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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031094/risk-assessment-of-dietary-lead-exposure-among-first-nations-people-living-on-reserve-in-ontario-canada-using-a-total-diet-study-and-a-probabilistic-approach
#1
Amanda K Juric, Malek Batal, Will David, Donald Sharp, Harold Schwartz, Amy Ing, Karen Fediuk, Andrew Black, Constantine Tikhonov, Hing Man Chan, Laurie Chan
Indigenous peoples have elevated risk of lead (Pb) exposure as hunted traditional food can be contaminated with lead-containing ammunition. Recent scientific consensus states that there is no threshold level for Pb exposure. The objective of this study was to estimate dietary exposure to Pb among First Nations living on-reserve in the province of Ontario, Canada. A total diet study was constructed based on a 24-h recall and Pb concentrations for traditional foods from the First Nations Food, Nutrition, and Environment Study (FNFNES) and Pb concentrations in market foods from Health Canada...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029300/flight-activity-and-field-infestation-relationships-for-coffee-berry-borer-in-commercial-coffee-plantations-in-kona-and-kau-districts-hawaii
#2
Luis F Aristizábal, Suzanne Shriner, Robert Hollingsworth, Steven Arthurs
The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is a recent invader to Hawaii. To date, limited information regarding the seasonal phenology of this pest on the islands limits the implementation of integrated control strategies. As part of a coffee farmer training program, we monitored CBB flight activity in 15 coffee plantations (Kona and Kau Districts) over 10 mo with methanol-ethanol (3:1 ratio) baited traps. Concurrently, we quantified CBB infestation and penetration rates inside developing coffee berries through the end of harvest...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029283/trajectories-of-cardiorespiratory-fitness-in-patients-with-juvenile-dermatomyositis
#3
Kiki J Blom, Tim Takken, Barbara C H Huijgen, Judith Wienke, Annet van Royen-Kerkhof, Marco van Brussel
Objectives: Previous research demonstrated decreased cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in patients with JDM during active disease and remission. However, longitudinal data regarding trajectories of CRF are currently lacking. The objective of this study was to determine trajectories of CRF in patients with both monocyclic and chronic JDM, and to identify potential predictors of these trajectories. Methods: Thirty-six patients with JDM [median age (interquartile range) at diagnosis: 8...
September 27, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029267/evaluation-of-universal-versus-genotype-guided-efavirenz-dose-reduction-in-pregnant-women-using-population-pharmacokinetic-modelling
#4
Adeniyi Olagunju, Alessandro Schipani, Oluseye Bolaji, Saye Khoo, Andrew Owen
Objectives: Lack of data on the pharmacokinetics of efavirenz in pregnant women at the 400 mg reduced dose currently prevents universal roll-out. Population pharmacokinetic modelling was used to explore pharmacokinetic endpoints at 200, 400 and 600 mg daily doses in pregnant women stratified by CYP2B6 metabolic status. Methods: The analysis was based on 252 plasma efavirenz concentrations from 77 pregnant women (77 sparse, 175 intensive) who received antiretroviral regimens containing 600 mg of efavirenz...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029182/overlapping-surgeries-are-not-associated-with-worse-patient-outcomes-retrospective-multivariate-analysis-of-14-872-neurosurgical-cases-performed-at-a-single-institution
#5
Michael A Bohl, Michael A Mooney, John P Sheehy, Abigail M Cantwell, Steve W Chang, Kristina M Chapple, U Kumar Kakarla, Robert F Spetzler
BACKGROUND: Overlapping surgeries have recently become a controversial topic. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of overlapping surgeries on patient outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all neurosurgical procedures performed at a single institution from July 2013 to May 2016 was conducted. Variables extracted from the electronic medical records included sex, age, procedure type, resident years of training, evening case, emergency case, American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status Score, illness severity, mortality risk, and percentage of case overlap...
September 27, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029153/modeling-the-environmental-suitability-for-aedes-stegomyia-aegypti-and-aedes-stegomyia-albopictus-diptera-culicidae-in-the-contiguous-united-states
#6
Tammi L Johnson, Ubydul Haque, Andrew J Monaghan, Lars Eisen, Micah B Hahn, Mary H Hayden, Harry M Savage, Janet McAllister, John-Paul Mutebi, Rebecca J Eisen
The mosquitoes Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.)(Diptera:Culicidae) and Ae. (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera:Culicidae) transmit dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses and represent a growing public health threat in parts of the United States where they are established. To complement existing mosquito presence records based on discontinuous, non-systematic surveillance efforts, we developed county-scale environmental suitability maps for both species using maximum entropy modeling to fit climatic variables to county presence records from 1960-2016 in the contiguous United States...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029049/intraoperative-naloxone-reduces-remifentanil-induced-postoperative-hyperalgesia-but-not-pain-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
C-H Koo, S Yoon, B-R Kim, Y J Cho, T K Kim, Y Jeon, J-H Seo
Background: Intraoperative use of a high-dose remifentanil may induce postoperative hyperalgesia. Low-dose naloxone can selectively reverse some adverse effects of opioids without compromising analgesia. We thus hypothesized that the intraoperative use of a high-dose remifentanil combined with a low-dose naloxone infusion reduces postoperative hyperalgesia compared with the use of remifentanil alone. Methods: Patients undergoing elective thyroid surgery were randomly assigned into one of three groups, depending on the intraoperative effect-site concentration of remifentanil, with or without a continuous infusion of naloxone: 4 ng ml-1 remifentanil with 0...
