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Evgenia Stefanopoulou, David Lewis, Matthew Taylor, James Broscombe, Javid Ahmad, Jan Larkin
Digitally delivered interventions aim to make psychological treatments more widely accessible and minimize clinician input. Although their clinical efficacy against wait-list, control conditions is well established, comparative outcome studies are a much better way to examine if psychotherapies are equally effective. Such reviews are still relatively lacking. The aim of this review was therefore to evaluate the effectiveness of digitally delivered psychological therapies over traditionally delivered (face-to-face) ones to alleviate symptoms in adults experiencing sub-threshold and clinical depression...
April 14, 2018: Psychiatric Quarterly
Priti Gupta, Austin B Bigley, Melissa Markofski, Mitzi Laughlin, Emily C LaVoy
Natural Killer cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes that recognize and eliminate tumor cells. Exercise enhances NK cell cytotoxic activity (NKCA), yet the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Exercise-induced shifts in NK-cell subsets has been proposed as one mechanism. Alternatively, exercise alters stress hormone and cytokine levels, which are also known to affect NKCA. AIM: Determine the role(s) of exercise-induced shifts in the proportions of NK-cell subsets found in the blood, and changes in serum IL-2, IL-6, IL-12, IFN-γ, TNF-α and cortisol, on exercise-induced changes in NKCA...
April 12, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Ahmad Haeri Mazanderani, Faith Moyo, Tendesayi Kufa, Jean Maritz, Gayle G Sherman
We describe the extent of and variables associated with irreproducible HIV-1 PCR positive results within South Africa's Early Infant Diagnosis (EID) program from 2010 to 2015 and propose criteria for differentiating indeterminate from clearly positive results using the COBAS® AmpliPrep/COBAS® TaqMan HIV-1 Qualitative Test version 2.0 (CAP/CTM Qual v2.0). Fourteen percent of specimens with an instrument-positive result that were repeat-tested yielded a negative result for which cycle threshold (Ct) proved to be the only predictive variable...
March 3, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Daniel W Lin, E David Crawford, Thomas Keane, Brent Evans, Julia Reid, Saradha Rajamani, Krystal Brown, Alexander Gutin, Jonathan Tward, Peter Scardino, Michael Brawer, Steven Stone, Jack Cuzick
BACKGROUND: A combined clinical cell-cycle risk (CCR) score that incorporates prognostic molecular and clinical information has been recently developed and validated to improve prostate cancer mortality (PCM) risk stratification over clinical features alone. As clinical features are currently used to select men for active surveillance (AS), we developed and validated a CCR score threshold to improve the identification of men with low-risk disease who are appropriate for AS. METHODS: The score threshold was selected based on the 90th percentile of CCR scores among men who might typically be considered for AS based on NCCN low/favorable-intermediate risk criteria (CCR = 0...
April 11, 2018: Urologic Oncology
Rolf Loeber, Duncan B Clark, Lia Ahonen, Douglas FitzGerald, Elisa M Trucco, Robert A Zucker
To guide recruitment, the ABCD Study requires a method for identifying children at high risk for early-onset substance use that may be utilized during the recruitment process. This study was undertaken to inform the development of a brief screen for identifying youths' risk of early-onset substance use and other adverse outcomes. To be acceptable by participants in this context, consideration of potential items was limited to child characteristics previously determined to be potentially pertinent and parental cigarette smoking...
April 7, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Stephane Andanson, Isabelle Veissier, Max H Feinberg
Many biological studies seek to confirm the effect of a treatment on the levels of chemical markers in biological tissues. This requires choosing the analytical method best able to detect the difference between basal levels and those found after treatment. We propose a new approach to calculate a criterion we call the 'discrimination threshold' (DT), and we applied it to an analytical method that we developed to determine cortisol in cattle plasma to detect stress. DT is derived from the measurement uncertainty (MU), and combines the variabilities of both the analytical method and the marker...
