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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140829/guiding-regulatory-t-cells-to-the-allograft
#1
Caroline Lamarche, Megan K Levings
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The application of regulatory T cell (Treg) therapy in organ transplantation is actively being pursued using unmodified, typically polyclonal cells. As the results of these ongoing clinical trials emerge, it is time to plan the next wave of clinical trials of Tregs. Here we will review a key strategy to improve Treg effectiveness and reduce side effects, namely increasing Treg specificity - both in terms of antigen recognition and localization to the allograft. RECENT FINDINGS: Study of chemokine signatures accompanying acute rejection has revealed several chemokines that could be targeted to increase Treg homing...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140181/rational-design-of-a-high-strength-bone-scaffold-platform-based-on-in-situ-hybridization-of-bacterial-cellulose-nano-hydroxyapatite-framework-and-silk-fibroin-reinforcing-phase
#2
Pei Jiang, Jiabing Ran, Pan Yan, Lingyue Zheng, Xinyu Shen, Hua Tong
Bacterial cellulose/hydroxyapatite (BC/HAp) composite had favourable bioaffinity but its poor mechanical strength limited its widespread applications in bone tissue engineering (BTE). Silk fibroin, which possesses special crystalline structure, has been widely used as organic reinforcing material, and different SFs have different amino acid sequences, which exhibit different bioaffinity and mechanical properties. In this regard, bacterial cellulose-Antheraea yamamai silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite(BC-AYSF/HAp), bacterial cellulose-Bombyx mori silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite(BC-BMSF/HAp), and BC/HAp nano-composites were synthesized via a novel in situ hybridization method...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139292/enhanced-electrical-properties-and-air-stability-of-amorphous-organic-thin-films-by-engineering-film-density
#3
Yu Esaki, Takeshi Komino, Toshinori Matsushima, Chihaya Adachi
The influences of film density and molecular orientation on the carrier conduction and air stability of vacuum-deposited amorphous organic films of N,N'-di(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine (α-NPD) were investigated. The substrate temperature (Tsub) during vacuum deposition had different effects on the film density and molecular orientation of α-NPD. Film density was a concave function of Tsub; maximum density was attained at Tsub = 270-300 K (0.75-0.83 of the glass transition temperature)...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139103/differentiation-potential-of-human-adipose-stem-cells-bioprinted-with-hyaluronic-acid-gelatin-based-bioink-through-microextrusion-and-visible-light-initiated-crosslinking
#4
Shinji Sakai, Hiromi Ohi, Tomoki Hotta, Hidenori Kamei, Masahito Taya
Bioprinting has a great potential to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) functional tissues and organs. In particular, the technique enables fabrication of 3D constructs containing stem cells while maintaining cell proliferation and differentiation abilities, which is believed to be promising in the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. We aimed to demonstrate the utility of the bioprinting technique to create hydrogel constructs consisting of hyaluronic acid (HA) and gelatin derivatives through irradiation by visible light to fabricate 3D constructs containing human adipose stem cells (hADSCs)...
November 15, 2017: Biopolymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138316/germline-cas9-expression-yields-highly-efficient-genome-engineering-in-a-major-worldwide-disease-vector-aedes-aegypti
#5
Ming Li, Michelle Bui, Ting Yang, Christian S Bowman, Bradley J White, Omar S Akbari
The development of CRISPR/Cas9 technologies has dramatically increased the accessibility and efficiency of genome editing in many organisms. In general, in vivo germline expression of Cas9 results in substantially higher activity than embryonic injection. However, no transgenic lines expressing Cas9 have been developed for the major mosquito disease vector Aedes aegypti Here, we describe the generation of multiple stable, transgenic Ae. aegypti strains expressing Cas9 in the germline, resulting in dramatic improvements in both the consistency and efficiency of genome modifications using CRISPR...
November 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138304/refactoring-the-genetic-code-for-increased-evolvability
#6
Gur Pines, James D Winkler, Assaf Pines, Ryan T Gill
The standard genetic code is robust to mutations during transcription and translation. Point mutations are likely to be synonymous or to preserve the chemical properties of the original amino acid. Saturation mutagenesis experiments suggest that in some cases the best-performing mutant requires replacement of more than a single nucleotide within a codon. These replacements are essentially inaccessible to common error-based laboratory engineering techniques that alter a single nucleotide per mutation event, due to the extreme rarity of adjacent mutations...
November 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137648/lesr-is-a-novel-upstream-regulator-that-controls-downstream-clp-expression-to-modulate-antibiotic-hsaf-biosynthesis-and-cell-aggregation-in-lysobacter-enzymogenes-oh11
#7
Huiyong Xu, Ruping Wang, Yangyang Zhao, Zheng Qing Fu, Guoliang Qian, Fengquan Liu
BACKGROUND: Heat-stable antifungal factor (HSAF) is a polycyclic tetramate macrolactam secondary metabolite that exhibits broad-spectrum inhibitory activities against filamentous fungal pathogens. The native yield of this chemical is low. It is also a great challenge to synthesize HSAF artificially, due to its complex structure. Understanding the regulatory mechanism underlying HSAF biosynthesis could provide genetic basis for engineering high HSAF-producing strain. The transcription factor Clp is a global regulator that controls bacterial pathogenicity and the expression of one hundred related genes in the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv...