October 3, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029013/an-empirical-bayes-approach-for-multiple-tissue-eqtl-analysis
#8
Gen Li, Andrey A Shabalin, Ivan Rusyn, Fred A Wright, Andrew B Nobel
Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses identify genetic markers associated with the expression of a gene. Most up-to-date eQTL studies consider the connection between genetic variation and expression in a single tissue. Multi-tissue analyses have the potential to improve findings in a single tissue, and elucidate the genotypic basis of differences between tissues. In this article, we develop a hierarchical Bayesian model (MT-eQTL) for multi-tissue eQTL analysis. MT-eQTL explicitly captures patterns of variation in the presence or absence of eQTL, as well as the heterogeneity of effect sizes across tissues...
September 25, 2017: Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028870/an-assessment-on-the-uncertainty-of-the-nitrogen-to-phosphorus-ratio-as-a-threshold-for-nutrient-limitation-in-plants
#9
Zhengbing Yan, Di Tian, Wenxuan Han, Zhiyao Tang, Jingyun Fang
Background and Aims: The nitrogen (N) to phosphorus (P) ratio (N:P) has been widely used as a threshold for identifying nutrient limitations in terrestrial plants; however, the associated reliability has not been well assessed. Methods: The uncertainty of nutrient limitations caused by the N:P threshold was evaluated using two approaches: fertilization experiments synthesized across multiple ecosystems; and random sampling simulation of the impacts of different nutrient sufficiencies and deficiencies...
September 19, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028737/resting-pd-pa-and-haemodynamic-relevance-of-coronary-stenosis-as-evaluated-by-fractional-flow-reserve
#10
Giuseppe De Luca, Monica Verdoia, Lucia Barbieri, Paolo Marino, Harry Suryapranata
BACKGROUND: Fractional flow reserve (FFR) currently represents the gold standard in the evaluation of the haemodynamic relevance of coronary stenoses. However, both intracoronary and intravenous adenosine may be tolerated poorly by some patients. Therefore, considerable interest had been focused in the last few years on new adenosine-free indexes to define the haemodynamic relevance of coronary stenoses. So far, few data have been reported on resting Pd/Pa and its correlation with FFR as evaluated with high-dose intracoronary adenosine administration, which is the aim of the current study...
October 12, 2017: Coronary Artery Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028682/current-and-projected-burden-of-disease-from-high-ambient-temperature-in-korea
#11
Soo Eun Chung, Hae-Kwan Cheong, Jae-Hyun Park, Jong-Hun Kim, Hyunjin Han
BACKGROUND: The objective of the present study was to estimate the current and projected burden of disease from high ambient temperature using population-based data sources of nationwide mortality and morbidity in Korea. METHODS: Disability-adjusted life years (DALY) were estimated using noninjury-related deaths, and cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases from recently released nationwide health and mortality databases. Years of life lost and years lost due to disability were measured based on the point prevalence and number of deaths during the study period...
October 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028629/a-dual-energy-micro-ct-methodology-for-visualization-and-quantification-of-biofilm-formation-and-dentin-demineralization
#12
Paula Maciel Pires, Thais Pires Dos Santos, Andrea Fonseca-Gonçalves, Matheus Melo Pithon, Ricardo Tadeu Lopes, Aline de Almeida Neves
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to induce artificial caries in human sound dentin by means of a microcosm model using human saliva as source of bacteria and to apply a novel dual-energy micro-CT technique to quantify biofilm formation and evaluate its demineralization potential. DESIGN: Eight sound third molars had the occlusal enamel removed by cutting with a diamond disk and five cylindrical cavities (±2mm diameter; ±1.5mm depth) were prepared over the dentin surface in each specimen (n=40 cavities)...
October 7, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028626/accuracy-of-three-methods-in-gait-event-detection-during-overground-running
#13
Shiwei Mo, Daniel H K Chow
Inertial measurement units (IMUs) have been extensively used to detect gait events. Various methods have been proposed for detecting initial contact (IC) and toe-off (TO) using IMUs affixed at various anatomical locations. However, the accuracy of such methods has yet to be compared. This study evaluated the accuracy of three common methods used for detecting gait events during jogging and running: (1) S-method, in which IC is identified as the instant of peak foot-resultant acceleration and TO is identified when the acceleration exceeds a threshold of 2g in the region of interest; (2) M-method, in which IC and TO are defined as the minimum before the positive peak shank vertical acceleration and the minimum in the region of interest, respectively; and (3) L-method, in which IC is indicated by the instant of peak pelvis anteroposterior acceleration and TO is identified by the maximum in the region of interest...
