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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531105/high-mobility-group-box-1-disrupts-metabolic-function-with-cigarette-smoke-exposure-in-a-ceramide-dependent-manner
#1
Oliver J Taylor, Mikayla O Thatcher, Sheryl T Carr, Jonathan L Gibbs, Annie M Trumbull, Mitchell E Harrison, Duane R Winden, Mackenzie J Pearson, Trevor S Tippetts, William L Holland, Paul R Reynolds, Benjamin T Bikman
We have previously found that cigarette smoke disrupts metabolic function, in part, by increasing muscle ceramide accrual. To further our understanding of this, we sought to determine the role of the cytokine high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), which is increased with smoke exposure, in smoke-induced muscle metabolic perturbations. To test this theory, we determined HMGB1 from lungs of human smokers, as well as from lung cells from mice exposed to cigarette smoke. We also treated cells and mice directly with HMGB1, in the presence or absence of myriocin, an inhibitor of serine palmitoyltransferase, the rate-limiting enzyme in ceramide biosynthesis...
May 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527326/race-ethnicity-modifies-the-association-between-school-prevalence-of-e-cigarette-use-and-student-level-use-results-from-the-2014-us-national-youth-tobacco-survey
#2
Edward Yu, Adam M Lippert
This study assessed racial/ethnic moderation of the association between school prevalence of lifetime e-cigarette use and students' use. Using multilevel regression methods and data from the 2014 US National Youth Tobacco Survey, we found attending schools with high rates of e-cigarette use was positively associated with students' lifetime use of e-cigarettes, especially for white students. A cross-level interaction term indicated a weaker association between non-Hispanic black race and attending high-use schools (odds ratio [OR] =0...
May 17, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526392/susceptibility-to-tobacco-product-use-among-youth-in-wave-1-of-the-population-assessment-of-tobacco-and-health-path-study
#3
Dennis R Trinidad, John P Pierce, James D Sargent, Martha M White, David R Strong, David B Portnoy, Victoria R Green, Cassandra A Stanton, Kelvin Choi, Maansi Bansal-Travers, Yuyan Shi, Jennifer Pearson, Annette R Kaufman, Nicolette Borek, Blair N Coleman, Andrew Hyland, Charles Carusi, Sheila Kealey, Eric Leas, Madison Noble, Karen Messer
The purpose of this study was to investigate susceptibility and ever use of tobacco products among adolescents and young adults in the US. Cross-sectional analysis of Wave 1(2013-2014) adolescent (12-17year-olds; n=13,651) and young adult (18-24year-olds; n=9112) data from the nationally-representative Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study was conducted. At 12years, 5% were ever tobacco users and 36% were susceptible to use. Seventy percent were susceptible at age 17years, and the same proportion were ever users at age 22years...
May 16, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525609/e-cigarettes-and-weight-loss-product-design-innovation-insights-from-industry-patents
#4
Harkirat Singh, Ryan David Kennedy, Lisa Lagasse, Lauren M Czaplicki, Joanna E Cohen
Objective: There is emerging evidence that e-cigarettes are being used by some to mitigate weight gain after quitting smoking, and being used to help control weight. This study sought to identify and describe patents related to innovations for e-cigarette devices associated and weight loss. Methods: Relevant patents were identified using Google Patents with the core search terms: "electronic cigarette" OR "e-cigarette" OR "vaporizer" OR "vapourizer" AND "nicotine" AND "weight loss" OR "weight control" OR "obesity" OR "hunger"...
May 19, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525594/availability-and-use-of-cheap-tobacco-in-the-uk-2002-2014-findings-from-the-international-tobacco-control-project
#5
Timea R Partos, Anna B Gilmore, Sara C Hitchman, Rosemary Hiscock, J Robert Branston, Ann McNeill
Introduction: Raising tobacco prices is the most effective population-level intervention for reducing smoking, but this is undermined by the availability of cheap tobacco. This study monitors trends in cheap tobacco use among adult smokers in the UK between 2002-2014 via changes in product type, purchase source, and prices paid. Methods: Weighted data from 10 waves of the International Tobacco Control policy evaluation study were used. This is a longitudinal cohort study of adult smokers with replenishment; 6169 participants provided 15812 responses...
May 19, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524716/social-influences-on-college-student-use-of-tobacco-products-alcohol-and-marijuana
#6
Michael Windle, Regine Haardörfer, Steven A Lloyd, Bruce Foster, Carla J Berg
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated associations between the use of alternative tobacco products (e.g., cigarettes, little cigars/cigarillos, hookah, e-cigarettes), alcohol, and marijuana among college students and use by their parents, siblings, and friends. A large literature exists for social influences on adolescent substance use, but few studies have focused on college samples. PARTICIPANTS: 3,418 college students from seven universities in the state of Georgia participated in this study...
