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Phytonutrient

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796289/medicine-is-not-health-care-food-is-health-care-plant-metabolic-engineering-diet-and-human-health
#1
REVIEW
Cathie Martin, Jie Li
Contents I. II. III. IV. V. VI. References SUMMARY: Plants make substantial contributions to our health through our diets, providing macronutrients for energy and growth as well as essential vitamins and phytonutrients that protect us from chronic diseases. Imbalances in our food can lead to deficiency diseases or obesity and associated metabolic disorders, increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Nutritional security is now a global challenge which can be addressed, at least in part, through plant metabolic engineering for nutritional improvement of foods that are accessible to and eaten by many...
August 10, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782785/role-of-phytochemicals-in-the-modulation-of-mirna-expression-in-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Trishna Debnath, Narayan Chandra Deb Nath, Eun-Kyung Kim, Kwang-Geun Lee
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded non-coding endogenous RNAs linked with normal developmental and physiological processes. Recent studies have demonstrated that the dysregulation of miRNAs plays an important role in the beginning, progression, and metastasis of many cancers. Additionally, they are involved in the regulation of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in many cancer cells. Several studies have suggested that phytochemicals play an important role in the modulation of miRNA expression, which is related to changes in oncogenes, tumour suppressors, and cancer-related protein expression...
August 7, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763980/nutritional-composition-of-mungbean-and-soybean-sprouts-compared-to-their-adult-growth-stage
#3
Andreas W Ebert, Ching-Huan Chang, Miao-Rong Yan, Ray-Yu Yang
This study determined the level of phytonutrients in mungbean and soybean sprouts compared to mature mungbean grain and vegetable soybean. The comparison included landraces and improved mungbean and soybean varieties to assess the effect of breeding on the phytonutrient content of both crops. Sprouting mungbean enhanced vitamin C content 2.7-fold compared to mature mungbean grain. Relatively old mungbean accessions were superior in protein, calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), carotenoid and vitamin C content compared to improved mungbean lines at the fully mature stage...
December 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758404/lycopene-prevents-mitochondrial-dysfunction-during-d-galactosamine-lipopolysaccharide-induced-fulminant-hepatic-failure-in-albino-rats
#4
Sheik Abdulazeez Sheriff, Shaikhussain Shaik Ibrahim, Thiruvengadam Devaki, Sandipan Chakraborty, Subhash Agarwal, Horacio Pérez-Sánchez
Functional perturbation of mitochondria is associated with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). d-Galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide (d-GalN/LPS)-induced FHF is a renowned model to evaluate the efficacy of hepatoprotective agents. Lycopene is an antioxidant and phytonutrient from the carotenoid family. The health benefits of lycopene are prominent against cancer and cardiovascular, lung, liver, and skin problems. Recent studies have demonstrated the hepatoprotective, antidyslipidemic, and antioxidant roles of lycopene...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746163/the-potential-contribution-of-dietary-factors-to-breast-cancer-prevention
#5
Niva Shapira
Breast cancer (BC), the leading cancer in women, is increasing in prevalence worldwide, concurrent with western metabolic epidemics, that is, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes, and shares major risk factors with these diseases. The corresponding potential for nutritional contributions toward BC prevention is reviewed and related to critical stages in the life cycle and their implications for carcinogenic and pathometabolic trajectories. BC initiation potentially involves diet-related pro-oxidative, inflammatory, and procarcinogenic processes, that interact through combined lipid/fatty acid peroxidation, estrogen metabolism, and related DNA-adduct/depurination/mutation formation...
September 2017: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719765/beetroot-juice-is-more-beneficial-than-sodium-nitrate-for-attenuating-muscle-pain-after-strenuous-eccentric-bias-exercise
#6
Tom Clifford, Glyn Howatson, Daniel J West, Emma J Stevenson
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of beetroot juice (BTJ) and a nitrate only drink (sodium nitrate; SN) on indices of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). Thirty recreationally active males consumed either BTJ (n=10), a nitrate matched SN drink (n=10) or an isocaloric placebo (PLA; n=10) immediately, 24 and 48 h after performing 100 drop jumps. To assess muscle damage, maximal isometric voluntary contractions (MIVC), countermovement jumps (CMJ), pressure-pain threshold (PPT), creatine kinase (CK) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured pre, immediately post, 24, 48 and 72 h following the drop jumps...
July 18, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669386/dietary-cinnamaldehyde-enhances-acquisition-of-specific-antibodies-following-helminth-infection-in-pigs
#7
Andrew R Williams, Tina V A Hansen, Lukasz Krych, Hajar Fauzan Bin Ahmad, Dennis S Nielsen, Kerstin Skovgaard, Stig M Thamsborg
Dietary phytonutrients such as cinnamaldehyde (CA) may contribute to immune function during pathogen infections, and CA has been reported to have positive effects on gut health when used as feed additive for livestock. Here, we investigated whether CA could enhance antibody production and specific immune responses during infection with an enteric pathogen. We examined the effect of dietary CA on plasma antibody levels in parasite-naïve pigs, and subsequently acquisition of humoral immune responses during infection with the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum...
