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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212519/early-calibration-of-the-hpa-axis-by-maternal-psychopathology
#1
Heidemarie Laurent
Given the central role of stress-responsive neurophysiology in mental and physical health, it is important to understand how particular patterns of stress responsivity may become entrained by the early caregiving environment. In this study we investigated links between maternal depression and anxiety symptom profiles and within-infant development of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses from 6 to 18 months of life. Associations with infant cognitive and social-emotional development were also tested to gauge the adjustment implications of HPA response trajectories...
February 1, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212415/aflatoxin-exposure-during-the-first-36-months-of-life-was-not-associated-with-impaired-growth-in-nepalese-children-an-extension-of-the-mal-ed-study
#2
Nicole J Mitchell, Hui-Husan Hsu, Ram Krishna Chandyo, Binob Shrestha, Ladaporn Bodhidatta, Yu-Kang Tu, Yun-Yun Gong, Patricia A Egner, Manjeswori Ulak, John D Groopman, Felicia Wu
Exposure to aflatoxin, a mycotoxin common in many foods, has been associated with child growth impairment in sub-Saharan Africa. To improve our understanding of growth impairment in relation to aflatoxin and other risk factors, we assessed biospecimens collected in Nepalese children at 15, 24, and 36 months of age for aflatoxin exposure. Children (N = 85) enrolled in the Bhaktapur, Nepal MAL-ED study encompassed the cohort analysed in this study. Exposure was assessed through a plasma biomarker of aflatoxin exposure: the AFB1-lysine adduct...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212389/application-of-calibrated-forceps-for-assessing-mechanical-nociception-with-high-time-resolution-in-mice
#3
Hideki Kashiwadani, Yuichi Kanmura, Tomoyuki Kuwaki
In order to investigate the basic physiological mechanisms of pain and the anti-nociceptive effects of analgesics, development of pain assays in mice is critical due to the advances of genetic manipulation techniques. The von Frey hairs/Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments test (von Frey test) has long been applied to examine mechanical nociception in mice. Though the von Frey test is a well-established and standardized method, it is inappropriate to assess a rapid change in the nociceptive threshold because voluntary resting/sleeping states are necessary to examine the response...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212328/differential-characteristics-based-iterative-multiuser-detection-for-wireless-sensor-networks
#4
Xiaoguang Chen, Xu Jiang, Zhilu Wu, Shufeng Zhuang
High throughput, low latency and reliable communication has always been a hot topic for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in various applications. Multiuser detection is widely used to suppress the bad effect of multiple access interference in WSNs. In this paper, a novel multiuser detection method based on differential characteristics is proposed to suppress multiple access interference. The proposed iterative receive method consists of three stages. Firstly, a differential characteristics function is presented based on the optimal multiuser detection decision function; then on the basis of differential characteristics, a preliminary threshold detection is utilized to find the potential wrongly received bits; after that an error bit corrector is employed to correct the wrong bits...
February 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212325/a-low-g-silicon-inertial-micro-switch-with-enhanced-contact-effect-using-squeeze-film-damping
#5
Yingchun Peng, Zhiyu Wen, Dongling Li, Zhengguo Shang
Contact time is one of the most important properties for inertial micro-switches. However, it is usually less than 20 μs for the switch with rigid electrode, which is difficult for the external circuit to recognize. This issue is traditionally addressed by designing the switch with a keep-close function or flexible electrode. However, the switch with keep-close function requires an additional operation to re-open itself, causing inconvenience for some applications wherein repeated monitoring is needed. The switch with a flexible electrode is usually fabricated by electroplating technology, and it is difficult to realize low-g switches (<50 g) due to inherent fabrication errors...
February 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212266/individual-patterns-in-blood-borne-indicators-of-fatigue-trait-or-chance
#6
Ross Julian, Tim Meyer, Hugh H K Fullagar, Sabrina Skorski, Mark Pfeiffer, Michael Kellmann, Alexander Ferrauti, Anne Hecksteden
Julian, R, Meyer, T, Fullagar, HHK, Skorski, S, Pfeiffer, M, Kellmann, M, Ferrauti, A, and Hecksteden, A. Individual patterns in blood-borne indicators of fatigue-trait or chance. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 608-619, 2017-Blood-borne markers of fatigue such as creatine kinase (CK) and urea (U) are widely used to fine-tune training recommendations. However, predictive accuracy is low. A possible explanation for this dissatisfactory characteristic is the propensity of athletes to react to different patterns of fatigue indicators (e...
March 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212205/spontaneous-breathing-during-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-in-acute-respiratory-failure
#7
Stefania Crotti, Nicola Bottino, Giulia Maria Ruggeri, Elena Spinelli, Daniela Tubiolo, Alfredo Lissoni, Alessandro Protti, Luciano Gattinoni
BACKGROUND: We evaluate the clinical feasibility of spontaneous breathing on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and the interactions between artificial and native lungs in patients bridged to lung transplant or with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or acute respiratory distress syndrome. METHODS: The clinical course of a total of 48 patients was analyzed. Twenty-three of 48 patients were enrolled in the prospective study (nine bridged to lung transplant, six COPD, and eight acute respiratory distress syndrome)...