May 19, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524234/alcohol-consumption-and-cigarette-smoking-in-combination-a-predictor-of-contralateral-breast-cancer-risk-in-the-wecare-study
#7
Julia A Knight, Jing Fan, Kathleen E Malone, Esther M John, Charles F Lynch, Rikke Langballe, Leslie Bernstein, Roy Shore, Jennifer D Brooks, Anne S Reiner, Meghan Woods, Xiaolin Liang, Jonine L Bernstein
Alcohol drinking and, to a lesser extent, cigarette smoking are risk factors for a first primary breast cancer. Information on these behaviours at diagnosis may contribute to risk prediction of contralateral breast cancer (CBC) and they are potentially modifiable. The WECARE Study is a large population-based case-control study of women with breast cancer where cases (N=1521) had asynchronous CBC and controls (N=2212), matched on survival time and other factors, had unilateral breast cancer (UBC). Using multivariable conditional logistic regression to estimate rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), we examined the risk of CBC in relation to drinking and smoking history at and following first diagnosis...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522564/decreased-phosphatase-pten-amplifies-pi3k-signaling-and-enhances-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-release-in-copd
#8
Satoru Yanagisawa, Jonathan R Baker, Chaitanya Vuppusetty, Peter Fenwick, Louise E Donnelly, Kazuhiro Ito, Peter J Barnes
The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is activated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but the regulatory mechanisms for this pathway are yet to be elucidated. Our aim was to determine the expression and role of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome 10 (PTEN), a negative regulator of the PI3K pathway, in COPD. PTEN expression and activity were measured in the peripheral lung of COPD patients compared to smoking and non-smoking controls. The direct influence of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on PTEN expression was assessed using primary lung epithelial cells and a cell line (BEAS-2B) in the presence or absence of L-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO) to deplete intracellular glutathione...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522559/pulmonary-toxicity-of-e-cigarettes
#9
Lauren F Chun, Farzad Moazed, Carolyn S Calfee, Michael A Matthay, Jeffrey Earl Gotts
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes or e-cigs) are designed to heat and aerosolize mixtures of vegetable glycerin, propylene glycol, nicotine and flavoring additives, thus delivering nicotine by inhalation in the absence of combustion. These devices were originally developed to facilitate smoking cessation and have been available in the United States for over a decade. Since 2010, e-cig use has expanded rapidly, especially among adolescents, despite a paucity of short and long-term safety data. Patterns of use have shifted to include never-smokers and many dual users of e-cigs and combustible tobacco products...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521275/development-and-validation-of-a-hs-gc-ms-method-for-the-simultaneous-analysis-of-diacetyl-and-acetylpropionyl-in-electronic-cigarette-refills
#10
Sophia Barhdadi, Michaël Canfyn, Patricia Courselle, Vera Rogiers, Tamara Vanhaecke, Eric Deconinck
The use of e-cigarettes as alternative for tobacco cigarettes has become increasingly popular, even though their safety has not yet been scientifically established. One of the frequently raised concerns is the potential toxicity of certain flavours present in the e-liquids, such as diacetyl and acetylpropionyl. It is therefore important to be able to identify and quantify both compounds. Numerous analytical methods have been published for determining e-liquid compositions, but concerns exist with respect to the lack of analytical evaluation...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521240/the-relationships-between-sensation-seeking-and-a-spectrum-of-e-cigarette-use-behaviors-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-analyses-specific-to-texas-adolescents
#11
Kathleen R Case, Melissa B Harrell, Adriana Pérez, Alexandra Loukas, Anna V Wilkinson, Andrew E Springer, MeLisa R Creamer, Cheryl L Perry
INTRODUCTION: Sensation seeking is strongly associated with cigarette use in adolescents. However, few studies have investigated its relationship with adolescent e-cigarette use. This study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between sensation seeking and a variety of e-cigarette use behaviors among Texas adolescents. METHODS: This study utilized two waves of data collected 6months apart through the Texas Adolescent Tobacco and Marketing Surveillance System (TATAMS) in 2014-2015 (n=2,488/N=461,069)...
May 12, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521063/effective-message-elements-for-disclosures-about-chemicals-in-cigarette-smoke
#12
Dannielle E Kelley, Marcella H Boynton, Seth M Noar, Jennifer C Morgan, Jennifer R Mendel, Kurt M Ribisl, Irina Stepanov, Leena A Nylander-French, Noel T Brewer
Introduction: Cigarette smoke contains at least 93 chemicals or "constituents" that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has identified as harmful or potentially harmful to human health. Our study sought to identify which constituent disclosure message elements are most effective in discouraging people from smoking. Methods: Three hundred eighty-eight current smokers ages 18 and older completed an online survey in February 2015. We randomized participants to respond to one of two sets of 13 toxic products that contain cigarette constituents and 25 health effects associated with cigarette constituents...
May 17, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520985/warning-statements-and-safety-practices-among-manufacturers-and-distributors-of-electronic-cigarette-liquids-in-the-united-states
#13
Pebbles Fagan, Pallav Pokhrel, Thaddeus A Herzog, Mignonne C Guy, Kari-Lyn K Sakuma, Dennis R Trinidad, Kevin Cassel, Dorothy Jorgensen, Tania Lynch, Jamie Q Felicitas-Perkins, Sherilyn Palafox, Faith Hamamura, Sarah Maloney, Kaylah Degree, Kymberle Sterling, Eric Moolchan, Mark S Clanton, Thomas Eissenberg
Introduction.: Prior to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) regulation of electronic cigarettes and warning statements related to nicotine addiction, there was no critical examination of manufacturer/distributor voluntary practices that could potentially inform FDA actions aimed to protect consumers. This study examined the content of warning statements and safety characteristics of electronic cigarette liquid bottles using a national sample. Methods.: Research staff randomly selected four electronic cigarette liquid manufacturers/distributors from four U...
