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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792305/sensory-analysis-of-characterising-flavours-evaluating-tobacco-product-odours-using-an-expert-panel
#1
Erna J Z Krüsemann, Marlou P Lasschuijt, C de Graaf, René A de Wijk, Pieter H Punter, Loes van Tiel, Johannes W J M Cremers, Suzanne van de Nobelen, Sanne Boesveldt, Reinskje Talhout
OBJECTIVES: Tobacco flavours are an important regulatory concept in several jurisdictions, for example in the USA, Canada and Europe. The European Tobacco Products Directive 2014/40/EU prohibits cigarettes and roll-your-own tobacco having a characterising flavour. This directive defines characterising flavour as 'a clearly noticeable smell or taste other than one of tobacco […]'. To distinguish between products with and without a characterising flavour, we trained an expert panel to identify characterising flavours by smelling...
May 23, 2018: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791259/a-pragmatic-trial-of-e-cigarettes-incentives-and-drugs-for-smoking-cessation
#2
Scott D Halpern, Michael O Harhay, Kathryn Saulsgiver, Christine Brophy, Andrea B Troxel, Kevin G Volpp
Background Whether financial incentives, pharmacologic therapies, and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) promote smoking cessation among unselected smokers is unknown. Methods We randomly assigned smokers employed by 54 companies to one of four smoking-cessation interventions or to usual care. Usual care consisted of access to information regarding the benefits of smoking cessation and to a motivational text-messaging service. The four interventions consisted of usual care plus one of the following: free cessation aids (nicotine-replacement therapy or pharmacotherapy, with e-cigarettes if standard therapies failed); free e-cigarettes, without a requirement that standard therapies had been tried; free cessation aids plus $600 in rewards for sustained abstinence; or free cessation aids plus $600 in redeemable funds, deposited in a separate account for each participant, with money removed from the account if cessation milestones were not met...
May 23, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789324/smoking-and-cutaneous-melanoma-findings-from-the-qskin-sun-and-health-cohort-study
#3
Jean Claude Dusingize, Catherine M Olsen, Nirmala Pandeya, Bridie S Thompson, Penelope M Webb, Adèle C Green, Rachel E Neale, David C Whiteman
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that smokers have lower risks of cutaneous melanoma than non-smokers, but data from population-based prospective studies are scarce. We investigated associations between smoking and melanoma in a cohort study purpose-designed to investigate skin cancer outcomes. METHODS: Participants with no prior history of melanoma (n=38,697) completed a risk factor survey at baseline (2011). Patients were followed through linkage to the cancer registry...
May 22, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789311/fda-tackles-underage-e-cigarette-use
#4
(no author information available yet)
In recent weeks, the FDA has taken steps to address underage use of e-cigarettes: The agency has identified and warned retailers selling to minors, issued warning letters to companies selling e-cigarette cartridges in adolescent-appealing packaging, and requested information from e-cigarette companies. The steps are part of the FDA's ongoing effort to prevent middle- and high-school students from using e-cigarette products.
May 22, 2018: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788802/acute-effects-of-inhaled-menthol-on-the-rewarding-effects-of-intravenous-nicotine-in-smokers
#5
Gerald W Valentine, Elise E DeVito, Peter I Jatlow, Ralitza Gueorguieva, Mehmet Sofuoglu
OBJECTIVE: This double-blind, placebo controlled study examined whether menthol inhaled from an electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) would change subjective and withdrawal alleviating effects of intravenous nicotine in young adult smokers. METHODS: A total of 32 menthol-preferring smokers and 25 non-menthol-preferring smokers participated in the study that consisted of a random sequence of three different inhaled menthol conditions (0.0%, 0.5%, and 3.2%) across three test sessions (a single menthol condition per session)...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788484/an-e-liquid-flavor-wheel-a-shared-vocabulary-based-on-systematically-reviewing-e-liquid-flavor-classifications-in-literature
#6
Erna Johanna Zegerina Krüsemann, Sanne Boesveldt, Kees de Graaf, Reinskje Talhout
Introduction: E-liquids are available in a high variety of flavors. A systematic classification of e-liquid flavors is necessary to increase comparability of research results. In the food, alcohol and fragrance industry, flavors are classified using flavor wheels. We systematically reviewed literature on flavors related to e-cigarette use, to investigate how e-liquid flavors have been classified in research, and propose an e-liquid flavor wheel to classify e-liquids based on marketing descriptions...
