenes BRAF and MEK disrupt constitutive kinase activity responsible for tumor growth. The prospect of combining these two treatment modalities has been proposed as a potential way to increase overall response rate, extend durability of the anti-tumor response, and circumvent the immune-mediated resistance to targeted therapy...
March 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111882/programmed-death-ligand-1-is-expressed-in-canine-b-cell-lymphoma-and-downregulated-by-mek-inhibitors
#15
S R Kumar, D Y Kim, C J Henry, J N Bryan, K L Robinson, A M Eaton
Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in antigen-presenting cells and tumors can inhibit T cell-mediated immunity. In this study, PD-L1 mRNA and protein expression was evaluated in canine B cell lymphoma (CLL17-71), large T-cell leukemia (CLGL-90), B cell leukemia (GL-1) and primitive leukocyte round cell neoplasia (CLL-1390). Variable PD-L1 mRNA and protein were observed in these cells with high endogenous expression present in CLL17-71 cells. PD-L1 protein was also observed in canine patient B cell lymphoma tissues using immunostaining...
January 22, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062115/genotype-matched-treatment-for-patients-with-advanced-type-i-epithelial-ovarian-cancer-eoc
#16
A Spreafico, A M Oza, B A Clarke, H J Mackay, P Shaw, M Butler, N C Dhani, S Lheureux, M K Wilson, S Welch, T Zhang, C Yu, T Stockley, L L Siu, S Kamel-Reid, P L Bedard
BACKGROUND: Genomic alterations that activate the MAPK signaling pathway frequently occur in Type I Epithelial Ovarian Cancers (EOCs). We evaluated therapeutic response outcomes in patients with type I EOC treated with genotype-matched therapy on clinical trials enrolled in a prospective molecular profiling program. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Formalin fixed paraffin embedded tumor tissues were prospectively screened for genomic alterations using MALDI-ToF mass-spectrometry platform or targeted sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq TruSeq Amplicon Cancer Panel...
January 3, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057557/anesthetics-inhibit-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase1-2-phosphorylation-via-nmda-receptor-phospholipase-c-and-protein-kinase-c-in-mouse-hippocampal-slices
#17
Gao Haiying, Han Mingjie, Zhang Lingyu, Wang Qingxiang, Wang Haisong, Zhang Bingxi
BACKGROUND: Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) has been implicated in learning and memory; however, whether intravenous anesthetics modulate ERK1/2 remains unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of several intravenous anesthetics on the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in the hippocampus of adult mice. METHODS: Western blotting was used to examine cellular levels of phosphorylated and unphosphorylated ERK1/2 in mouse hippocampus slices, which were incubated with or without anesthetics including propofol, etomidate, ketamine and midazolam, a protein kinase C (PKC) activator or inhibitor, or phospholipase C (PLC) activator or inhibitor...
February 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991907/immunomodulating-property-of-mapk-inhibitors-from-translational-knowledge-to-clinical-implementation
#18
Mario Mandalà, Francesco De Logu, Barbara Merelli, Romina Nassini, Daniela Massi
Treatment of metastatic melanoma was radically changed by the introduction of inhibitors of BRAF, an oncogene mutated in 40-50% of patients. Another area of advancement was the use of immunotherapy, and specifically, immune checkpoint inhibitors. There is compelling evidence that oncogenic BRAF, in addition to driving melanoma proliferation, differentiation and survival, induces T-cell suppression directly through the secretion of inhibitory cytokines or through membrane expression of co-inhibitory molecules such as the PD-1 ligands PD-L1 or PD-L2...
December 19, 2016: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988307/interleukin-6-and-neuregulin-1-as-regulators-of-utrophin-expression-via-the-activation-of-nrg-1-erbb-signaling-pathway-in-mdx-cells
#19
Nevenka Juretić, Josefina Díaz, Felipe Romero, Gustavo González, Enrique Jaimovich, Nora Riveros
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a neuromuscular disease originated by mutations in the dystrophin gene. A promising therapeutic approach deals with functional substitution of dystrophin by utrophin, a structural homolog that might be able to compensate dystrophin absence in DMD muscle fibers. It has been described that both interleukin-6 (IL-6) and neuregulin-1 (NRG-1; Heregulin-HRG) induce utrophin expression in skeletal muscle. We investigated a possible functional link among IL-6, NRG-1 and utrophin, in normal (C57) and dystrophic (mdx) skeletal muscle cells...
December 15, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867002/trametinib-plus-4-methylumbelliferone-exhibits-antitumor-effects-by-erk-blockade-and-cd44-downregulation-and-affects-pd-1-and-pd-l1-in-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma
#20
Hiroyuki Cho, Seiji Matsumoto, Yoshiko Fujita, Ayumi Kuroda, Toshi Menju, Makoto Sonobe, Nobuyuki Kondo, Ikuko Torii, Takashi Nakano, Primo N Lara, David R Gandara, Hiroshi Date, Seiki Hasegawa
INTRODUCTION: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a highly aggressive malignancy in which the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway plays a critical role in the regulation of tumorigenesis. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a major component of the extracellular matrix, and elevated HA levels with a concurrent increase in malignant properties are associated with MPM. METHODS: We evaluated the effects of trametinib, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) inhibitor, and 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU), an HA synthesis inhibitor, alone and in combination on MPM cells in vitro and in vivo...
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
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