May 18, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520481/on-the-origins-of-the-electronic-cigarette-british-american-tobacco-s-project-ariel-1962-1967
#14
Stephan Risi
Electronic cigarettes are advertised as the latest technological gadget-the smoking equivalent of smart phones. I challenge this sense of novelty by tracing their history to the 1960s, when researchers at British American Tobacco first recognized that smokers' brains were dependent on nicotine. This discovery enabled British American Tobacco to develop a novel kind of smoking device under the codename "Ariel" between 1962 and 1967. Whereas filters were meant to eliminate specific harmful constituents of tobacco smoke, Project Ariel tried to reduce smoking to its alkaloid essence: nicotine...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516940/the-united-states-must-act-quickly-to-control-the-use-of-e-cigarettes
#15
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515485/e-cigarettes-induce-toxicological-effects-that-can-raise-the-cancer-risk
#16
Donatella Canistro, Fabio Vivarelli, Silvia Cirillo, Clara Babot Marquillas, Annamaria Buschini, Mirca Lazzaretti, Laura Marchi, Vladimiro Cardenia, Maria Teresa Rodriguez-Estrada, Maura Lodovici, Caterina Cipriani, Antonello Lorenzini, Eleonora Croco, Silvia Marchionni, Paola Franchi, Marco Lucarini, Vincenzo Longo, Clara Maria Della Croce, Andrea Vornoli, Annamaria Colacci, Monica Vaccari, Andrea Sapone, Moreno Paolini
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) are devices designed to deliver nicotine in a vaping solution rather than smoke and without tobacco combustion. Perceived as a safer alternative to conventional cigarettes, e-cigs are aggressively marketed as lifestyle-choice consumables, thanks to few restrictions and a lack of regulatory guidelines. E-cigs have also gained popularity among never-smokers and teenagers, becoming an emergent public health issue. Despite the burgeoning worldwide consumption of e-cigs, their safety remains largely unproven and it is unknown whether these devices cause in vivo toxicological effects that could contribute to cancer...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511098/e-cigarette-liquids-constancy-of-content-across-batches-and-accuracy-of-labeling
#17
Jean-François Etter, Aurélie Bugey
AIMS: To assess whether bottles of refill liquids for e-cigarettes were filled true to label, whether their content was constant across two production batches, and whether they contained impurities. METHODS: In 2013, we purchased on the Internet 18 models from 11 brands of e-liquids. We purchased a second sample of the same models 4months later. We analyzed their content in nicotine, anabasine, propylene glycol, glycerol, ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol, and tested their pH...
May 10, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507522/nicotine-acutely-enhances-reinforcement-from-non-drug-rewards-in-humans
#18
REVIEW
Kenneth A Perkins, Joshua L Karelitz, Margaret C Boldry
Preclinical research documents that, aside from the primary and secondary reinforcing effects of nicotine intake itself, nicotine also acutely enhances the reinforcing efficacy of non-drug reinforcers ("rewards"). Study of these effects in humans has largely been overlooked, but very recent findings suggest they may have clinical implications for more fully understanding the persistence of tobacco dependence. This overview first outlines the topic and notes some recent human studies indirectly addressing nicotine effects on related responses (e...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505303/acute-effects-of-aerobic-exercise-on-affect-and-smoking-craving-in-the-weeks-before-and-after-a-cessation-attempt
#19
Ana M Abrantes, Samantha G Farris, Haruka Minami, David R Strong, Deborah Riebe, Richard A Brown
Introduction: Aerobic exercise may improve smoking abstinence via reductions in craving and negative affect, and increases in positive moods. Acute changes in craving and affect before and after structured exercise sessions have not been examined during the weeks prior to and following quit attempts, nor has smoking status been examined in relation to these effects. Given that regular cigarette smoking can be perceived as affect-enhancing and craving-reducing, it is not known whether exercise could contribute additional affective benefit beyond these effects...
May 15, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505280/mining-e-cigarette-adverse-events-in-social-media-using-bi-lstm-recurrent-neural-network-with-word-embedding-representation
#20
Jiaheng Xie, Xiao Liu, Daniel Dajun Zeng
Objective: Recent years have seen increased worldwide popularity of e-cigarette use. However, the risks of e-cigarettes are underexamined. Most e-cigarette adverse event studies have achieved low detection rates due to limited subject sample sizes in the experiments and surveys. Social media provides a large data repository of consumers' e-cigarette feedback and experiences, which are useful for e-cigarette safety surveillance. However, it is difficult to automatically interpret the informal and nontechnical consumer vocabulary about e-cigarettes in social media...
May 13, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
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