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Phytonutrient

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161349/relation-of-retinal-and-serum-lutein-and-zeaxanthin-to-white-matter-integrity-in-older-adults-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#1
Catherine M Mewborn, Douglas P Terry, Lisa M Renzi-Hammond, Billy R Hammond, L Stephen Miller
Objective: Lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) are phytonutrients that accumulate in human brain tissue and positively impact cognition. Given their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and their role in stabilizing cell membranes, L&Z may relate to measures of white matter integrity (WMI). Method: The current study tested the relation of retinal (macular pigment optical density/MPOD) and blood serum concentrations of L&Z to WMI in community-dwelling older adults (n = 54) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)...
November 17, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111190/chemical-composition-antioxidant-and-antibacterial-activities-of-essential-oil-and-methanol-extract-of-artemisia-vulgaris-and-gaultheria-fragrantissima-collected-from-nepal
#2
Bishnu Prasad Pandey, Rupak Thapa, Anil Upreti
OBJECTIVE: To identify the chemical constituents and biological activities of essential oil and crude methanol extract of Artemisia vulgaris (A. vulgaris) and Gaultheria fragrantissima (G. fragrantissima). METHODS: Phytochemical screening, total phenolic and flavonoid content, antibacterial activities, anti-oxidant assay of the crude extract were carried out to identify the biological activities and phytonutrients present in the extract. Furthermore, the chemical constituents present in the essential oil and crude methanol extract were analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis...
October 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093377/recovery-and-utilization-of-palm-oil-mill-effluent-source-as-value-added-food-products
#3
Soek Sin Teh, Augustine Soon Hock Ong, Siau Hui Mah
The environmental impacts of palm oil mill effluent (POME) have been a concern due to the water pollution and greenhouse gases emissions. Thus, this study was conducted to recover the value-added products from POME source before being discharged. The samples, before (X) and after (Y) the pre-recovery system in the clarification tank were sampled and analysed and proximate analysis indicated that both samples are energy rich source of food due to high contents of fats and carbohydrates. GCMS analysis showed that the oil extracts contain predominantly palmitic, oleic, linoleic and stearic acids...
2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039792/health-promoting-phytochemicals-from-11-mustard-cultivars-at-baby-leaf-and-mature-stages
#4
Marissa D Frazie, Moo Jung Kim, Kang-Mo Ku
Mustard is a Brassica vegetable that provides a number of phytonutrients. However, the phytonutrient profile of mustard has been relatively limited. We analyzed the glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products, carotenoids, total anthocyanin and phenolic contents, and antioxidant capacity of the leaves of 11 mustard cultivars grown in a greenhouse at the baby leaf and mature stages. An aliphatic glucosinolate sinigrin and its hydrolysis products allyl isothiocyanate and 1-cyano-2,3-epithiopropane were the major phytonutrients in the mustard leaves...
October 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960302/nutritional-and-phytochemical-composition-of-vaccinium-padifolium-sm-wild-berries-and-radical-scavenging-activity
#5
Maria J Carvalho, Carla S Gouveia, Ana C Vieira, Ana C Pereira, Miguel  Carvalho, José C Marques
Blueberries have a well-deserved reputation as a potential functional food, supported by studies which have identified and quantified various nutrients and bioactive phytochemicals with known benefits for human diet and health. Wild blueberries have attracted particular attention due to the levels and concentrations of those phytonutrients. This study aims to evaluate for the first time the chemical composition of Madeira Island's endemic Vaccinium padifolium Sm wild berry. Results show that this fruit contains high values of total soluble phenolic content (around 4 g GAE kg(-1) FW), as well as significant values of total monomeric anthocyanin content (around 3 g eq...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946328/free-and-esterified-carotenoids-in-pigmented-wheat-tritordeum-and-barley-grains
#6
Luboš Paznocht, Zora Kotíková, Miloslav Šulc, Jaromír Lachman, Matyáš Orsák, Marie Eliášová, Petr Martinek
Carotenoids are important phytonutrients responsible for the yellow endosperm color in cereal grains. Five carotenoids, namely lutein, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, α- and β-carotene, were quantified by HPLC-DAD-MS in fourteen genotypes of wheat, barley and tritordeum harvested in Czechia in 2014 and 2015. The highest carotenoid contents were found in yellow-grained tritordeum HT 439 (12.16μg/gDW), followed by blue-grained wheat V1-131-15 (7.46μg/gDW), and yellow-grained wheat TA 4024 (7.04μg/gDW). Comparing carotenoid contents, blue varieties had lower whereas purple ones had the same or higher levels than conventional bread wheat...
February 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796289/medicine-is-not-health-care-food-is-health-care-plant-metabolic-engineering-diet-and-human-health
#7
REVIEW
Cathie Martin, Jie Li
Contents I. II. III. IV. V. VI. References SUMMARY: Plants make substantial contributions to our health through our diets, providing macronutrients for energy and growth as well as essential vitamins and phytonutrients that protect us from chronic diseases. Imbalances in our food can lead to deficiency diseases or obesity and associated metabolic disorders, increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Nutritional security is now a global challenge which can be addressed, at least in part, through plant metabolic engineering for nutritional improvement of foods that are accessible to and eaten by many...