February 17, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212159/liver-allocation-and-distribution-time-for-a-change
#8
Ranjit Deshpande, Ryutaro Hirose, David Mulligan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Liver allograft allocation has been a topic of hot debate for over a decade. New redistricting changes have been proposed by the Liver and Intestinal Transplant Committee to the existing United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) liver allocation policy. The basis of this new proposal is similar to the old one with an aim to distribute organs in a fair, efficient and equitable fashion. In this review, we plan to look in depth at the redistribution proposals thus far, their merits and how they may help patients who do not have adequate access to livers...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212103/simulation-of-healing-threshold-in-strain-induced-inflammation-through-a-discrete-informatics-model
#9
Israr Ibrahim, Sanjay Venkata Oruganti, Ramana Pidaparti
Respiratory diseases such as asthma and acute respiratory distress syndrome as well as acute lung injury involve inflammation at the cellular level. The inflammation process is very complex and is characterized by the emergence of cytokines along with other changes in cellular processes. Due to the complexity of the various constituents that makes up the inflammation dynamics, it is necessary to develop models that can complement experiments to fully understand inflammatory diseases. In this study, we developed a discrete informatics model based on cellular automata (CA) approach to investigate the influence of elastic field (stretch/strain) on the dynamics of inflammation and account for probabilistic adaptation based on statistical interpretation of existing experimental data...
February 15, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212100/homotopy-methods-based-on-l%C3%A2-norm-for-compressed-sensing
#10
Zhengshan Dong, Wenxing Zhu
This paper proposes two homotopy methods for solving the compressed sensing (CS) problem, which combine the homotopy technique with the iterative hard thresholding (IHT) method. The homotopy methods overcome the difficulty of the IHT method on the choice of the regularization parameter value, by tracing solutions of the regularized problem along a homotopy path. We prove that any accumulation point of the sequences generated by the proposed homotopy methods is a feasible solution of the problem. We also show an upper bound on the sparsity level for each solution of the proposed methods...
February 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212098/a-2-5-mw-ch-50-mcps-10-analog-channel-adaptively-biased-read-out-front-end-ic-with-low-intrinsic-timing-resolution-for-single-photon-time-of-flight-pet-applications-with-time-dependent-noise-analysis-in-90-nm-cmos
#11
Hugo Cruz, Hong-Yi Huang, Ching-Hsing Luo, Shuenn-Yuh Lee
This paper presents a 10-channel time-of-flight application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for positron emission tomography in a 90 nm standard CMOS process. To overcome variations in channel-to-channel timing resolution caused by mismatch and process variations, adaptive biases and a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) are utilized. The main contributions of this work are as follows. First, multistage architectures reduce the total power consumption, and detection bandwidths of analog preamplifiers and comparators are increased to 1 and 1...
February 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212092/modeling-contrast-imaging-assisted-optimal-targeted-drug-delivery-a-touchable-communication-channel-estimation-and-waveform-design-perspective
#12
Yifan Chen, Yu Zhou, Ross Murch, Panagiotis Kosmas
To maximize the effect of treatment and minimize the adverse effect on patients, we propose to optimize nanorobotsassisted targeted drug delivery (TDD) for locoregional treatment of tumor from the perspective of touchable communication channel estimation and waveform design. The drug particles are the information molecules; the loading/injection and unloading of the drug correspond to the transmitting and receiving processes; the concentration-time profile of the drug particles administered corresponds to the signalling pulse...
February 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211969/identifying-congruence-in-stream-assemblage-thresholds-in-response-to-nutrient-and-sediment-gradients-for-limit-setting
#13
Annika Wagenhoff, Joanne E Clapcott, Kelvin E M Lau, Gillian D Lewis, Roger G Young
The setting of numeric instream objectives (effects-based criteria) and catchment limits for major agricultural stressors, such as nutrients and fine sediment, is a promising policy instrument to prevent or reduce degradation of stream ecosystem health. We explored the suitability of assemblage thresholds, defined as a point at which a small increase in a stressor will result in a disproportionally large change in assemblage structure relative to other points across the stressor gradient, to inform instream nutrient and sediment objectives...
October 11, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211968/verse-guided-parallel-rf-excitations-using-dynamic-field-correction
#14
Mustafa Çavuşoğlu, Ronald Mooiweer, Klaas P Pruessmann, Shaihan J Malik
In parallel RF pulse design, peak RF magnitudes and specific absorption rate levels are critical concerns in the hardware and safety limits. The variable rate selective excitation (VERSE) method is an efficient technique to limit the peak RF power by applying a local-only RF and gradient waveform reshaping while retaining the on-resonance profile. The accuracy of the excitation performed by the VERSEd RF and gradient waveforms strictly depends on the performance of the employed hardware. Any deviation from the nominal gradient fields as a result of frequency dependent system imperfections violates the VERSE condition similarly to off-resonance effects, leading to significant excitation errors and the RF pulse not converging to the targeted peak RF power...