May 18, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788463/e-cigarette-science-and-its-relevance-for-regulatory-actions-and-policy
#7
Ray Niaura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788415/association-of-e-cigarette-use-with-oral-health-a-population-based-cross-sectional-questionnaire-study
#8
Priyanka Huilgol, Surya P Bhatt, Niranjan Biligowda, Nicole C Wright, J Michael Wells
Background: The impact of daily or intermittent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use on oral health is unknown. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional analysis using the 2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data. Poor oral health was determined by the number of permanent teeth removed due to non-traumatic causes, and e-cigarette use determined by daily or intermittent use within 30 days prior to survey administration. We performed logistic regression analysis to test associations between e-cigarette use and oral health with adjustment for factors associated with poor oral health, survey clustering, strata and weight...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788314/patterns-of-e-cigarette-use-among-youth-and-young-adults-review-of-the-impact-of-e-cigarettes-on-cigarette-smoking
#9
Allison Glasser, Haneen Abudayyeh, Jennifer Cantrell, Raymond Niaura
The present article provides a review of the impact of e-cigarette use on subsequent cigarette smoking among youth and YAs. Studies presented here suggest that e-cigarette use among non-smokers is associated with subsequent cigarette smoking, but study designs are subject to numerous limitations. Future research should focus on addressing the characteristics that put youth and YAs at risk of using either product and how appeal and accessibility of these products are related to product use in order to inform future policy-making...
May 17, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787465/predictive-factors-for-proliferative-vitreoretinopathy-formation-after-uncomplicated-primary-retinal-detachment-repair
#10
Kunyong Xu, Eric K Chin, Steven R Bennett, David F Williams, Edwin H Ryan, Sundeep Dev, Robert A Mittra, Polly A Quiram, John B Davies, David Wilkin Parke, Herbert Culver Boldt, David R P Almeida
PURPOSE: To determine predictive factors of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) formation after uncomplicated primary retinal detachment repair. METHODS: Retrospective, single-center, case-control study of 74 consecutive patients with (37 eyes) and without (37 eyes) PVR formation after undergoing uncomplicated primary surgery for retinal detachment repair. Logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with PVR formation. RESULTS: Retinal detachment involving the macula was 4...
May 21, 2018: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784894/self-reported-and-network-scale-up-estimates-of-substance-use-prevalence-among-university-students-in-kerman-iran
#11
Razieh Zahedi, Alireza Noroozi, Ahmad Hajebi, Ali Akbar Haghdoost, Mohammad Reza Baneshi, Hamid Sharifi, Ali Mirzazadeh
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of substance use among university students measured by direct and indirect methods, and to calculate the visibility factor (VF) defined as ratio of indirect to direct estimates of substance use prevalence. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. METHODS: Using a multistage non-random sampling approach, we recruited 2157 students from three universities in Kerman, Iran, in 2016. We collected data on substance use by individual face-to-face interview using direct (i...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Research in Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783674/smoking-topography-among-korean-smokers-intensive-smoking-behavior-with-larger-puff-volume-and-shorter-interpuff-interval
#12
Sungroul Kim, Sol Yu
The difference of smoker's topography has been found to be a function many factors, including sex, personality, nicotine yield, cigarette type (i.e., flavored versus non-flavored) and ethnicity. We evaluated the puffing behaviors of Korean smokers and its association with smoking-related biomarker levels. A sample of 300 participants was randomly recruited from metropolitan areas in South Korea. Topography measures during a 24-hour period were obtained using a CReSS pocket device. Korean male smokers smoked two puffs less per cigarette compared to female smokers (15...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780331/a-novel-murine-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-model-and-the-pathogenic-role-of-microrna-21
#13
Shengyang He, Liqiu Li, Shenghua Sun, Zhengpeng Zeng, Junjuan Lu, Lihua Xie
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a multi-pathogenesis chronic lung disease. The mechanisms underlying COPD have not been adequately illustrated. Many reseachers argue that microRNAs (miRs) could play a crucial role in COPD. The classic animal model of COPD is both time consuming and costly. This study proposes a novel mice COPD model and explores the role of miR-21 in COPD. A total of 50 wide-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice were separated into five euqlly-sized groups-(1) control group (CG), (2) the novel combined method group (NCM, cigarette smoke (CS) exposure for 28 days combined with cigarette smoke extract (CSE) intraperitoneal injection), (3) the short-term CS exposure group (SCSE, CS exposure for 28 days), (4) the CSE intraperitoneal injection group (CSEII, 28 days CSE intraperitoneal injection), and (5) the long-term CS exposure group (LCSE, CS exposure)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779261/better-diet-quality-is-associated-with-lower-odds-of-severe-periodontitis-in-us-hispanics-latinos
#14
Christian R Salazar, Nadia Laniado, Yasmin Mossavar-Rahmani, Luisa N Borrell, Qibin Qi, Daniela Sotres-Alvarez, Douglas E Morse, Richard H Singer, Robert C Kaplan, Victor Badner, Ira B Lamster
AIM: We investigated the cross-sectional association between diet quality and severe periodontitis in a sample of diverse Hispanics from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 13,920 Hispanic/Latinos aged 18-74 years of different heritages underwent a full-mouth oral examination and completed two 24hr dietary recalls during 2008-2011. Severe periodontitis was defined as having ≥30% tooth sites with clinical attachment loss ≥ 5mm...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778773/effects-of-electronic-cigarette-liquid-solvents-propylene-glycol-and-vegetable-glycerin-on-user-nicotine-delivery-heart-rate-subjective-effects-and-puff-topography
#15
Tory R Spindle, Soha Talih, Marzena M Hiler, Nareg Karaoghlanian, Matthew S Halquist, Alison B Breland, Alan Shihadeh, Thomas Eissenberg
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) are a class of tobacco products that produce different effects (e.g., nicotine delivery), depending on the device, liquid, and behavioral factors. However, the influence of the two primary ECIG liquid solvents, propylene glycol (PG) and vegetable glycerin (VG), on ECIG acute effects is unknown. METHODS: Thirty ECIG-experienced, ≥12-h nicotine- abstinent participants completed four conditions consisting of two ECIG-use bouts (10 puffs, 30 s interpuff-interval) differing only by liquid PG:VG ratio (2PG:98VG, 20PG:80VG, 55PG:45VG, 100PG)...