August 22, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Denise Laskowski, Göran Andersson, Patrice Humblot, Marc-André Sirard, Ylva Sjunnesson, Christina R Ferreira, Valentina Pirro, Renée Båge
Insulin is a key hormone with important functions in energy metabolism and is involved in the regulation of reproduction. Hyperinsulinaemia is known to impair fertility (for example, in obese mothers); therefore, we aimed to investigate the impact of elevated insulin concentrations during the sensitive period of oocyte maturation on gene expression and lipid profiles of the bovine Day-8 embryo. Two different insulin concentrations were used during in vitro oocyte maturation (INS10=10µgmL-1 and INS0.1=0.1µgmL-1) in order to observe possible dose-dependent effects or thresholds for hyperinsulinaemia in vitro...
April 16, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Wei-Qing Xu, Long-Quan Xu, De-Guang Qi, Tao Chen, Ya-Wei Liu, Lin-Fan Zhu
The differential cross sections and generalized oscillator strengths for the low-lying excitations of the valence-shell 1eg orbital electron in ethane have been measured for the first time at a high incident electron energy of 1500 eV and a scattering angular range of 1.5°-10°. A weak feature, termed X here, with a band center of about 7.5 eV has been observed, which was also announced by the previous experimental and theoretical studies. The dynamic behaviors of the generalized oscillator strengths for the 3s (8...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Julian Schwarz, Anne Berghöfer, Burkhart Brückner, Thomas Birker, Barbara Stöckigt
OBJECTIVE: Analysis of users experiences with a low-threshold psychosocial counselling and case management service across separate sectors (e. g., outpatient, inpatient) and legal provisions (e. g., V and XII Books of Social Code). METHODS: Nine semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed using content analysis. RESULTS: Several aspects of the users' experiences with counselling services have contributed towards their satisfaction with the service...
April 13, 2018: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
Xiaolong Wang, Yuegen Yan, Dawen Gao
Low-strength ammonium is still a challenge for the mainstream deammonification because of nitrate over-accumulation. In this study, the threshold of influent ammonium concentration of one-stage deammonification system with granular sludge was investigated, by stepwise decreasing influent ammonium from high concentrations (280mg/L to 140mg/L) to the low concentration (70mg/L) in 108d at 32°C without aeration. Results showed that, under 70mg/L NH4 + -N, ΔNO3 - -N/ΔNH4 + -N ratio increased to 0.2, deviated from the theoretical value of 0...
April 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Dragana Vukov, Miloš Ilić, Mirjana Ćuk, Snežana Radulović, Ružica Igić, Georg A Janauer
We hypothesize that the physical features of river habitats and anthropogenic hydromorphological alterations influence macrophyte communities and lead to habitat fragmentation. Sampling included 1081 contiguous survey units positioned in the main channel and side arms along 588km of the Danube River, along its middle course. To identify habitat fragments, Multivariate Regression Tree analysis (MRT) was applied on macrophyte and environmental data. Indicator species analyses were combined with MRT. To identify habitat fragments on a scale larger than final MRT groups, we set thresholds for an MRT complexity parameter...
April 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Choong Eun Jin, Bonhan Koo, Eun Yeong Lee, Ji Yeun Kim, Sung-Han Kim, Yong Shin
Diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms including bacteria and viruses can cause serious medical issues including death and result in huge economic losses. Despite the myriad of recent advances in the rapid and accurate detection of pathogens, large volume clinical samples with a low concentration of pathogens continue to present challenges for diagnosis and surveillance. We here report a simple and label-free approach via homobifunctional imidoesters (HIs) with a microfluidic platform (SLIM) to efficiently enrich and extract pathogens at low concentrations from clinical samples...
April 3, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Kinga K Borowicz-Reutt, Monika Popławska, Monika Banach, Dorota Wróblewska
BACKGROUND: The main mechanism of action of propafenone (antiarrhythmic drug) involves the inhibition of the fast inward sodium current during phase 0 of the action potential. Sodium channel-blocking activity is also characteristic for some antiepileptic drugs. Therefore, it could be assumed that propafenone may also affect seizures. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of propafenone on the protective effect of oxcarbazepine, lamotrigine, topiramate and pregabalin against the maximal electroshock-induced seizures in mice...