August 10, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782785/role-of-phytochemicals-in-the-modulation-of-mirna-expression-in-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Trishna Debnath, Narayan Chandra Deb Nath, Eun-Kyung Kim, Kwang-Geun Lee
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded non-coding endogenous RNAs linked with normal developmental and physiological processes. Recent studies have demonstrated that the dysregulation of miRNAs plays an important role in the beginning, progression, and metastasis of many cancers. Additionally, they are involved in the regulation of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in many cancer cells. Several studies have suggested that phytochemicals play an important role in the modulation of miRNA expression, which is related to changes in oncogenes, tumour suppressors, and cancer-related protein expression...
August 7, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763980/nutritional-composition-of-mungbean-and-soybean-sprouts-compared-to-their-adult-growth-stage
#9
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Andreas W Ebert, Ching-Huan Chang, Miao-Rong Yan, Ray-Yu Yang
This study determined the level of phytonutrients in mungbean and soybean sprouts compared to mature mungbean grain and vegetable soybean. The comparison included landraces and improved mungbean and soybean varieties to assess the effect of breeding on the phytonutrient content of both crops. Sprouting mungbean enhanced vitamin C content 2.7-fold compared to mature mungbean grain. Relatively old mungbean accessions were superior in protein, calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), carotenoid and vitamin C content compared to improved mungbean lines at the fully mature stage...
December 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758404/lycopene-prevents-mitochondrial-dysfunction-during-d-galactosamine-lipopolysaccharide-induced-fulminant-hepatic-failure-in-albino-rats
#10
Sheik Abdulazeez Sheriff, Shaikhussain Shaik Ibrahim, Thiruvengadam Devaki, Sandipan Chakraborty, Subhash Agarwal, Horacio Pérez-Sánchez
Functional perturbation of mitochondria is associated with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). d-Galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide (d-GalN/LPS)-induced FHF is a renowned model to evaluate the efficacy of hepatoprotective agents. Lycopene is an antioxidant and phytonutrient from the carotenoid family. The health benefits of lycopene are prominent against cancer and cardiovascular, lung, liver, and skin problems. Recent studies have demonstrated the hepatoprotective, antidyslipidemic, and antioxidant roles of lycopene...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746163/the-potential-contribution-of-dietary-factors-to-breast-cancer-prevention
#11
Niva Shapira
Breast cancer (BC), the leading cancer in women, is increasing in prevalence worldwide, concurrent with western metabolic epidemics, that is, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes, and shares major risk factors with these diseases. The corresponding potential for nutritional contributions toward BC prevention is reviewed and related to critical stages in the life cycle and their implications for carcinogenic and pathometabolic trajectories. BC initiation potentially involves diet-related pro-oxidative, inflammatory, and procarcinogenic processes, that interact through combined lipid/fatty acid peroxidation, estrogen metabolism, and related DNA-adduct/depurination/mutation formation...
September 2017: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719765/beetroot-juice-is-more-beneficial-than-sodium-nitrate-for-attenuating-muscle-pain-after-strenuous-eccentric-bias-exercise
#12
Tom Clifford, Glyn Howatson, Daniel J West, Emma J Stevenson
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of beetroot juice (BTJ) and a nitrate only drink (sodium nitrate; SN) on indices of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). Thirty recreationally active males consumed either BTJ (n = 10), a nitrate-matched SN drink (n = 10), or an isocaloric placebo (PLA; n = 10) immediately and at 24 and 48 h after performing 100 drop jumps. To assess muscle damage, maximal isometric voluntary contractions (MIVCs), countermovement jumps (CMJs), pressure-pain threshold (PPT), creatine kinase (CK), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured before, immediately after and at 24, 48, and 72 h following the drop jumps...
July 18, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669386/dietary-cinnamaldehyde-enhances-acquisition-of-specific-antibodies-following-helminth-infection-in-pigs
#13
Andrew R Williams, Tina V A Hansen, Lukasz Krych, Hajar Fauzan Bin Ahmad, Dennis S Nielsen, Kerstin Skovgaard, Stig M Thamsborg
Dietary phytonutrients such as cinnamaldehyde (CA) may contribute to immune function during pathogen infections, and CA has been reported to have positive effects on gut health when used as feed additive for livestock. Here, we investigated whether CA could enhance antibody production and specific immune responses during infection with an enteric pathogen. We examined the effect of dietary CA on plasma antibody levels in parasite-naïve pigs, and subsequently acquisition of humoral immune responses during infection with the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum...
July 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662347/nutritional-chemistry-of-the-peanut-arachis-hypogaea
#14
Ondulla T Toomer
Peanuts, Arachis hypogaea, are one of the most widely consumed legumes globally due to its nutrition, taste, and affordability. Peanuts are protein and energy-rich and have been utilized worldwide to address the nutritional needs in developing countries. Currently, its role in a heart-healthy diet has warranted tremendous attention among consumer groups and within the scientific community. Additionally, current studies have identified the value in the phytonutrient composition of peanuts, such as resveratrol, isoflavonoids, phenolic acids, and phytosterols, which may enhance overall health and wellness...
