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Phytonutrient

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646814/nutritional-management-of-metabolic-endotoxemia-a-clinical-review
#1
Benjamin I Brown
Context • Diet-induced, metabolic endotoxemia is emerging as an important contributory factor to the development of a wide range of chronic diseases, including cardiometabolic, autoimmune, psychiatric, and neurodegenerative illnesses. Emerging human clinical studies have demonstrated that diet and dietary components are potent modifiers of circulating endotoxins and can be used to reduce plasma levels significantly and improve metabolic health. Objective • The aim of the current study was to explore briefly the concept of metabolic endotoxemia and its relationship to disease development, to examine the influence of diet and dietary components on circulating endotoxins, and, finally, discuss the clinical relevance of nutritional interventions for management of metabolic endotoxemia...
July 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630614/a-plant-based-diet-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#2
REVIEW
Michelle McMacken, Sapana Shah
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is rising worldwide, especially in older adults. Diet and lifestyle, particularly plant-based diets, are effective tools for type 2 diabetes prevention and management. Plant-based diets are eating patterns that emphasize legumes, whole grains, vegetables, fruits, nuts, and seeds and discourage most or all animal products. Cohort studies strongly support the role of plant-based diets, and food and nutrient components of plant-based diets, in reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes...
May 2017: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603896/dietary-pattern-associated-with-frailty-results-from-nutrition-and-health-survey-in-taiwan
#3
Yen-Li Lo, Yao-Te Hsieh, Li-Lin Hsu, Shao-Yuan Chuang, Hsing-Yi Chang, Chih-Cheng Hsu, Ching-Yu Chen, Wen-Harn Pan
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether dietary patterns are associated with frailty phenotypes in an elderly Taiwanese population. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT), 2014-2016. PARTICIPANTS: Noninstitutionalized Taiwanese nationals aged 65 years and older enrolled in the NAHSIT (N = 923). MEASUREMENTS: Dietary intake was assessed using a 79-item food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ)...
June 12, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516036/transcriptome-analysis-of-carica-papaya-embryogenic-callus-upon-de-etiolated-1-det1-gene-suppression
#4
Diyana Jamaluddin, Normah Mohd Noor, Hoe-Han Goh
Papaya is considered to be one of the most nutritional fruits. It is rich in vitamins, carotenoids, flavonoids and other phytonutrient which function as antioxidant in our body [1]. Previous studies revealed that the suppression of a negative regulator gene in photomorphogenesis, De-etiolated 1 (DET1) can improve the phytonutrient in tomato and canola without affecting the fruit quality [2], [3]. This report contains the experimental data on high-throughput 3' mRNA sequencing of transformed papaya callus upon DET1 gene suppression...
June 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515064/genetics-of-serum-carotenoid-concentrations-and-their-correlation-with-obesity-related-traits-in-mexican-american-children
#5
Vidya S Farook, Lavanya Reddivari, Srinivas Mummidi, Sobha Puppala, Rector Arya, Juan Carlos Lopez-Alvarenga, Sharon P Fowler, Geetha Chittoor, Roy G Resendez, Birunda Mohan Kumar, Anthony G Comuzzie, Joanne E Curran, Donna M Lehman, Christopher P Jenkinson, Jane L Lynch, Ralph A DeFronzo, John Blangero, Daniel E Hale, Ravindranath Duggirala, Jairam Kp Vanamala
Background: Dietary intake of phytonutrients present in fruits and vegetables, such as carotenoids, is associated with a lower risk of obesity and related traits, but the impact of genetic variation on these associations is poorly understood, especially in children.Objective: We estimated common genetic influences on serum carotenoid concentrations and obesity-related traits in Mexican American (MA) children.Design: Obesity-related data were obtained from 670 nondiabetic MA children, aged 6-17 y. Serum α- and β-carotenoid concentrations were measured in ∼570 (α-carotene in 565 and β-carotene in 572) of these children with the use of an ultraperformance liquid chromatography-photodiode array...
May 17, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494348/withaferin-a-inhibits-prostate-carcinogenesis-in-a-pten-deficient-mouse-model-of-prostate-cancer
#6
Jim Moselhy, Suman Suman, Mohammed Alghamdi, Balaji Chandarasekharan, Trinath P Das, Alatassi Houda, Murali Ankem, Chendil Damodaran
We recently demonstrated that AKT activation plays a role in prostate cancer progression and inhibits the pro-apoptotic function of FOXO3a and Par-4. AKT inhibition and Par-4 induction suppressed prostate cancer progression in preclinical models. Here, we investigate the chemopreventive effect of the phytonutrient Withaferin A (WA) on AKT-driven prostate tumorigenesis in a Pten conditional knockout (Pten-KO) mouse model of prostate cancer. Oral WA treatment was carried out at two different doses (3 and 5 mg/kg) and compared to vehicle over 45 weeks...
