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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648016/-mechanisms-of-cytoskeleton-and-pi3k%C3%AE-rhoa-in-fine-particulate-matter-deteriorating-phagocytosis-defect-of-alveolar-macrophage-in-mice-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#1
Q Xia, S T Hu, X L Zeng, H R Bao, X J Liu
Objective: To explore the mechanism of cytoskeleton and PI3Kδ-RhoA in fine particulate matter deteriorating phagocytosis defect of alveolar macrophage (AM) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mice. Methods: Forty mice were randomly divided into four groups: health control group, COPD group, health PM2.5 group, COPD PM2.5 group and with ten in each group. A mouse model of COPD was established by cigarette smoke exposure, and health PM2.5 group and COPD PM2.5 group mice were given PM2.5 (588 μg/m(3)) aerosol inhalation for 90 days...
June 27, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646795/offsetting-the-impact-of-smoking-and-e-cigarette-vaping-on-the-cerebrovascular-system-and-stroke-injury-is-metformin-a-viable-countermeasure
#2
Mohammad A Kaisar, Heidi Villalba, Shikha Prasad, Taylor Liles, Ali Ehsan Sifat, Ravi K Sajja, Thomas J Abbruscato, Luca Cucullo
Recently published in vitro and in vivo findings strongly suggest that BBB impairment and increased risk for stroke by tobacco smoke (TS) closely resemble that of type-2 diabetes (2DM) and develop largely in response to common key modulators such oxidative stress (OS), inflammation and alterations of the endogenous antioxidative response system (ARE) regulated by the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2). Preclinical studies have also shown that nicotine (the principal e-liquid's ingredient used in e-cigarettes) can also cause OS, exacerbation of cerebral ischemia and secondary brain injury...
June 17, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645957/effect-of-e-cigarette-advertisements-and-antismoking-messages-on-explicit-and-implicit-attitudes-towards-tobacco-and-e-cigarette-smoking-in-18-65-year-olds-a-randomised-controlled-study-protocol
#3
Paula Booth, Ian P Albery, Daniel Frings
INTRODUCTION: Since the advent of e-cigarettes, e-cigarette advertising has escalated and companies are able to use marketing strategies that are not permissible for tobacco products. Research into the effect of e-cigarette advertising on attitudes towards tobacco and e-cigarettes is in its infancy. To date, no research has compared indirect (implicit) measures of attitude towards e-cigarettes with direct (explicit) measures. Furthermore, little consideration has been given to how viewing online advertisements may have an effect on attitudes towards e-cigarettes or how positive attitudes to e-cigarettes may undermine antismoking public health messages...
June 23, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645212/google-searches-for-cheap-cigarettes-spike-at-tax-increases-evidence-from-an-algorithm-to-detect-spikes-in-time-series-data
#4
Theodore L Caputi
Introduction: Online cigarette dealers have lower prices than brick-and-mortar retailers and advertise tax-free status 1-8. Previous studies show smokers search out these online alternatives at the time of a cigarette tax increase 9-10. However, these studies rely upon researchers' decision to consider a specific date and preclude the possibility that researchers focus on the wrong date. The purpose of this study is to introduce an unbiased methodology to the field of observing search patterns and to use this methodology to determine whether smokers search Google for "cheap cigarettes" at cigarette tax increases and, if so, whether the increased level of searches persists...
June 22, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644205/the-unrecognized-epidemic-of-electronic-cigarette-burns
#5
Jesus I Ramirez, Catherine A Ridgway, Jeanne G Lee, Bruce M Potenza, Soman Sen, Tina L Palmieri, David G Greenhalgh, Pirko Maguina
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are novel battery-operated devices that deliver nicotine as an inhaled aerosol. They originated from China in 2007 and their use has rapidly increased worldwide in the past decade, yet they remain largely unregulated. Reports of injuries associated with their use have appeared as unusual events in the news media and as case reports in the medical literature. This study was undertaken to explore e-cigarettes as a mechanism of burn injury. Referral records to three burn centers from January 2007 to July 2016 were searched to identify patients with injuries caused by e-cigarettes...
