keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

neuron reprogramming

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916331/depressive-like-phenotype-induced-by-prenatal-dexamethasone-in-mice-is-reversed-by-desipramine
#1
Mirko Conti, Stefan Spulber, Marilena Raciti, Sandra Ceccatelli
Exposure to prenatal insults has been associated with an increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression, but the mechanisms are still poorly understood. Persistent alterations of the HPA axis feedback mechanism as well as adult impaired neurogenesis are believed to play a relevant role in the etiology of depression. In addition, growing evidence points at epigenetic reprogramming as a key factor. We have previously shown that prenatal exposure to the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX) impairs neurogenesis and leads to late onset of depression-like behavior that does not respond to the SSRI antidepressant fluoxetine (FLX)...
September 12, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915325/brown-and-beige-adipose-tissues-in-health-and-disease
#2
Liangyou Rui
Brown and beige adipocytes arise from distinct developmental origins. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) develops embryonically from precursors that also give to skeletal muscle. Beige fat develops postnatally and is highly inducible. Beige fat recruitment is mediated by multiple mechanisms, including de novo beige adipogenesis and white-to-brown adipocyte transdifferentiaiton. Beige precursors reside around vasculatures, and proliferate and differentiate into beige adipocytes. PDGFRα+Ebf2+ precursors are restricted to beige lineage cells, while another PDGFRα+ subset gives rise to beige adipocytes, white adipocytes, or fibrogenic cells...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899812/the-starving-brain-overfed-meets-undernourished-in-the-pathology-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-mci-and-alzheimer-s-disease-ad
#3
REVIEW
Kelly J Gibas
Type II Diabetes affects 400 million people worldwide (IDF, 2013). The pathology is paradoxical: internal starvation activated by overfeeding. Hyperinsulinemic impairments of glucose homeostasis are treated with anti-hyperglycemics exacerbating cell starvation, inducing hypoglycemia and raising respiratory quotient. Reductions in hyperglycemia are achieved at the expense of glucose dependency and metabolic inflexibility (Gibas & Gibas, 2017). The brain is not immune from these cycles of starvation. The bioenergetic model characterizes propagation of late-onset, sporadic Alzheimer's disease as loss of molecular fidelity and compromised energy originating in brain networks with highest metabolic demand...
September 9, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886366/micrornas-induce-a-permissive-chromatin-environment-that-enables-neuronal-subtype-specific-reprogramming-of-adult-human-fibroblasts
#4
Daniel G Abernathy, Woo Kyung Kim, Matthew J McCoy, Allison M Lake, Rebecca Ouwenga, Seong Won Lee, Xiaoyun Xing, Daofeng Li, Hyung Joo Lee, Robert O Heuckeroth, Joseph D Dougherty, Ting Wang, Andrew S Yoo
Directed reprogramming of human fibroblasts into fully differentiated neurons requires massive changes in epigenetic and transcriptional states. Induction of a chromatin environment permissive for acquiring neuronal subtype identity is therefore a major barrier to fate conversion. Here we show that the brain-enriched miRNAs miR-9/9(∗) and miR-124 (miR-9/9(∗)-124) trigger reconfiguration of chromatin accessibility, DNA methylation, and mRNA expression to induce a default neuronal state. miR-9/9(∗)-124-induced neurons (miNs) are functionally excitable and uncommitted toward specific subtypes but possess open chromatin at neuronal subtype-specific loci, suggesting that such identity can be imparted by additional lineage-specific transcription factors...