November 14, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137138/metabolic-profile-of-the-cellulolytic-industrial-actinomycete-thermobifida-fusca
#8
Niti Vanee, J Paul Brooks, Stephen S Fong
Actinomycetes have a long history of being the source of numerous valuable natural products and medicinals. To expedite product discovery and optimization of biochemical production, high-throughput technologies can now be used to screen the library of compounds present (or produced) at a given time in an organism. This not only facilitates chemical product screening, but also provides a comprehensive methodology to the study cellular metabolic networks to inform cellular engineering. Here, we present some of the first metabolomic data of the industrial cellulolytic actinomycete Thermobifida fusca generated using LC-MS/MS...
November 11, 2017: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135456/probiotics-and-their-use-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#9
Muhammad Amer, Muhammad Nadeem, Saeed Ur Rashid Nazir, Maira Fakhar, Fatima Abid, Qurat-Ul Ain, Elliyah Asif
Context • Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis result in similar gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, including pain, diarrhea, stools with mucus or blood, and ulceration or tissue damage within the alimentary canal. Gut microbiota play a crucial role in triggering, maintaining, and exacerbating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Probiotics might help to rebalance the gut flora in a positive way, shifting from pro- to anti-inflammatory. Objectives • The study intended to investigate the safety and use of probiotics and the biological effects of probiotic bacteria on IBD...
November 14, 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134460/enzyme-based-electrobiotechnological-synthesis
#10
Lisa Marie Schmitz, Katrin Rosenthal, Stephan Lütz
Oxidoreductases are enzymes with a high potential for organic synthesis, as their selectivity often exceeds comparable chemical syntheses. The biochemical cofactors of these enzymes need regeneration during synthesis. Several regeneration methods are available but the electrochemical approach offers an efficient and quasi mass-free method for providing the required redox equivalents. Electron transfer systems involving direct regeneration of natural and artificial cofactors, indirect electrochemical regeneration via a mediator, and indirect electroenzymatic cofactor regeneration via enzyme and mediator have been investigated...
November 14, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133443/the-thermodynamic-efficiency-of-computations-made-in-cells-across-the-range-of-life
#11
Christopher P Kempes, David Wolpert, Zachary Cohen, Juan Pérez-Mercader
Biological organisms must perform computation as they grow, reproduce and evolve. Moreover, ever since Landauer's bound was proposed, it has been known that all computation has some thermodynamic cost-and that the same computation can be achieved with greater or smaller thermodynamic cost depending on how it is implemented. Accordingly an important issue concerning the evolution of life is assessing the thermodynamic efficiency of the computations performed by organisms. This issue is interesting both from the perspective of how close life has come to maximally efficient computation (presumably under the pressure of natural selection), and from the practical perspective of what efficiencies we might hope that engineered biological computers might achieve, especially in comparison with current computational systems...
December 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132232/embedded-multimaterial-extrusion-bioprinting
#12
Marco Rocca, Alessio Fragasso, Wanjun Liu, Marcel A Heinrich, Yu Shrike Zhang
Embedded extrusion bioprinting allows for the generation of complex structures that otherwise cannot be achieved with conventional layer-by-layer deposition from the bottom, by overcoming the limits imposed by gravitational force. By taking advantage of a hydrogel bath, serving as a sacrificial printing environment, it is feasible to extrude a bioink in freeform until the entire structure is deposited and crosslinked. The bioprinted structure can be subsequently released from the supporting hydrogel and used for further applications...
November 1, 2017: SLAS Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131995/thermal-air-oxidation-changes-surface-and-adsorptive-properties-of-black-carbon-char-biochar
#13
Feng Xiao, Alemayehu H Bedane, Julia Xiaojun Zhao, Michael D Mann, Joseph J Pignatello
In this study, we systematically investigated the effects of thermal air oxidation on the properties of biomass-derived black carbon (BC) made at carbonization temperatures (HTTs) of 300-700°C. BC produced by including air in the carbonization step was found to have a low surface area and underdeveloped pore structure. Substantial changes of BC were observed after post-pyrolysis thermal air oxidation (PPAO). Well-carbonized BC samples made anoxically at relatively high HTTs (600 and 700°C) showed, after PPAO, significant increases in N2 BET surface area (SA) (up to 700 times), porosity (<60Å) (up to 95 times), and adsorptivity (up to 120 times) of neutral organic species including two triazine herbicides and one natural estrogen...