July 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662347/nutritional-chemistry-of-the-peanut-arachis-hypogaea
#8
Ondulla T Toomer
Peanuts, Arachis hypogaea, are one of the most widely consumed legume globally due to its nutrition, taste and affordability. Peanuts are protein and energy-rich and have been utilized worldwide to address the nutritional needs in developing countries. Currently, its role in a heart-healthy diet has warranted tremendous attention among consumer groups and within the scientific community. Additionally, current studies have identified the value in the phytonutrient composition of peanuts, such as resveratrol, isoflavonoids, phenolic acids, and phytosterols, which may enhance overall health and wellness...
June 29, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662306/oxidative-stress-and-chronic-inflammation-in-osteoarthritis-can-nrf2-counteract-these-partners-in-crime
#9
REVIEW
Andrey S Marchev, Petya A Dimitrova, Andrew J Burns, Rumen V Kostov, Albena T Dinkova-Kostova, Milen I Georgiev
Osteoarthritis (OA) is an age-related joint degenerative disease associated with pain, joint deformity, and disability. The disease starts with cartilage damage but then progressively involves subchondral bone, causing an imbalance between osteoclast-driven bone resorption and osteoblast-driven remodeling. Here, we summarize the data for the role of oxidative stress and inflammation in OA pathology and discuss how these two processes are integrated during OA progression, as well as their contribution to abnormalities in cartilage/bone metabolism and integrity...
June 29, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646814/nutritional-management-of-metabolic-endotoxemia-a-clinical-review
#10
Benjamin I Brown
Context • Diet-induced, metabolic endotoxemia is emerging as an important contributory factor to the development of a wide range of chronic diseases, including cardiometabolic, autoimmune, psychiatric, and neurodegenerative illnesses. Emerging human clinical studies have demonstrated that diet and dietary components are potent modifiers of circulating endotoxins and can be used to reduce plasma levels significantly and improve metabolic health. Objective • The aim of the current study was to explore briefly the concept of metabolic endotoxemia and its relationship to disease development, to examine the influence of diet and dietary components on circulating endotoxins, and, finally, discuss the clinical relevance of nutritional interventions for management of metabolic endotoxemia...
July 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630614/a-plant-based-diet-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#11
REVIEW
Michelle McMacken, Sapana Shah
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is rising worldwide, especially in older adults. Diet and lifestyle, particularly plant-based diets, are effective tools for type 2 diabetes prevention and management. Plant-based diets are eating patterns that emphasize legumes, whole grains, vegetables, fruits, nuts, and seeds and discourage most or all animal products. Cohort studies strongly support the role of plant-based diets, and food and nutrient components of plant-based diets, in reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes...
May 2017: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603896/dietary-pattern-associated-with-frailty-results-from-nutrition-and-health-survey-in-taiwan
#12
Yen-Li Lo, Yao-Te Hsieh, Li-Lin Hsu, Shao-Yuan Chuang, Hsing-Yi Chang, Chih-Cheng Hsu, Ching-Yu Chen, Wen-Harn Pan
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether dietary patterns are associated with frailty phenotypes in an elderly Taiwanese population. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT), 2014-2016. PARTICIPANTS: Noninstitutionalized Taiwanese nationals aged 65 years and older enrolled in the NAHSIT (N = 923). MEASUREMENTS: Dietary intake was assessed using a 79-item food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ)...
June 12, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516036/transcriptome-analysis-of-carica-papaya-embryogenic-callus-upon-de-etiolated-1-det1-gene-suppression
#13
Diyana Jamaluddin, Normah Mohd Noor, Hoe-Han Goh
Papaya is considered to be one of the most nutritional fruits. It is rich in vitamins, carotenoids, flavonoids and other phytonutrient which function as antioxidant in our body [1]. Previous studies revealed that the suppression of a negative regulator gene in photomorphogenesis, De-etiolated 1 (DET1) can improve the phytonutrient in tomato and canola without affecting the fruit quality [2], [3]. This report contains the experimental data on high-throughput 3' mRNA sequencing of transformed papaya callus upon DET1 gene suppression...
June 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515064/genetics-of-serum-carotenoid-concentrations-and-their-correlation-with-obesity-related-traits-in-mexican-american-children
#14
Vidya S Farook, Lavanya Reddivari, Srinivas Mummidi, Sobha Puppala, Rector Arya, Juan Carlos Lopez-Alvarenga, Sharon P Fowler, Geetha Chittoor, Roy G Resendez, Birunda Mohan Kumar, Anthony G Comuzzie, Joanne E Curran, Donna M Lehman, Christopher P Jenkinson, Jane L Lynch, Ralph A DeFronzo, John Blangero, Daniel E Hale, Ravindranath Duggirala, Jairam Kp Vanamala
Background: Dietary intake of phytonutrients present in fruits and vegetables, such as carotenoids, is associated with a lower risk of obesity and related traits, but the impact of genetic variation on these associations is poorly understood, especially in children.Objective: We estimated common genetic influences on serum carotenoid concentrations and obesity-related traits in Mexican American (MA) children.Design: Obesity-related data were obtained from 670 nondiabetic MA children, aged 6-17 y. Serum α- and β-carotenoid concentrations were measured in ∼570 (α-carotene in 565 and β-carotene in 572) of these children with the use of an ultraperformance liquid chromatography-photodiode array...