June 29, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662306/oxidative-stress-and-chronic-inflammation-in-osteoarthritis-can-nrf2-counteract-these-partners-in-crime
#15
REVIEW
Andrey S Marchev, Petya A Dimitrova, Andrew J Burns, Rumen V Kostov, Albena T Dinkova-Kostova, Milen I Georgiev
Osteoarthritis (OA) is an age-related joint degenerative disease associated with pain, joint deformity, and disability. The disease starts with cartilage damage but then progressively involves subchondral bone, causing an imbalance between osteoclast-driven bone resorption and osteoblast-driven remodeling. Here, we summarize the data for the role of oxidative stress and inflammation in OA pathology and discuss how these two processes are integrated during OA progression, as well as their contribution to abnormalities in cartilage/bone metabolism and integrity...
August 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646814/nutritional-management-of-metabolic-endotoxemia-a-clinical-review
#16
REVIEW
Benjamin I Brown
Context • Diet-induced, metabolic endotoxemia is emerging as an important contributory factor to the development of a wide range of chronic diseases, including cardiometabolic, autoimmune, psychiatric, and neurodegenerative illnesses. Emerging human clinical studies have demonstrated that diet and dietary components are potent modifiers of circulating endotoxins and can be used to reduce plasma levels significantly and improve metabolic health. Objective • The aim of the current study was to explore briefly the concept of metabolic endotoxemia and its relationship to disease development, to examine the influence of diet and dietary components on circulating endotoxins, and, finally, discuss the clinical relevance of nutritional interventions for management of metabolic endotoxemia...
July 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630614/a-plant-based-diet-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#17
REVIEW
Michelle McMacken, Sapana Shah
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is rising worldwide, especially in older adults. Diet and lifestyle, particularly plant-based diets, are effective tools for type 2 diabetes prevention and management. Plant-based diets are eating patterns that emphasize legumes, whole grains, vegetables, fruits, nuts, and seeds and discourage most or all animal products. Cohort studies strongly support the role of plant-based diets, and food and nutrient components of plant-based diets, in reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes...
May 2017: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603896/dietary-pattern-associated-with-frailty-results-from-nutrition-and-health-survey-in-taiwan
#18
Yen-Li Lo, Yao-Te Hsieh, Li-Lin Hsu, Shao-Yuan Chuang, Hsing-Yi Chang, Chih-Cheng Hsu, Ching-Yu Chen, Wen-Harn Pan
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether dietary patterns are associated with frailty phenotypes in an elderly Taiwanese population. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT), 2014-2016. PARTICIPANTS: Noninstitutionalized Taiwanese nationals aged 65 years and older enrolled in the NAHSIT (N = 923). MEASUREMENTS: Dietary intake was assessed using a 79-item food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ)...
September 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516036/transcriptome-analysis-of-carica-papaya-embryogenic-callus-upon-de-etiolated-1-det1-gene-suppression
#19
Diyana Jamaluddin, Normah Mohd Noor, Hoe-Han Goh
Papaya is considered to be one of the most nutritional fruits. It is rich in vitamins, carotenoids, flavonoids and other phytonutrient which function as antioxidant in our body [1]. Previous studies revealed that the suppression of a negative regulator gene in photomorphogenesis, De-etiolated 1 (DET1) can improve the phytonutrient in tomato and canola without affecting the fruit quality [2], [3]. This report contains the experimental data on high-throughput 3' mRNA sequencing of transformed papaya callus upon DET1 gene suppression...
June 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515064/genetics-of-serum-carotenoid-concentrations-and-their-correlation-with-obesity-related-traits-in-mexican-american-children
#20
Vidya S Farook, Lavanya Reddivari, Srinivas Mummidi, Sobha Puppala, Rector Arya, Juan Carlos Lopez-Alvarenga, Sharon P Fowler, Geetha Chittoor, Roy G Resendez, Birunda Mohan Kumar, Anthony G Comuzzie, Joanne E Curran, Donna M Lehman, Christopher P Jenkinson, Jane L Lynch, Ralph A DeFronzo, John Blangero, Daniel E Hale, Ravindranath Duggirala, Jairam Kp Vanamala
Background: Dietary intake of phytonutrients present in fruits and vegetables, such as carotenoids, is associated with a lower risk of obesity and related traits, but the impact of genetic variation on these associations is poorly understood, especially in children.Objective: We estimated common genetic influences on serum carotenoid concentrations and obesity-related traits in Mexican American (MA) children.Design: Obesity-related data were obtained from 670 nondiabetic MA children, aged 6-17 y. Serum α- and β-carotenoid concentrations were measured in ∼570 (α-carotene in 565 and β-carotene in 572) of these children with the use of an ultraperformance liquid chromatography-photodiode array...
July 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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