May 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778313/pregnancy-survey-of-smoking-and-alcohol-use-in-south-dakota-american-indian-and-white-mothers
#16
Bonny L Specker, Howard E Wey, Maggie Minett, Tianna M Beare
INTRODUCTION: American Indian populations are believed to have relatively high tobacco use and alcohol consumption before and during pregnancy compared with other populations despite little evidence. METHODS: Population-based survey distributed 2-6 months postpartum to 1,814 South Dakota mothers having a live birth in 2014. Prevalence of self-reported smoking and alcohol use before and during pregnancy were calculated for American Indian and white mothers and AORs were determined controlling for Hispanic status, marital status, age, education, and income...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775887/gender-and-age-varying-associations-of-sensation-seeking-and-substance-use-across-young-adulthood
#17
Rebecca J Evans-Polce, Megan S Schuler, John E Schulenberg, Megan E Patrick
INTRODUCTION: Sensation seeking is associated with elevated risk for substance use among adolescents and young adults. However, whether these associations vary across age for young men and women is not well characterized. METHODS: Using data from the Monitoring the Future (MTF) panel study, we examine the age-varying associations of sensation seeking and three types of substance use behavior (binge drinking, cigarette use, and marijuana use) across ages 18 to 30 using time-varying effect modeling...
May 4, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775302/free-base-nicotine-determination-in-electronic-cigarette-liquids-by-1-h-nmr-spectroscopy
#18
Anna K Duell, James F Pankow, David H Peyton
E-liquids usually contain significant nicotine, which will exist primarily in two forms, monoprotonated and free-base the proportions are alterable through the effective pH of the medium. The fraction of nicotine in the free-base form is αfb , with 0 < αfb < 1. When dosed via aerosol, the two nicotine forms have different mechanisms and kinetics of delivery, as well as differing implications for harshness of the inhaled aerosol, so αfb is relevant regarding abuse liability. Previous attempts to determine αfb in electronic cigarette liquids and vapor have been flawed...
May 18, 2018: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774451/different-kinds-of-lonely-dimensions-of-isolation-and-substance-use-in-adolescence
#19
Molly Copeland, Jacob C Fisher, James Moody, Mark E Feinberg
Social isolation is broadly associated with poor mental health and risky behaviors in adolescence, a time when peers are critical for healthy development. However, expectations for isolates' substance use remain unclear. Isolation in adolescence may signal deviant attitudes or spur self-medication, resulting in higher substance use. Conversely, isolates may lack access to substances, leading to lower use. Although treated as a homogeneous social condition for teens in much research, isolation represents a multifaceted experience with structurally distinct network components that present different risks for substance use...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773707/comparison-of-toxicant-load-from-waterpipe-and-cigarette-tobacco-smoking-among-young-adults-in-the-usa
#20
Brian A Primack, Ariel Shensa, Jaime E Sidani, Megan C Tulikangas, Mark S Roberts, Jason B Colditz, Maria K Mor, A Everette James, Michael J Fine
OBJECTIVES: To form population-level comparisons of total smoke volume, tar, carbon monoxide and nicotine consumed from waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) and cigarette smoking using data from a nationally representative sample of smokers and non-smokers aged 18-30 years. METHODS: In March and April 2013, we surveyed a nationally representative sample of 3254 US young adults to assess the frequency and volume of WTS and cigarette smoking. We used Monte Carlo analyses with 5000 repetitions to estimate the proportions of toxicants originating from WTS and cigarette smoking...
May 16, 2018: Tobacco Control
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