July 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494348/withaferin-a-inhibits-prostate-carcinogenesis-in-a-pten-deficient-mouse-model-of-prostate-cancer
#15
Jim Moselhy, Suman Suman, Mohammed Alghamdi, Balaji Chandarasekharan, Trinath P Das, Alatassi Houda, Murali Ankem, Chendil Damodaran
We recently demonstrated that AKT activation plays a role in prostate cancer progression and inhibits the pro-apoptotic function of FOXO3a and Par-4. AKT inhibition and Par-4 induction suppressed prostate cancer progression in preclinical models. Here, we investigate the chemopreventive effect of the phytonutrient Withaferin A (WA) on AKT-driven prostate tumorigenesis in a Pten conditional knockout (Pten-KO) mouse model of prostate cancer. Oral WA treatment was carried out at two different doses (3 and 5 mg/kg) and compared to vehicle over 45 weeks...
May 7, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437132/home-enteral-nutrition-updates-trends-and-challenges
#16
Karen Martin, Gabriela Gardner
The true prevalence of home enteral nutrition (HEN) utilization is unclear and requires further study. HEN therapy has remained virtually unchanged for several decades. However, new trends in HEN are evolving; enteral nutrition is undergoing changes ranging from enteral feeding devices, ingredients used, practice innovations, and challenges with reimbursement. A 2006 Joint Commission call to action that reported 2 sentinel events related to misconnections set things into motion for the transition of enteral device connectors to become specific for enteral nutrition use, which will affect patients who receive HEN...
April 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435048/morella-serrata-lam-killick-stabilizes-biomembrane-and-rejuvenates-sexual-competence-in-male-wistar-rats
#17
S Sabiu, A O T Ashafa
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Morella serrata L. is an indigenous medicinal plant to South and southern Africa with folkloric applications as aphrodisiac, laxative, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-hypertensive, antitussive and antidiabetic agent. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study evaluated the membrane stabilization and aphrodisiac potentials of its aqueous root extract in male Wistar rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: While the membrane stabilization of the extract was investigated against bovine erythrocytes (BE), the male rats for the aphrodisiac study were randomized into five groups with animals in group 1 given sterile placebo and served as control...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424855/analysis-of-multiple-soybean-phytonutrients-by-near-infrared-reflectance-spectroscopy
#18
Gaoyang Zhang, Penghui Li, Wenfei Zhang, Jian Zhao
Improvement of the nutritional quality of soybean is usually facilitated by a vast range of soybean germplasm with enough information about their multiple phytonutrients. In order to acquire this essential information from a huge number of soybean samples, a rapid analytic method is urgently required. Here, a nondestructive near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) method was developed for rapid and accurate measurement of 25 nutritional components in soybean simultaneously, including fatty acids palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid, vitamin E (VE), α-VE, γ-VE, δ-VE, saponins, isoflavonoids, and flavonoids...
April 19, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422588/alterations-in-redox-homeostasis-during-recovery-from-unexplained-underperformance-syndrome-in-an-elite-international-rower
#19
Nathan A Lewis, Ann Redgrave, Mark Homer, Richard Burden, Wendy Martinson, Brian Moore, Charles R Pedlar
PURPOSE: This case study of an international rower examines a diagnosis of Unexplained Under Performance Syndrome (UUPS or Overtraining Syndrome) describing a full recovery and return to elite competition the same year. METHODS: On diagnosis and 4 and 14 months post-diagnosis, detailed assessments including physiological, nutritional, and biomarkers were made. RESULTS: Clinical examination and laboratory results for haematology, biochemistry, thyroid function, immunology, vitamins and minerals were unremarkable and did not explain the presentation and diagnosis...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409935/assessment-of-two-solid-anaerobic-digestate-soil-amendments-for-effects-on-soil-quality-and-biosolarization-efficacy
#20
Jesús D Fernández-Bayo, Yigal Achmon, Duff R Harrold, Dlinka G McCurry, Katie Hernandez, Ruth M Dahlquist-Willard, James J Stapleton, Jean S VanderGheynst, Christopher W Simmons
Anaerobic digestion is an organic waste bioconversion process that produces biofuel and digestates. Digestates have potential to be applied as soil amendment to improve properties for crop production including phytonutrient content and pest load. Our objective was to assess the impact of solid anaerobic digestates on weed seed inactivation and soil quality upon soil biosolarization (a pest control technique that combines solar heating and amendment-induced microbial activity). Two solid digestates from thermophilic (TD) and mesophilic (MD) digesters were tested...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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