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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109062/fibroblasts-as-maestros-orchestrating-tissue-regeneration
#1
REVIEW
Raquel Costa-Almeida, Raquel Soares, Pedro L Granja
Fibroblasts constitute a dynamic and versatile population of cells of mesenchymal origin, implicated in both regenerative strategies and pathological conditions. Despite being frequently associated to disease development, particularly through the establishment of fibrotic tissue, fibroblasts hold great potential for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. They are responsible for synthesizing and depositing extracellular matrix components, allowing other cells to settle and migrate along a three-dimensional support and thereby generating an organ-specific architecture...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108925/soil-compaction-effects-on-soil-health-and-cropproductivity-an-overview
#2
Adnan Noor Shah, Mohsin Tanveer, Babar Shahzad, Guozheng Yang, Shah Fahad, Saif Ali, Muhammad Adnan Bukhari, Shahbaz Atta Tung, Abdul Hafeez, Biangkham Souliyanonh
Soil compaction causes substantial reduction in agriculture productivity and has always been of great distress for farmers. Intensive agriculture seems to be more crucial in causing compaction. High mechanical load, less crop diversification, intensive grazing, and irrigation methods lead to soil compaction. It is further exasperated when these factors are accompanied with low organic matter, animal trampling, engine vibrations, and tillage at high moisture contents. Soil compaction increases soil bulk density and soil strength, while decreases porosity, aggregate stability index, soil hydraulic conductivity, and nutrient availability, thus reduces soil health...
January 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108123/deb-modeling-for-nanotoxicology-microbial-ecology-and-environmental-engineering-comment-on-physics-of-metabolic-organization-by-marko-jusup-et-al
#3
Patricia A Holden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2017: Physics of Life Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107988/quantitative-assay-for-the-detection-screening-and-reactivity-evaluation-of-nanoceria-particles
#4
Ali Othman, Kristen Bear, Silvana Andreescu
Increasing use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in many industrial processes and consumer products requires rapid analytical methodologies to reliably detect and screen samples for the presence of NPs. Here, we report the development, analytical characterization and performance evaluation of a colorimetric assay as a comprehensive test for quantitative detection, screening and reactivity evaluation of nanoceria (cerium oxide, CeO2) particles in aqueous environments. We provide a critical discussion of the role of environmental conditions including pH, ionic composition, and presence of humic acid and particle type on the overall performance and sensitivity of this assay...
March 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107731/natural-amelioration-of-zinc-oxide-nanoparticle-toxicity-in-fenugreek%C3%A2-trigonella-foenum-gracum-by-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-glomus-intraradices-secretion-of-glomalin
#5
Narges Ghasemi Siani, Seyfollah Fallah, Lok Raj Pokhrel, Ali Rostamnejadi
Owing to rising production and use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in the myriad of consumer applications, ENPs are being released into the environment where their potential fate and effects have remained unclear. With naturally occurring arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF; Glomus intraradices) in soils, their influence (positive or negative) on ENPs toxicity in plants is not well documented. Herein, we investigated potential influence of AMF on the growth and development in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) under varied Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) treatments (0, 125, 250, 375 and 500 μg g(-1))...
January 3, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107358/modeling-an-excitable-biosynthetic-tissue-with-inherent-variability-for-paired-computational-experimental-studies
#6
Tanmay A Gokhale, Jong M Kim, Robert D Kirkton, Nenad Bursac, Craig S Henriquez
To understand how excitable tissues give rise to arrhythmias, it is crucially necessary to understand the electrical dynamics of cells in the context of their environment. Multicellular monolayer cultures have proven useful for investigating arrhythmias and other conduction anomalies, and because of their relatively simple structure, these constructs lend themselves to paired computational studies that often help elucidate mechanisms of the observed behavior. However, tissue cultures of cardiomyocyte monolayers currently require the use of neonatal cells with ionic properties that change rapidly during development and have thus been poorly characterized and modeled to date...
January 20, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105783/plateau-rayleigh-instability-morphology-evolution-prime-from-electrospun-core-shell-polymer-fibers-to-polymer-microbowls
#7
Yu-Jing Chiu, Hsiao-Fan Tseng, Yu-Ching Lo, Bo-Hao Wu, Jiun-Tai Chen
Electrospun core-shell fibers have great potentials in many areas, such as tissue engineering, drug delivery, and organic solar cells. Although many core-shell fibers have been prepared and studied, the morphology transformation of core-shell fibers have been rarely studied. In this work, the morphology evolution of electrospun core-shell polymer fibers driven by the Plateau-Rayleigh instability is investigated. Polystyrene/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS/PMMA) core-shell fibers are first prepared by using blend solutions and a single axial electrospinning setup...