October 6, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028578/obstetric-early-warning-score-in-scandinavia-a-survey-of-midwives-use-of-systematic-monitoring-in-parturients
#14
Catrine Carlstein, Elin Helland, Kim Wildgaard
OBJECTIVE: systematic monitoring has recently been implemented widely in non-obstetric departments. In the UK, Early Warning Score (EWS) systems specifically designed for the obstetric population (OEWS) are used. No information on the use of OEWS in Scandinavia has been reported. Consequently, we wanted to investigate the use of vital signs and attitude towards systematic monitoring of parturients in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. DESIGN: electronic questionnaires sent to heads of midwifery...
September 23, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028403/laser-ion-mobility-spectrometry-in-the-detection-of-ultra-low-quantities-of-explosives
#15
A E Akmalov, A A Chistyakov, G E Kotkovskii, I L Martynov, E M Spitsin
The paper presents the results of research and development of ion mobility spectrometer with laser ion sources for detecting ultra-low quantities of explosives in air. Particular attention is paid to the mechanisms of the formation of negative ions. It is shown that laser ionization with respect to ion mobility spectrometry provides an increase of sensitivity and selectivity of detection. The ion mobility spectra of the most common nitro explosives are investigated. The detection threshold for laser ion mobility spectrometer was reached at the level of 10(-14 )g/cm(3) (for trinitrotoluene)...
August 2017: European Journal of Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028396/laser-stimulated-desorption-of-organic-molecules-from-surfaces-as-a-method-of-increasing-the-efficiency-of-ion-mobility-spectrometry-analysis
#16
Artem E Akmalov, Alexander A Chistyakov, Gennadii E Kotkovskii
Application of laser-induced desorption was investigated as a method of increasing the efficiency of gas phase analyzers on principles of field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry. Mass spectrometric data of investigations of laser desorption of pentaerythritoltetranitrate molecules and cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine molecules from quartz substrate under vacuum were obtained. Laser sources a Nd(3+):YAG with nanosecond pulse duration (λ = 532 nm) and a continuous wave diode laser (λ = 440 nm) were used...
August 2017: European Journal of Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028302/high-ion-exchange-capacity-semi-homogeneous-cation-exchange-membranes-prepared-via-a-novel-polymerization-and-sulfonation-approach-in-porous-polypropylene
#17
Shanxue Jiang, Bradley P Ladewig
Semi-homogeneous cation exchange membranes with superior ion exchange capacity (IEC) were synthesized via a novel polymerization and sulfonation approach in porous polypropylene support. The IEC of membranes could reach up to 3 mmol/g, due to high mass ratio of functional polymer to membrane support. Especially, theoretical IEC threshold value agreed well with experimental threshold value, indicating that IEC could be specifically designed without carrying out extensive experiments. Also, sulfonate groups were distributed both on membrane surface and across the membranes, which corresponded well with high IEC of the synthesized membranes...
October 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028295/generation-and-characterization-of-a-meta-aryne-on-cu-and-nacl-surfaces
#18
Niko Pavliček, Zsolt Majzik, Sara Collazos, Gerhard Meyer, Dolores Pérez, Enrique Guitian, Diego Peña, Leo Gross
We describe the generation of a meta-aryne at low temperature (T = 5 K) using atomic manipulation on Cu(111) and on bilayer NaCl on Cu(111). We observe different voltage thresholds for dehalogenation of the precursor and different reaction products depending on the substrate surface. The chemical structure is resolved by AFM with CO-terminated tips revealing the radical positions and confirming a diradical rather than an anti-Bredt olefin structure for this meta-aryne on NaCl.
October 13, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028251/monitoring-surface-contamination-by-antineoplastic-drugs-in-italian-hospitals-performance-based-hygienic-guidance-values-hgvs-project
#19
Cristina Sottani, Elena Grignani, Enrico Oddone, Beatrice Dezza, Sara Negri, Simona Villani, Danilo Cottica
Antineoplastic drugs (ADs) will continue to represent a potential risk for personnel involved in the handling of these compounds and great concerns have been raised by the presence of ADs in many surveyed workplaces. Eight hospitals were investigated by means of wipe sampling for surface residue determination. Each wipe sample was tested for five ADs considered suitable exposure markers. Cyclophosphamide (CP), gemcitabine (GEM), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), platinum-containing drugs (Pt), and epi-doxorubicin (EPI) contamination levels were measured in 85 per cent of the studied pharmacies and 93 per cent of outpatient care units (OpCUs)...
October 1, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028185/time-varying-time-frequency-complexity-measures-for-epileptic-eeg-data-analysis
#20
Marcelo A Colominas, Mohamad El Sayed Hussein Jomaa, Nisrine Jrad, Anne Humeau-Heurtier, Patrick Van Bogaert
OBJECTIVE: Our goal is to use existing and to propose new time-frequency entropy measures that objectively evaluate the improvement on epileptic patients after medication by studying their resting state EEG recordings. An increase in the complexity of the signals would confirm an improvement in the general state of the patient. METHODS: We review the Rényi entropy based on time-frequency representations, along with its time-varying version. We also discuss the entropy based on singular value decomposition computed from a time-frequency representation, and introduce its corresponding time-dependant version...
October 11, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
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