May 7, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437132/home-enteral-nutrition-updates-trends-and-challenges
#7
Karen Martin, Gabriela Gardner
The true prevalence of home enteral nutrition (HEN) utilization is unclear and requires further study. HEN therapy has remained virtually unchanged for several decades. However, new trends in HEN are evolving; enteral nutrition is undergoing changes ranging from enteral feeding devices, ingredients used, practice innovations, and challenges with reimbursement. A 2006 Joint Commission call to action that reported 2 sentinel events related to misconnections set things into motion for the transition of enteral device connectors to become specific for enteral nutrition use, which will affect patients who receive HEN...
April 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435048/morella-serrata-lam-killick-stabilizes-biomembrane-and-rejuvenates-sexual-competence-in-male-wistar-rats
#8
S Sabiu, Aot Ashafa
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Morella serrata L. is an indigenous medicinal plant to South and southern Africa with folkloric applications as aphrodisiac, laxative, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-hypertensive, antitussive and antidiabetic agent. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study evaluated the membrane stabilization and aphrodisiac potentials of its aqueous root extract in male Wistar rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: While the membrane stabilization of the extract was investigated against bovine erythrocytes (BE), the male rats for the aphrodisiac study were randomized into five groups with animals in group 1 given sterile placebo and served as control...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424855/analysis-of-multiple-soybean-phytonutrients-by-near-infrared-reflectance-spectroscopy
#9
Gaoyang Zhang, Penghui Li, Wenfei Zhang, Jian Zhao
Improvement of the nutritional quality of soybean is usually facilitated by a vast range of soybean germplasm with enough information about their multiple phytonutrients. In order to acquire this essential information from a huge number of soybean samples, a rapid analytic method is urgently required. Here, a nondestructive near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) method was developed for rapid and accurate measurement of 25 nutritional components in soybean simultaneously, including fatty acids palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid, vitamin E (VE), α-VE, γ-VE, δ-VE, saponins, isoflavonoids, and flavonoids...
April 19, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422588/alterations-in-redox-homeostasis-during-recovery-from-unexplained-underperformance-syndrome-in-an-elite-international-rower
#10
Nathan A Lewis, Ann Redgrave, Mark Homer, Richard Burden, Wendy Martinson, Brian Moore, Charles R Pedlar
PURPOSE: This case study of an international rower examines a diagnosis of Unexplained Under Performance Syndrome (UUPS or Overtraining Syndrome) describing a full recovery and return to elite competition the same year. METHODS: On diagnosis and 4 and 14 months post-diagnosis, detailed assessments including physiological, nutritional, and biomarkers were made. RESULTS: Clinical examination and laboratory results for haematology, biochemistry, thyroid function, immunology, vitamins and minerals were unremarkable and did not explain the presentation and diagnosis...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409935/assessment-of-two-solid-anaerobic-digestate-soil-amendments-for-effects-on-soil-quality-and-biosolarization-efficacy
#11
Jesús D Fernández-Bayo, Yigal Achmon, Duff R Harrold, Dlinka G McCurry, Katie Hernandez, Ruth M Dahlquist-Willard, James J Stapleton, Jean S VanderGheynst, Christopher W Simmons
Anaerobic digestion is an organic waste bioconversion process that produces biofuel and digestates. Digestates have potential to be applied as soil amendment to improve properties for crop production including phytonutrient content and pest load. Our objective was to assess the impact of solid anaerobic digestates on weed seed inactivation and soil quality upon soil biosolarization (a pest control technique that combines solar heating and amendment-induced microbial activity). Two solid digestates from thermophilic (TD) and mesophilic (MD) digesters were tested...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390713/host-mediated-effects-of-phytonutrients-in-ruminants-a-review
#12
J Oh, E H Wall, D M Bravo, A N Hristov
Plants produce an extensive array of organic compounds derived from secondary metabolism that may be useful in animal nutrition because of their chemical makeup. These plant-derived bioactive compounds, also referred to as phytonutrients (PN) or phytobiotics, have been shown to express antimicrobial activities against a wide range of bacteria, yeast, and fungi and have been investigated as rumen modifiers in ruminant nutrition. Studies have reported that PN may inhibit deamination of AA and methanogenesis in the rumen and shift fermentation toward propionate and butyrate...
July 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350517/anti-inflammatory-diet-in-clinical-practice
#13
Mari Anoushka Ricker, William Christian Haas
Recently, there has been an increase in the research regarding the impact of acute and chronic inflammation on health and disease. Specific foods are now known to exert strong effects on inflammatory pathways within the body. Carefully selecting foods that are anti-inflammatory in nature while avoiding foods that are proinflammatory is central to an anti-inflammatory diet plan. Ultimately, the plan models a pattern of eating that (1) focuses on eating whole, plant-based foods that are rich in healthy fats and phytonutrients and (2) maintains a stable glycemic response...