September 7, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863176/ipsc-derived-neuronal-models-of-pank2-associated-neurodegeneration-reveal-mitochondrial-dysfunction-contributing-to-early-disease
#5
Charles Arber, Plamena R Angelova, Sarah Wiethoff, Yugo Tsuchiya, Francesca Mazzacuva, Elisavet Preza, Kailash P Bhatia, Kevin Mills, Ivan Gout, Andrey Y Abramov, John Hardy, James A Duce, Henry Houlden, Selina Wray
Mutations in PANK2 lead to neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. PANK2 has a role in the biosynthesis of coenzyme A (CoA) from dietary vitamin B5, but the neuropathological mechanism and reasons for iron accumulation remain unknown. In this study, atypical patient-derived fibroblasts were reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and subsequently differentiated into cortical neuronal cells for studying disease mechanisms in human neurons. We observed no changes in PANK2 expression between control and patient cells, but a reduction in protein levels was apparent in patient cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860504/small-molecule-based-lineage-switch-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-into-neural-stem-cells-and-functional-gabaergic-neurons
#6
Jihye Park, Nayeon Lee, Jaekwang Lee, Eun Kyung Choe, Min Kyung Kim, Jeonghoon Lee, Min Soo Byun, Myong-Wuk Chon, Seong Who Kim, C Justin Lee, Ju Han Kim, Jun Soo Kwon, Mi-Sook Chang
Cellular reprogramming using small molecules (SMs) without genetic modification provides a promising strategy for generating target cells for cell-based therapy. Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) are a desirable cell source for clinical application due to their self-renewal capacity, easy obtainability and the lack of safety concerns, such as tumor formation. However, methods to convert hADSCs into neural cells, such as neural stem cells (NSCs), are inefficient, and few if any studies have achieved efficient reprogramming of hADSCs into functional neurons...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855426/neural-differentiation-of-fibroblasts-induced-by-intracellular-co-delivery-of-ascl1-brn2-and-foxa1-via-a-non-viral-vector-of-cationic-polysaccharide
#7
Qingtong Yu, Jingjing Chen, Wenwen Deng, Xia Cao, Michael Adu-Frimpong, Jiangnan Yu, Xi-Ming Xu
Direct reprogramming of other somatic cells into neurons is an alternative strategy for the recovery of injured nervous system. In this work we developed a new non-viral gene carrier based on Porphyra yezoensis polysaccharide (PYP). After modification with ethylenediamine, the cationized Porphyra yezoensis polysaccharide (Ed-PYP) was combined with plasmids encoding Ascl1, Brn2 and FoxA1 to form spherical nanoscale particles (Ed-PYP-pABF nanoparticles). Cytotoxicity assay proved that Ed-PYP-pABF nanoparticles had a safer property than Lipofectamine2000 and polyetherimide (PEI)...
August 31, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853082/reprogramming-of-human-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells-under-the-effect-of-bfgf-in-vitro
#8
E V Shafei, A M Kurinov, A V Kuznetsova, M A Aleksandrova
We studied the effect of bFGF on human retinal pigment epithelial cells in vitro In ARPE-19 cells, enhanced expression of KLF4 mRNA and reduced expression of PAX6, MITF, and OTX2 mRNA specific for retinal pigment epithelium were observed after bFGF application. The expression of KLF4 mRNA peaked in 72 h after bFGF application and then sharply decreased, which was accompanied by a 3-fold increase in TUBB3 mRNA expression (neuronal marker). Immunocytochemical analysis showed that in the presence of bFGF, some cells retained epithelial properties and showed positive staining for connexin-43, while others had long axon-like processes and demonstrated positive staining for βIII-tubulin, which attests to their neuronal transdifferentiation...
August 29, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852087/reduced-expression-of-paternally-expressed-gene-3-enhances-somatic-cell-reprogramming-through-mitochondrial-activity-perturbation
#9
Ilda Theka, Francesco Sottile, Francesco Aulicino, Alvaro Castells Garcia, Maria Pia Cosma
Imprinted genes control several cellular and metabolic processes in embryonic and adult tissues. In particular, paternally expressed gene-3 (Peg3) is active in the adult stem cell population and during muscle and neuronal lineage development. Here we have investigated the role of Peg3 in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and during the process of somatic cell reprogramming towards pluripotency. Our data show that Peg3 knockdown increases expression of pluripotency genes in ESCs and enhances reprogramming efficiency of both mouse embryonic fibroblasts and neural stem cells...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851604/regulatory-logic-underlying-diversification-of-the-neural-crest
#10
REVIEW
Megan L Martik, Marianne E Bronner
The neural crest is a transient, multipotent population of cells that arises at the border of the developing nervous system. After closure of the neural tube, these cells undergo an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to delaminate and migrate, often to distant locations in the embryo. Neural crest cells give rise to a diverse array of derivatives including neurons and glia of the peripheral nervous system, melanocytes, and bone and cartilage of the face. A gene regulatory network (GRN) controls the specification, delamination, migration, and differentiation of this fascinating cell type...