February 17, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211963/a-parametric-model-of-the-brain-vascular-system-for-estimation-of-the-arterial-input-function-aif-at-the-tissue-level
#15
Siamak P Nejad-Davarani, Hassan Bagher-Ebadian, James R Ewing, Douglas C Noll, Tom Mikkelsen, Michael Chopp, Quan Jiang
In this paper, we introduce a novel model of the brain vascular system, which is developed based on laws of fluid dynamics and vascular morphology. This model is used to address dispersion and delay of the arterial input function (AIF) at different levels of the vascular structure and to estimate the local AIF in DCE images. We developed a method based on the simplex algorithm and Akaike information criterion to estimate the likelihood of the contrast agent concentration signal sampled in DCE images belonging to different layers of the vascular tree or being a combination of different signal levels from different nodes of this structure...
February 17, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211708/direct-observation-of-spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-short-electron-bunches-in-storage-rings
#16
C Evain, E Roussel, M Le Parquier, C Szwaj, M-A Tordeux, J-B Brubach, L Manceron, P Roy, S Bielawski
In recent synchrotron radiation facilities, the use of short (picosecond) electron bunches is a powerful method for producing giant pulses of terahertz coherent synchrotron radiation. Here we report on the first direct observation of these pulse shapes with a few picoseconds resolution, and of their dynamics over a long time. We thus confirm in a very direct way the theories predicting an interplay between two physical processes. Below a critical bunch charge, we observe a train of identical THz pulses (a broadband Terahertz comb) stemming from the shortness of the electron bunches...
February 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211586/social-cognition-and-emotional-functioning-in-patients-with-binge-eating-disorder
#17
Matteo Aloi, Marianna Rania, Mariarita Caroleo, Pasquale De Fazio, Cristina Segura-García
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the theory of mind ability in a sample of obese patients with and without binge eating disorder (BED) and to explore the correlations between emotional and clinical assessments. METHODS: Overall, 20 non-BED, 16 under-threshold BED and 22 BED obese patients completed a battery of tests assessing social cognition and eating disorder psychopathology. RESULTS: Binge eating disorder, non-BED and under-threshold-BED obese patients showed similar ability to recognise others' emotions, but BED obese patients exhibited a deficit in recognising their own emotions as demonstrated by more impaired levels of alexithymia and interoceptive awareness and were more depressed...
February 17, 2017: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211470/transient-auditory-nerve-demyelination-as-a-new-mechanism-for-hidden-hearing-loss
#18
Guoqiang Wan, Gabriel Corfas
Hidden hearing loss (HHL) is a recently described auditory neuropathy believed to contribute to speech discrimination and intelligibility deficits in people with normal audiological tests. Animals and humans with HHL have normal auditory thresholds but defective cochlear neurotransmission, that is, reduced suprathreshold amplitude of the sound-evoked auditory nerve compound action potential. Currently, the only cellular mechanism known for HHL is loss of inner hair cell synapses (synaptopathy). Here we report that transient loss of cochlear Schwann cells results in permanent auditory deficits characteristic of HHL...
February 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211463/ecological-and-genetic-basis-of-metapopulation-persistence-of-the-glanville-fritillary-butterfly-in-fragmented-landscapes
#19
Ilkka Hanski, Torsti Schulz, Swee Chong Wong, Virpi Ahola, Annukka Ruokolainen, Sami P Ojanen
Ecologists are challenged to construct models of the biological consequences of habitat loss and fragmentation. Here, we use a metapopulation model to predict the distribution of the Glanville fritillary butterfly during 22 years across a large heterogeneous landscape with 4,415 small dry meadows. The majority (74%) of the 125 networks into which the meadows were clustered are below the extinction threshold for long-term persistence. Among the 33 networks above the threshold, spatial configuration and habitat quality rather than the pooled habitat area predict metapopulation size and persistence, but additionally allelic variation in a SNP in the gene Phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi) explains 30% of variation in metapopulation size...
February 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211273/sub-bandgap-voltage-electroluminescence-and-magneto-oscillations-in-a-wse2-light-emitting-van-der-waals-heterostructure
#20
Johannes Binder, Freddie Withers, Maciej R Molas, Clement Faugeras, Karol Nogajewski, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Aleksey Kozikov, Andre K Geim, Kostya S Novoselov, Marek Potemski
We report on experimental investigations of an electrically driven WSe2 based light-emitting van der Waals heterostructure. We observe a threshold voltage for electroluminescence significantly lower than the corresponding single particle band gap of monolayer WSe2. This observation can be interpreted by considering the Coulomb interaction and a tunneling process involving excitons, well beyond the picture of independent charge carriers. An applied magnetic field reveals pronounced magneto-oscillations in the electroluminescence of the free exciton emission intensity with a 1/B-periodicity...
February 17, 2017: Nano Letters
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