March 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224159/rice-bran-constituents-immunomodulatory-and-therapeutic-activities
#14
REVIEW
Ho-Young Park, Kwang-Won Lee, Hee-Don Choi
Rice bran, one of the most abundant and valuable byproducts produced during the rice milling process, is of steadily growing interest in recent years due to its potential health benefits. Evidence is rapidly accumulating for the beneficial effects of nutraceuticals. However, the potential benefits of rice bran are found in several of its bioactive ingredients including oils, polysaccharides, proteins, and micronutrients. In addition, a significant advantage of rice bran is that it contains more than 100 antioxidants and several categories of bioactive phytonutrients, such as polyphenols, phytosterols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, B vitamins, minerals, and trace minerals...
February 22, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202018/de-novo-biosynthesis-of-pterostilbene-in-an-escherichia-coli-strain-using-a-new-resveratrol-o-methyltransferase-from-arabidopsis
#15
Kyung Taek Heo, Sun-Young Kang, Young-Soo Hong
BACKGROUND: Pterostilbene, a structural analog of resveratrol, has higher oral bioavailability and bioactivity than that of the parent compound; but is far less abundant in natural sources. Thus, to efficiently obtain this bioactive resveratrol analog, it is necessary to develop new bioproduction systems. RESULTS: We identified a resveratrol O-methyltransferase (ROMT) function from a multifunctional caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) originating from Arabidopsis, which catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group to resveratrol resulting in pterostilbene production...
February 15, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091970/comparison-of-two-adsorbent-based-de-bittering-procedures-for-neem-azadirachta-indica-a-juss-tea-effect-on-polyphenols-anti-oxidant-capacity-color-and-volatile-profile
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Abhinandya Datta, Ingolf U Grün, Misha T Kwasniewski, Lakdas N Fernando
Bitterness reduction, especially of foods and beverages containing phytonutrients, is one of the biggest challenges in the food industry because bitterness has a deleterious effect on the taste profile of foods and beverages. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) is a medicinal tree, indigenous to the Indian-subcontinent, whose medicinal properties have led to it being heralded as the tree which is the "panacea for all diseases". However, neem leaf is extremely bitter, in large part due to its limonoid content, making it unpalatable...
March 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074411/biomass-and-terpenoids-produced-by-mutant-strains-of-arthrospira-under-low-temperature-and-light-conditions
#17
Jian Guan, Songdong Shen, Hao Wu, Xin Liu, Weijie Shen, Yuan He, R Duan
The filamentous Cyanobacterium Arthrospira is commercially produced and is a functional, high-value, health food. We identified 5 low temperature and low light intensity tolerant strains of Arthrospira sp. (GMPA1, GMPA7, GMPB1, GMPC1, and GMPC3) using ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis and low temperature screening. The 5 Arthrospira strains grew rapidly below 14 °C, 43.75 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) and performed breed conservation at 2.5 °C, 8.75 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1). We used morphological identification and molecular genetic analysis to identify GMPA1, GMPA7, GMPB1 and GMPC1 as Arthrospira platensis, while GMPC3 was identified as Arthrospira maxima...
February 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040679/morphological-observation-rna-seq-quantification-and-expression-profiling-novel-insight-into-grafting-responsive-carotenoid-biosynthesis-in-watermelon-grafted-onto-pumpkin-rootstock
#18
Guang Liu, Xingping Yang, Jinhua Xu, Man Zhang, Qian Hou, Lingli Zhu, Ying Huang, Aisheng Xiong
Watermelon is an important and economical horticultural crop in China, where ~20% of the plants are grafted. The development of grafted watermelon fruit involves a diverse range of gene interactions that results in dynamic changes in fruit. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying grafting-induced fruit quality change are unclear. In the present study, we measured the lycopene content by high-performance liquid chromatography and used RNA-Seq (quantification) to perform a genome-wide transcript analysis of fruits from watermelon grafted onto pumpkin rootstock (pumpkin-grafted watermelon, PGW), self-grafted watermelon (SGW), and non-grafted watermelon (NGW)...
March 1, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005447/gynostemma-pentaphyllum-ethanolic-extract-protects-against-memory-deficits-in-an-mptp-lesioned-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-treated-with-l-dopa
#19
Kyung Sook Kim, Ting Ting Zhao, Keon Sung Shin, Hyun Jin Park, Yoon Jeong Cho, Kyung Eun Lee, Seung Hwan Kim, Myung Koo Lee
This study investigated the effects of ethanol extract from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GP-EX) on memory deficits in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-lesioned mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD) (MPTP-lesioned mice). MPTP (30 mg/kg/day, 5 days)-lesioned mice showed deficits of habit learning memory and spatial memory, which were further aggravated by treatment with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) (25 mg/kg, 21 days). However, treatment with GP-EX (50 mg/kg, 21 days) ameliorated memory deficits in MPTP-lesioned mice treated with L-DOPA (25 mg/kg): GP-EX prevented the decreases in retention latency time in the passive avoidance test and tyrosine hydroxylase-immunopositive cells and dopamine levels in the nigrostriatum...
January 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975625/phytonutrients-and-bioactive-compounds-in-the-leaves-of-solenostemon-monostachyus
#20
I S Afolabi, A F Jolaoluwa, V O Awogbindin, P T Amosun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Planta Medica
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