August 26, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844658/direct-reprogramming-of-resident-ng2-glia-into-neurons-with-properties-of-fast-spiking-parvalbumin-containing-interneurons
#11
Maria Pereira, Marcella Birtele, Shelby Shrigley, Julio Aguila Benitez, Eva Hedlund, Malin Parmar, Daniella Rylander Ottosson
Converting resident glia into functional and subtype-specific neurons in vivo by delivering reprogramming genes directly to the brain provides a step forward toward the possibility of treating brain injuries or diseases. To date, it has been possible to obtain GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons via in vivo conversion, but the precise phenotype of these cells has not yet been analyzed in detail. Here, we show that neurons reprogrammed using Ascl1, Lmx1a, and Nurr1 functionally mature and integrate into existing brain circuitry and that the majority of the reprogrammed neurons have properties of fast-spiking, parvalbumin-containing interneurons...
September 12, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844127/direct-conversion-of-human-umbilical-cord-blood-into-induced-neural-stem-cells-with-sox2-and-hmga2
#12
Jae-Jun Kim, Ji-Hee Shin, Kyung-Rok Yu, Byung-Chul Lee, Insung Kang, Jin Young Lee, Da-Hyun Kim, Yoojin Seo, Hyung-Sik Kim, Soon Won Choi, Kyung-Sun Kang
Recent advances have shown the direct reprogramming of mouse and human fibroblasts into induced neural stem cells (iNSCs) without passing through an intermediate pluripotent state. Thus, direct reprogramming strategy possibly provides a safe and homogeneous cellular platform. However, the applications of iNSCs for regenerative medicine are limited by the restricted availability of cell sources. Human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) cells hold great potential in that immunotyped hUCB units can be immediately obtained from public banks...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842824/protein-modifications-with-ubiquitin-as-response-to-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#13
Karin Hochrainer
Post-translational protein modifications present an elegant and energy efficient way to dynamically reprogram cellular protein properties and functions in response to homeostatic imbalance. One such protein modification is the tagging of proteins with the small modifier ubiquitin that can have an impact on protein stability, localization, interaction dynamics, and function. Ubiquitination is vital to any eukaryotic cell under physiological conditions, but even more important under stress including oxidative, genotoxic, and heat stress, where ubiquitination levels are drastically increased...
August 25, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832532/the-potential-of-targeting-brain-pathology-with-ascl1-mash1
#14
REVIEW
Bor Luen Tang
The proneural factor Achaete-scute complex-like 1 (Ascl1/Mash1) acts as a pioneering transcription factor that initializes neuronal reprogramming. It drives neural progenitors and non-neuronal cells to exit the cell cycle, and promotes neuronal differentiation by activating neuronal target genes, even those that are normally repressed. Importantly, force-expression of Ascl1 was shown to drive proliferative reactive astroglia formed during stroke and glioblastoma stem cells towards neuronal differentiation, and this could potentially diminish CNS damage resulting from their proliferation...
August 23, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831605/neural-stem-cells-and-epilepsy-functional-roles-and-disease-in-a-dish-models
#15
REVIEW
Drew M Thodeson, Rebecca Brulet, Jenny Hsieh
Epilepsy is a disorder of the central nervous system characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures. Although current therapies exist to control the number and severity of clinical seizures, there are no pharmacological cures or disease-modifying treatments available. Use of transgenic mouse models has allowed an understanding of neural stem cells in their relation to epileptogenesis in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Further, with the significant discovery of factors necessary to reprogram adult somatic cell types into pluripotent stem cells, it has become possible to study monogenic epilepsy-in-a-dish using patient-derived neurons...
August 22, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805814/cerebellar-granule-cell-replenishment-postinjury-by-adaptive-reprogramming-of-nestin-progenitors
#16
Alexandre Wojcinski, Andrew K Lawton, N Sumru Bayin, Zhimin Lao, Daniel N Stephen, Alexandra L Joyner
Regeneration of several organs involves adaptive reprogramming of progenitors, but the intrinsic capacity of the developing brain to replenish lost cells remains largely unknown. Here we found that the developing cerebellum has unappreciated progenitor plasticity, since it undergoes near full growth and functional recovery following acute depletion of granule cells, the most plentiful neuron population in the brain. We demonstrate that following postnatal ablation of granule cell progenitors, Nestin-expressing progenitors, specified during mid-embryogenesis to produce astroglia and interneurons, switch their fate and generate granule neurons in mice...