November 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131531/modifying-expression-modes-of-human-neurotensin-receptor-type-1-alters-sensing-capabilities-for-agonists-in-yeast-signaling-biosensor
#14
Hiroki Hashi, Yasuyuki Nakamura, Jun Ishii, Akihiko Kondo
Neurotensin receptor type 1 (NTSR1), a member of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family, is naturally activated by binding of a neurotensin peptide, leading to a variety of physiological effects. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a proven host organism for assaying the agonistic activation of human GPCRs. Previous studies showed that yeast cells can functionally express human NTSR1 receptor, permitting the detection of neurotensin-promoted signaling using a ZsGreen fluorescent reporter gene...
November 13, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131527/3d-matrix-embedding-inhibits-cycloheximide-mediated-sensitization-to-tnf-alpha-induced-apoptosis-of-human-endothelial-cells
#15
Michael Saemisch, Markus Nickmann, Lisa Riesinger, Elazer R Edelman, Heiko Methe
The programmed form of cell death (apoptosis) is essential for normal development of multicellular organisms. Dysregulation of apoptosis has been linked with embryonal death and is involved in the pathophysiology of various diseases. Others and we previously demonstrated endothelial biology being intertwined with biochemical and structural composition of the subendothelial basement membrane. We now demonstrate that a three-dimensional growing environment significantly shields endothelial cells from cytokine-induced apoptosis...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131321/ty1-fused-protein-body-formation-for-spatial-organization-of-metabolic-pathways-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#16
Jong Yun Han, Jae Myeong Song, Sung Hwa Seo, Chonglong Wang, Seung-Goo Lee, Hongweon Lee, Seon-Won Kim, Eui-Sung Choi
Metabolite production through a multistep metabolic pathway can often be increased by efficient substrate channeling created by spatial sequestration of the metabolic reactions. Here, Tya, a structural component in the Ty1 retrotransposon element that forms virus-like particles (VLPs) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was used to spatially organize enzymes involved in a metabolic pathway into a multi-enzyme protein body in yeast. As a proof of principle, Tya fusion to three key enzymes involved in biosynthesis of the isoprenoids farnesene and farnesol was tested to assess its potential to improve productivity...
November 13, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131298/decellularized-kidney-matrix-as-functional-material-for-whole-organ-tissue-engineering
#17
Marina Figliuzzi, Barbara Bonandrini, Andrea Remuzzi
Renal transplantation is currently the most effective treatment for end-stage renal disease, which represents one of the major current public health problems. However, the number of available donor kidneys is drastically insufficient to meet the demand, causing prolonged waiting lists. For this reason, tissue engineering offers great potential to increase the pool of donated organs for kidney transplantation, by way of seeding cells on supporting scaffolding material. Biological scaffolds are prepared by removing cellular components from the donor organs using a decellularization process with detergents, enzymes or other cell lysing solutions...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131053/an-experimental-study-to-measure-the-mechanical-properties-of-the-human-liver
#18
Alireza Karimi, Ahmad Shojaei
BACKGROUND: Since the liver is one of the most important organs of the body that can be injured during trauma, that is, during accidents like car crashes, understanding its mechanical properties is of great interest. Experimental data is needed to address the mechanical properties of the liver to be used for a variety of applications, such as the numerical simulations for medical purposes, including the virtual reality simulators, trauma research, diagnosis objectives, as well as injury biomechanics...
October 31, 2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130303/assembly-of-rgd-modified-hydrogel-micromodules-into-permeable-3d-hollow-microtissues-mimicking-in-vivo-tissue-structures
#19
Huaping Wang, Juan Cui, Zhiqiang Zheng, Qing Shi, Tao Sun, Xiaoming Liu, Qiang Huang, Toshio Fukuda
Fabricated microscale tissues that replicate in vivo architectures have shown huge potential in regenerative medicine and drug discovery. Owing to the spatial organization of cell-encapsulated hydrogel microstructures, three-dimensional (3D) tissue structures have been broadly applied as novel pathological or pharmacological models. However, the spatial reorganization of arbitrary microstructures with tissue-specific shapes into 3D in vitro microtissues that mimic the physiological morphology and nutrient diffusion of native tissues presents a major challenge...
November 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129910/thermostable-exoshells-fold-and-stabilize-recombinant-proteins
#20
Siddharth Deshpande, Nihar D Masurkar, Vallerinteavide Mavelli Girish, Malan Desai, Goutam Chakraborty, Juliana M Chan, Chester L Drum
The expression and stabilization of recombinant proteins is fundamental to basic and applied biology. Here we have engineered a thermostable protein nanoparticle (tES) to improve both expression and stabilization of recombinant proteins using this technology. tES provides steric accommodation and charge complementation to green fluorescent protein (GFPuv), horseradish peroxidase (HRPc), and Renilla luciferase (rLuc), improving the yields of functional in vitro folding by ~100-fold. Encapsulated enzymes retain the ability to metabolize small-molecule substrates, presumably via four 4...
November 13, 2017: Nature Communications
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