January 20, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105607/tailoring-the-mesoscopic-tio2-layer-concomitant-parameters-for-enabling-high-performance-perovskite-solar-cells
#8
Taehyun Hwang, Sangheon Lee, Jinhyun Kim, Jaewon Kim, Chunjoong Kim, Byungha Shin, Byungwoo Park
Architectural control over the mesoporous TiO2 film, a common electron-transport layer for organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells, is conducted by employing sub-micron sized polystyrene beads as sacrificial template. Such tailored TiO2 layer is shown to induce asymmetric enhancement of light absorption notably in the long-wavelength region with red-shifted absorption onset of perovskite, leading to ~20% increase of photocurrent and ~10% increase of power conversion efficiency. This enhancement is likely to be originated from the enlarged CH3NH3PbI3(Cl) grains residing in the sub-micron pores rather than from the effect of reduced perovskite-TiO2 interfacial area, which is supported from optical bandgap change, haze transmission of incident light, and one-diode model parameters correlated with the internal surface area of microporous TiO2 layers...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103751/3d-bioprinting-towards-the-era-of-manufacturing-human-organs-as-spare-parts-for-healthcare-and-medicine
#9
Tanveer Ahmad Mir, Makoto Nakamura
3D printing technology has been used in industrial worlds for decades. 3D bioprinting has recently received an increasing attention across the globe among researchers, academicians, students and even the ordinary people. This emerging technique has a great potential to engineer highly organized functional bioconstructs with complex geometries and tailored components for engineering bio-artificial tissues/organs for widespread applications, including transplantation, therapeutic investigation, drug development, bioassay and disease modelling...
January 19, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102490/genome-engineering-of-stem-cell-organoids-for-disease-modeling
#10
REVIEW
Yingmin Sun, Qiurong Ding
Precision medicine emerges as a new approach that takes into account individual variability. Successful realization of precision medicine requires disease models that are able to incorporate personalized disease information and recapitulate disease development processes at the molecular, cellular and organ levels. With recent development in stem cell field, a variety of tissue organoids can be derived from patient specific pluripotent stem cells and adult stem cells. In combination with the state-of-the-art genome editing tools, organoids can be further engineered to mimic disease-relevant genetic and epigenetic status of a patient...
January 19, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102350/manipulation-of-auxin-response-factor-19-affects-seed-size-in-the-woody-perennial-jatropha-curcas
#11
Yanwei Sun, Chunming Wang, Ning Wang, Xiyuan Jiang, Huizhu Mao, Changxiang Zhu, Fujiang Wen, Xianghua Wang, Zhijun Lu, Genhua Yue, Zengfu Xu, Jian Ye
Seed size is a major determinant of seed yield but few is known about the genetics controlling of seed size in plants. Phytohormones cytokinin and brassinosteroid were known to be involved in the regulation of herbaceous plant seed development. Here we identified a homolog of Auxin Response Factor 19 (JcARF19) from a woody plant Jatropha curcas and genetically demonstrated its functions in controlling seed size and seed yield. Through Virus Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS), we found that JcARF19 was a positive upstream modulator in auxin signaling and may control plant organ size in J...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102269/from-morphogen-to-morphogenesis-and-back
#12
Darren Gilmour, Martina Rembold, Maria Leptin
A long-term aim of the life sciences is to understand how organismal shape is encoded by the genome. An important challenge is to identify mechanistic links between the genes that control cell-fate decisions and the cellular machines that generate shape, therefore closing the gap between genotype and phenotype. The logic and mechanisms that integrate these different levels of shape control are beginning to be described, and recently discovered mechanisms of cross-talk and feedback are beginning to explain the remarkable robustness of organ assembly...
January 18, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102267/a-theoretical-foundation-for-multi-scale-regular-vegetation-patterns
#13
Corina E Tarnita, Juan A Bonachela, Efrat Sheffer, Jennifer A Guyton, Tyler C Coverdale, Ryan A Long, Robert M Pringle
Self-organized regular vegetation patterns are widespread and thought to mediate ecosystem functions such as productivity and robustness, but the mechanisms underlying their origin and maintenance remain disputed. Particularly controversial are landscapes of overdispersed (evenly spaced) elements, such as North American Mima mounds, Brazilian murundus, South African heuweltjies, and, famously, Namibian fairy circles. Two competing hypotheses are currently debated. On the one hand, models of scale-dependent feedbacks, whereby plants facilitate neighbours while competing with distant individuals, can reproduce various regular patterns identified in satellite imagery...
January 18, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102224/optimality-and-sub-optimality-in-a-bacterial-growth-law
#14
Benjamin D Towbin, Yael Korem, Anat Bren, Shany Doron, Rotem Sorek, Uri Alon
Organisms adjust their gene expression to improve fitness in diverse environments. But finding the optimal expression in each environment presents a challenge. We ask how good cells are at finding such optima by studying the control of carbon catabolism genes in Escherichia coli. Bacteria show a growth law: growth rate on different carbon sources declines linearly with the steady-state expression of carbon catabolic genes. We experimentally modulate gene expression to ask if this growth law always maximizes growth rate, as has been suggested by theory...