November 23, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Thomas P Reber, Bita Samimizad, Florian Mormann
Charting mental acts that succeed or fail under unconscious instances of cognition informs debates on the nature and potential functions of consciousness. A prominent method to exclude conscious contributions to cognition is to render visual stimuli unconscious by short and pattern-masked presentations. Here, we explore a combination of visual masking and pixel noise added to visual stimuli as a method to adapt discriminability in a fine-grained fashion to subject- and stimulus-specific estimates of perceptual thresholds...
April 10, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Weifu Chen, Mingquan Lin, Eli Gibson, Matthew Bastian-Jordan, Derek W Cool, Zahra Kassam, Huageng Liang, Guocan Feng, Aaron D Ward, Bernard Chiu
Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) has been established as the state-of-the-art examination for the detection and localization of prostate cancer lesions. Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) has been established as a scheme to standardize the reporting of mpMRI findings. Although lesion delineation and PI-RADS ratings could be performed manually, human delineation and ratings are subjective and time-consuming. In this article, we developed and validated a self-tuned graph-based model for PI-RADS rating prediction...
April 3, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Przemysław Kubiak
The presented study considers a Subcompact Car Class in a new non-linear method utilising the work W of car deformation defined as an algebraic function of deformation ratio Cs. In order to develop the experimental data, the method of variable correlation is utilised. Data from the NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) database comprising numerous frontal crash tests are used for the determination of mathematical model parameters. In the non-linear method used up until now, the so-called energetic approach, collisions are treated as non-elastic...
March 27, 2018: Forensic Science International
Vassilios Papaleonidopoulos, Costas Papatheodoropoulos
The hippocampus is a functionally heterogeneous structure with the cognitive and emotional signal processing ascribed to the dorsal (DH) and the ventral hippocampus (VH) respectively. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Noradrenaline is released in hippocampus during emotional arousal modulating synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation through activation of β adrenergic receptors (β-ARs). Using recordings of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials from the CA1 field of adult rat hippocampal slices we demonstrate that long-term potentiation (LTP) induced either by theta-burst stimulation (TBS) that mimics a physiological firing pattern of hippocampal neurons or by high-frequency stimulation is remarkably more sensitive to β-AR activation in VH than in DH...
April 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Fang Wang, Xu Ding, Jinglu Zhang, Xiaomeng Song, Yunong Wu, Peter Svensson, Kelun Wang
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the somatosensory changes at the forearm donor region after using different types of modified flap surgical techniques. METHODS: Thirty-one patients, who underwent oral and maxillofacial reconstructive surgery involving the use of a traditional radial forearm flap (TRFF) or two modified radial forearm flap techniques (MRFF-I; MRFF-II), participated in the study. Cold detection threshold (CDT), warm detection threshold (WDT), cold pain threshold (CPT), heat pain threshold (HPT), pressure pain threshold (PPT), mechanical detection threshold (MDT), and mechanical pain threshold (MPT) were assessed at four sites of the forearms corresponding to the middle of the vascular pedicle (VP) area, the middle of the forearm flap area, and the corresponding contralateral sites (cVP and cFF) at about 5...
April 10, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
George M Varghese, Veera Manikandan Rajagopal, Paul Trowbridge, Divya Purushothaman, Sherry Joseph Martin
OBJECTIVES: Serology detecting IgM antibodies is the most widely used test to diagnose scrub typhus infection. However, kinetics of IgM and IgG antibodies post-infection remains elusive which could contribute to false positivity. The objective of this study is to document the nature of evolution of these antibody titers after infection. METHODS: Adult patients previously confirmed to have scrub typhus using IgM ELISA or positive PCR or both were included in this cross-sectional study...
April 10, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Camille Chatelle, Solveig L Hauger, Charlotte Martial, Frank Becker, Bernd Eifert, Dana Boering, Joseph T Giacino, Steven Laureys, Marianne Løvstad, Petra Maurer-Karattup
OBJECTIVE: Investigate the relationship between consciousness and nociceptive responsiveness (i.e., Nociception Coma Scale-Revised [NCS-R]), examine the suitability of the NCS-R for assessing nociception in participants with disorders of consciousness (DoC) and replicate previous findings on psychometric properties of the scale. DESIGN: We prospectively assessed consciousness with the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R). Responses during baseline, non-noxious and noxious stimulations were scored with the NCS-R, CRS-R oromotor and motor subscales...
April 10, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
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