July 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644108/comparison-of-periodontal-parameters-and-self-perceived-oral-symptoms-among-cigarette-smokers-individuals-vaping-electronic-cigarettes-and-never-smokers-a-pilot-study
#6
Fawad Javed, Tariq Abduljabbar, Fahim Vohra, Hans Malmstrom, Irfan Rahman, Georgios E Romanos
BACKGROUND: There are no studies that have compared periodontal parameters and self-perceived oral symptoms (OS) among cigarette smokers (Group-1), individuals exclusively vaping electronic cigarettes (Group-2) and never-smokers (Group-3). The aim was to assess the periodontal parameters and self-perceived OS among vaping individuals, CS and NS. METHODS: Demographic data, self-perceived OS and duration and daily frequency of vaping and smoking were gathered using a questionnaire...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643400/a-study-of-regulatory-policies-and-relevant-issues-concerning-electronic-cigarette-use-in-taiwan
#7
Tzuu Hwa Jiang, Li Min Cheng, Matthew A Hawkins
Recent technological innovations have increased the amount of tobacco products available to smokers. In particular, electronic cigarettes, sometimes call e-cigarettes, have received substantial attention as their sales have rapidly increased. Electronic cigarettes were invented in China and now have become prevalent worldwide. Electronic cigarettes can be considered fashionable and come in numerous flavors; accordingly, many young adults and students have begun to use e-cigarettes. However, like traditional tobacco products, e-cigarettes have negative influences on human health...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642260/cigarette-smoke-disrupts-monolayer-integrity-by-altering-epithelial-cell-cell-adhesion-and-cortical-tension
#8
Kristine Nishida, Kieran A Brune, Nirupama Putcha, Pooja Mandke, Wanda K O'Neal, Danny Shade, Vasudha Srivastava, Menghen Wang, Hong Lam, Steven S An, M Bradley Drummond, Nadia N Hansel, Douglas N Robinson, Venkataramana K Sidhaye
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Cigarette smoke (CS) drives disease development and progression. The epithelial barrier is damaged by CS with increased monolayer permeability. However, the molecular changes that cause this barrier disruption and the interaction between adhesion proteins and the cytoskeleton are not well defined. We hypothesized that CS alters monolayer integrity by increasing cell contractility and decreasing cell adhesion in epithelia...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642230/a-review-of-pulmonary-toxicity-of-electronic-cigarettes-in-the-context-of-smoking-a-focus-on-inflammation
#9
Peter G Shields, Micah Berman, Theodore M Brasky, Jo L Freudenheim, Ewy A Mathe, Joseph McElroy, Min-Ae Song, Mark D Wewers
The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) is increasing rapidly, but their effects on lung toxicity are largely unknown. Smoking is a well-established cause of lung cancer and respiratory disease, in part through inflammation. It is plausible that e-cig use might affect similar inflammatory pathways. E-cigs are used by some smokers as an aid for quitting or smoking reduction, and by never smokers (e.g., adolescents and young adults). The relative effects for impacting disease risk may differ for these groups...
June 22, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638314/in-person-retail-marketing-claims-in-tobacco-and-e-cigarette-shops-in-southern-california
#10
Joshua S Yang, Michele M Wood, Katelynn Peirce
BACKGROUND: E-cigarette use has been increasing in the United States, though knowledge of potential risks and harms associated with e-cigarette use is low. Marketing of e-cigarettes may serve as a source of information to shape beliefs and attitudes toward e-cigarettes. The purpose of this study was to identify the most common marketing claims made within "vape" and tobacco shops in sales interactions with customers in demographically diverse cities. METHODS: Vape and tobacco shops from three diverse cities in Southern California were selected for inclusion in the study...
2017: Tobacco Induced Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638206/effect-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-cigarette-smoking-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#11
Wanli Huang, Fang Shen, Jiangtao Zhang, Baoping Xing
BACKGROUND: The high smoking rate among patients with schizophrenia is an important public health problem, and researchers have been studying how to change the status quo. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of high frequency (10Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on the amount of cigarette smoking in patients with schizophrenia. METHOD: This study enrolled 37 male patients with schizophrenia who were at a stable stage of treatment...
December 25, 2016: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637344/nicotine-delivery-to-the-aerosol-of-a-heat-not-burn-tobacco-product-comparison-with-a-tobacco-cigarette-and-e-cigarettes
#12
Konstantinos E Farsalinos, Nikoletta Yannovits, Theoni Sarri, Vassilis Voudris, Konstantinos Poulas
Introduction: The purpose was to measure nicotine levels to the tobacco and levels emitted to the aerosol of a heat-not-burn product (HnB, IQOS) compared to e-cigarettes (ECs) and a tobacco cigarette. Methods: The HnB device and regular and menthol sticks were purchased from Italy. Three types of ECs (ciga-like, eGo-style and variable wattage) and a commercially-available tobacco cigarette were also tested. A custom-made liquid containing 2% nicotine was used with ECs...
June 16, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637294/over-time-impacts-of-pictorial-health-warning-labels-and-their-differences-across-smoker-subgroups-results-from-adult-smokers-in-canada-and-australia
#13
Kamala Swayampakala, James F Thrasher, Hua-Hie Yong, Gera E Nagelhout, Lin Li, Ron Borland, David Hammond, Richard J O'Connor, James W Hardin
Introduction: This study examines patterns of change in different smoker subgroups' responses to new pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) over the initial, two year post-implementation period in Canada, where HWLs include package inserts with cessation messages, and Australia, where "plain" packaging (i.e., prohibition of brand imagery) was also implemented. Methods: Data were collected from online consumer panels in Canada (nsmokers=3,153; nobservations=5,826) and Australia (nsmokers=2,699; nobservations=5,818) from September 2012 to September 2014, with approximately 1,000 adult smokers surveyed in each country every four months, using replenishment to maintain sample size...