January 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100647/marpodb-an-open-registry-for-marchantia-polymorpha-genetic-parts
#15
Mihails Delmans, Bernardo Pollak, Jim Haseloff
Marchantia polymorpha is an extant relative of the earliest terrestrial plants and has attracted a substantial interest as a model organism for evolutionary and developmental studies. Given its relatively simple genome, compact gene families, simple morphology, ease of propagation and transformation, M. polymorpha is becoming a promising platform for plant synthetic biology. Modular genetic parts have been essential for development of synthetic biology approaches, so we sought to design an engineering oriented database for M...
January 18, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100467/an-essential-role-of-cbl-and-cbl-b-ubiquitin-ligases-in-mammary-stem-cell-maintenance
#16
Bhopal Mohapatra, Neha Zutshi, Wei An, Benjamin Goetz, Priyanka Arya, Timothy A Bielecki, Insha Mustaq, Matthew D Storck, Jane L Meza, Vimla Band, Hamid Band
CBL and CBL-B ubiquitin ligases are negative regulators of tyrosine kinase signaling with established roles in the immune system. However, their physiological roles in epithelial tissues are unknown. Here we used the MMTV-Cre-mediated Cbl gene deletion on a Cbl-b-null background as well as a tamoxifen-inducible mammary stem cell (MaSC)-specific Cbl/Cbl-b double knockout (DKO), using Lgr5-GFP-CreERT, to demonstrate a mammary epithelial cell-autonomous requirement of CBL and CBL-B in the maintenance of MaSCs...
January 18, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100450/a-2-oxoglutarate-dependent-dioxygenase-mediates-the-biosynthesis-of-glucoraphasatin-in-radish
#17
Tomohiro Kakizaki, Hiroyasu Kitashiba, Zhongwei Zou, Feng Li, Nobuko Fukino, Takayoshi Ohara, Takeshi Nishio, Masahiko Ishida
Glucosinolates (GSLs) are secondary metabolites whose degradation products confer intrinsic flavors and aromas to Brassicaceae vegetables. Several structures of GSLs are known in the Brassicaceae, and the biosynthetic pathway and regulatory networks have been elucidated in Arabidopsis thaliana. GSLs are precursors of chemical defense substances against herbivorous pests. Specific GSLs can act as feeding blockers or stimulants, depending on the pest species. Natural selection has led to diversity in the GSL compositions even within individual species...
January 18, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100236/human-%C3%AE-defensin-2-production-from-s-cerevisiae-using-the-repressible-met17-promoter
#18
Thea S B Møller, Joanna Hay, Malcolm J Saxton, Karen Bunting, Evamaria I Petersen, Søren Kjærulff, Christopher J A Finnis
BACKGROUND: Baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a proven host for the commercial production of recombinant biopharmaceutical proteins. For the manufacture of heterologous proteins with activities deleterious to the host it can be desirable to minimise production during the growth phase and induce production late in the exponential phase. Protein expression by regulated promoter systems offers the possibility of improving productivity in this way by separating the recombinant protein production phase from the yeast growth phase...
January 18, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097755/a-solution-processable-liquid-crystalline-semiconductor-for-low-temperature-annealed-air-stable-n-channel-field-effect-transistors
#19
Resul Ozdemir, Donghee Choi, Mehmet Ozdemir, Hyekyoung Kim, Sinem Tuncel Kostakoğlu, Mustafa Erkartal, Hyungsug Kim, Choongik Kim, Hakan Usta
A new solution-processable and air-stable liquid-crystalline n-channel organic semiconductor (α,ω-2OD-TIFDMT) employing a donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D) type of π-conjugation has been designed, synthesized, and fully characterized. The new semiconductor exhibits a low LUMO energy (-4.19 eV) and a narrow optical band gap (1.35 eV). Typical pseudo focal-conic fan-shaped texture of a hexagonal columnar liquid crystalline (LC) phase was observed over a wide temperature range. The spin-coated semiconductor thin-films shows the formation of large (~0...
January 17, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097384/stress-response-physiology-of-thermophiles
#20
REVIEW
Preeti Ranawat, Seema Rawat
Thermo (or hyperthermo) philic microorganisms are ubiquitous having a wide range of habitats from freshly fallen snow to pasteurized milk to geothermal areas like hot springs. The variations in physicochemical conditions, viz., temperature, pH, nutrient availability and light intensity in the habitats always pose stress conditions for the inhabitants leading to slow growth or cell death. The industrial processes used for harvesting secondary metabolites such as enzymes, toxins and organic acids also create stressed environments for thermophiles...
January 17, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
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