August 14, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760579/survival-of-ipsc-derived-grafts-within-the-striatum-of-immunodeficient-mice-importance-of-developmental-stage-of-both-transplant-and-host-recipient
#17
Colton M Tom, Shahab Younesi, Elana Meer, Catherine Bresee, Marlesa Godoy, Virginia B Mattis
Degeneration of the striatum can occur in multiple disorders with devastating consequences for the patients. Infantile infections with streptococcus, measles, or herpes can cause striatal necrosis associated with dystonia or dyskinesia; and in patients with Huntington's disease the striatum undergoes massive degeneration, leading to behavioral, psychological and movement issues, ultimately resulting in death. Currently, only supportive therapies are available for striatal degeneration. Clinical trials have shown some efficacy using transplantation of fetal-derived primary striatal progenitors...
July 29, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750583/association-of-a-history-of-child-abuse-with-impaired-myelination-in-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-convergent-epigenetic-transcriptional-and-morphological-evidence
#18
Pierre-Eric Lutz, Arnaud Tanti, Alicja Gasecka, Sarah Barnett-Burns, John J Kim, Yi Zhou, Gang G Chen, Marina Wakid, Meghan Shaw, Daniel Almeida, Marc-Aurele Chay, Jennie Yang, Vanessa Larivière, Marie-Noël M'Boutchou, Léon C van Kempen, Volodymyr Yerko, Josée Prud'homme, Maria Antonietta Davoli, Kathryn Vaillancourt, Jean-François Théroux, Alexandre Bramoullé, Tie-Yuan Zhang, Michael J Meaney, Carl Ernst, Daniel Côté, Naguib Mechawar, Gustavo Turecki
OBJECTIVE: Child abuse has devastating and long-lasting consequences, considerably increasing the lifetime risk of negative mental health outcomes such as depression and suicide. Yet the neurobiological processes underlying this heightened vulnerability remain poorly understood. The authors investigated the hypothesis that epigenetic, transcriptomic, and cellular adaptations may occur in the anterior cingulate cortex as a function of child abuse. METHOD: Postmortem brain samples from human subjects (N=78) and from a rodent model of the impact of early-life environment (N=24) were analyzed...
July 28, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746305/stimulation-of-functional-neuronal-regeneration-from-m%C3%A3-ller-glia-in-adult-mice
#19
Nikolas L Jorstad, Matthew S Wilken, William N Grimes, Stefanie G Wohl, Leah S VandenBosch, Takeshi Yoshimatsu, Rachel O Wong, Fred Rieke, Thomas A Reh
Many retinal diseases lead to the loss of retinal neurons and cause visual impairment. The adult mammalian retina has little capacity for regeneration. By contrast, teleost fish functionally regenerate their retina following injury, and Müller glia (MG) are the source of regenerated neurons. The proneural transcription factor Ascl1 is upregulated in MG after retinal damage in zebrafish and is necessary for regeneration. Although Ascl1 is not expressed in mammalian MG after injury, forced expression of Ascl1 in mouse MG induces a neurogenic state in vitro and in vivo after NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate) damage in young mice...
July 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743168/calorie-restriction-reverses-age-related-alteration-of-cavernous-neurovascular-structure-in-the-rat
#20
A Limanjaya, K-M Song, M-J Choi, K Ghatak, N N Minh, D H Kang, J Ock, G N Yin, H Y Chung, J-K Ryu, J-K Suh
Calorie restriction (CR) refers to a reduction of calorie intake without compromising essential nutrients to avoid malnutrition. CR has been established as a non-genetic method of altering longevity and attenuating biological changes associated with aging. Aging is also an important risk factor for erectile dysfunction. The aim of this study was to examine whether CR diet can reverse the age-related alterations of erectile tissue in the aged rat. Four groups of rats were used: young rats (7 months) + ad libitum, aged rats (22 months) + ad libitum, young rats + CR diet, and aged rats + CR diet...
September 2017: Andrology
keyword
keyword
57287
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"