June 16, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634710/pharmacodynamic-and-pharmacokinetic-assessment-of-electronic-cigarettes-combustible-cigarettes-and-nicotine-gum-implications-for-abuse-liability
#14
Mitchell F Stiles, Leanne R Campbell, Donald W Graff, Bobbette A Jones, Reginald V Fant, Jack E Henningfield
RATIONALE: Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are becoming popular alternatives for smokers, but there has been limited study of their abuse liability. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the abuse liability of three Vuse Solo ECs, ranging from 14 to 36 mg in nicotine content, relative to high- and low-abuse liability comparator products (usual brand combustible cigarettes and nicotine gum, respectively) in a group of 45 EC-naïve smokers. METHODS: Enrolled subjects' ratings of subjective effects and nicotine uptake over 6 h were used to measure abuse liability and pharmacokinetics following in-clinic use of each EC...
June 20, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633573/should-we-encourage-smokers-with-severe-mental-illness-to-switch-to-electronic-cigarettes
#15
Ratika Sharma, Coral E Gartner, David J Castle, Colin P Mendelsohn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629277/addressing-tobacco-use-among-consumers-and-staff-at-behavioral-health-treatment-facilities-through-comprehensive-workplace-programming
#16
Hannah L Samaha, Virmarie Correa-Fernández, Cho Lam, William T Wilson, Bryce Kyburz, Tim Stacey, Teresa Williams, Lorraine R Reitzel
Tobacco use is the leading cause of death and disability in the United States; cigarette smoking is the most common form of tobacco use. Smoking has become increasingly concentrated among individuals with behavioral health needs (e.g., persistent mental illness) and has led to increased morbidity and mortality in this group relative to the general population. Comprehensive tobacco-free workplace programs are effective in reducing tobacco use and cigarette smoke exposure among behavioral health consumers and the individuals who serve them...
July 2017: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627790/regional-cerebral-blood-flow-in-opiate-dependence-relates-to-substance-use-and-neuropsychological-performance
#17
Donna E Murray, Timothy C Durazzo, Thomas P Schmidt, Troy A Murray, Christoph Abé, Joseph Guydish, Dieter J Meyerhoff
Neuroimaging of opiate-dependent individuals indicates both altered brain structure and function. Magnetic resonance-based arterial spin labeling has been used to measure noninvasively cerebral blood flow (i.e. perfusion) in alcohol, tobacco and stimulant dependence; only one arterial spin labeling paper in opiate-dependent individuals demonstrated frontal and parietal perfusion deficits. Additional research on regional brain perfusion in opiate dependence and its relationship to cognition and self-regulation (impulsivity, risk taking and decision making) may inform treatment approaches for opiate-dependent individuals...
June 19, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625973/prevalence-and-correlates-of-electronic-cigarette-use-among-canadian-students-cross-sectional-findings-from-the-2014-15-canadian-student-tobacco-alcohol-and-drugs-survey
#18
Annie Montreuil, Marjorie MacDonald, Mark Asbridge, T Cameron Wild, David Hammond, Steve Manske, Erin Rutherford
BACKGROUND: Over the past decade, youth tobacco use has declined, and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have entered the market. The aims of this study were to describe the prevalence of e-cigarette use among youth in Canada, by province, across sociodemographic variables and smoking-related correlates; and to examine associations among e-cigarette use, sociodemographic variables and smoking-related correlates, with adjustment for other factors. METHODS: The 2014/15 Canadian Student Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs Survey, a biennial, school-based survey, was administered to students in grades 6-12 in all Canadian provinces...
June 14, 2017: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624764/recommended-core-items-to-assess-e-cigarette-use-in-population-based-surveys
#19
Jennifer L Pearson, Sara C Hitchman, Leonie S Brose, Linda Bauld, Allison M Glasser, Andrea C Villanti, Ann McNeill, David B Abrams, Joanna E Cohen
A consistent approach using standardised items to assess e-cigarette use in both youth and adult populations will aid cross-survey and cross-national comparisons of the effect of e-cigarette (and tobacco) policies and improve our understanding of the population health impact of e-cigarette use. Focusing on adult behaviour, we propose a set of e-cigarette use items, discuss their utility and potential adaptation, and highlight e-cigarette constructs that researchers should avoid without further item development...
June 17, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624763/electronic-cigarette-use-among-us-adults-in-the-population-assessment-of-tobacco-and-health-path-study-2013-2014
#20
Blair N Coleman, Brian Rostron, Sarah E Johnson, Bridget K Ambrose, Jennifer Pearson, Cassandra A Stanton, Baoguang Wang, Cristine Delnevo, Maansi Bansal-Travers, Heather L Kimmel, Maciej L Goniewicz, Raymond Niaura, David Abrams, Kevin P Conway, Nicolette Borek, Wilson M Compton, Andrew Hyland
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use in the USA is increasing. As such, it is critical to understand who uses e-cigarettes, how e-cigarettes are used and what types of products are prevalent. This study assesses patterns of current e-cigarette use among daily and non-daily adult users in the 2013-2014 Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study. METHODS: We examined the proportion of current adult e-cigarette users (n=3642) reporting infrequent use (use on 'some days' and use on 0-2 of the past 30 days), moderate use (use on 'some days' and use on >2 of the past 30 days) and daily use...
June 17, 2017: Tobacco Control
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