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Georgiana Bostean, Catherine M Crespi, Patsornkarn Vorapharuek, William J McCarthy
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the association between presence of e-cigarette specialty retailers near schools and e-cigarette use among middle and high school students in Orange County (OC), CA. METHODS: The OC subsample of the 2013-2014 California Healthy Kids Survey (N=67,701) was combined with geocoded e-cigarette retailers to determine whether a retailer was present within one-quarter mile of each public school in OC. Multilevel logistic regression models evaluated individual-level and school-level e-cigarette use correlates among middle and high school students...
October 19, 2016: Health & Place
Istvan Arany, Anthony Carter, Samuel Hall, Tibor Fulop, Mehul Dixit
Chronic nicotine exposure (via smoking, E-cigarettes) increases oxidative stress in the kidney that sensitizes it to additional injury in experimental models and in the renal patient. The pro-apoptotic p66(shc) protein-via serine36 phosphorylation that facilitates its mitochondrial translocation and therein cytochrome c binding-generates oxidative stress that leads to injury of renal proximal tubule cells during chronic nicotine exposure. Coenzyme Q10-a clinically safe antioxidant-has been used against nicotine/smoke extract-associated oxidative stress in various non-renal cells...
October 22, 2016: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
Robin Nance, Joseph Delaney, John W McEvoy, Michael J Blaha, Gregory Burke, Ana Navas-Acien, Joel D Kaufman, Elizabeth C Oelsner, Robyn L McClelland
OBJECTIVE: Smoking as an epidemiological exposure can be quantified in many ways including duration, intensity, pack-years, recency, and age at initiation. However it is not clear which of these are most important for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and how they should be modeled. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Using the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, Cox models for time to incident CVD adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education category, and income category were compared which included various characterizations of smoking history...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Ana S Cravo, Jim Bush, Girish Sharma, Rebecca Savioz, Claire Martin, Simon Craige, Tanvir Walele
A randomised, parallel group clinical study was performed to evaluate the safety profile of an e-vapour product (EVP; 2.0% nicotine) in smokers of conventional cigarettes (CCs) switching to use the EVP for 12 weeks. During the study, no clinically significant product-related findings were observed in terms of vital signs, electrocardiogram, lung function tests and standard clinical laboratory parameters. Adverse events (AEs) reported by EVP subjects were more frequent during the first week after switching to the EVP...
October 18, 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Yuyan Shi, John P Pierce, Martha White, Maya Vijayaraghavan, Wilson Compton, Kevin Conway, Anne M Hartman, Karen Messer
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are heavily marketed and widely perceived as helpful for quitting or reducing smoking intensity. We test whether ever-use of e-cigarettes among early adopters was associated with: 1) increased cigarette smoking cessation; and 2) reduced cigarette consumption. METHODS: A representative cohort of U.S. smokers (N = 2454) from the 2010 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS) was re-interviewed 1 year later...
October 21, 2016: BMC Public Health
Grace Kong, Bulat Idrisov, Artur Galimov, Radik Masagutov, Steve Sussman
BACKGROUND: Information on e-cigarettes among youth in the Russian Federation is lacking. OBJECTIVE: We examined prevalence of and factors associated with youth e-cigarette use in the Russian Federation. METHODS: A cross-sectional, anonymous survey, conducted among 716 (females 51.5%) high school students in three cities (i.e., Ufa, Sterlitamak, Karagaevo) within the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russian Federation in 2015, assessed e-cigarette use and its correlates (i...
October 21, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Mansoo Yu, Paulette E Chavez, René Olate, Clark Peters
Although Latino/Hispanic adolescent substance use is a growing research area in the United States, there is little research examining the prevalence and factors associated with adolescent cigarette smoking status in this population. A nationally representative sample of 5,929 middle and high Latino/Hispanic students in the 2009 US National Youth Tobacco Survey was selected to assess the prevalence and various risk and protective factors associated with cigarette smoking status. Results revealed one in five (20%) were experimental smokers, nearly one in eleven (8...
October 21, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Jack E Henningfield, Tracy T Smith, Bethea A Kleykamp, Reginald V Fant, Eric C Donny
BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE: Steven R. Goldberg was a pioneering behavioral pharmacologist whose intravenous drug self-administration studies advanced the understanding of conditioned stimuli and schedules of reinforcement as determinants of pattern and persistence of drug-seeking behavior, and in particular, the importance of nicotine in tobacco use. His passing in 2014 led to invitations to contribute articles to psychopharmacology dedicated to his work. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this review are to summarize and put into historical perspective Goldberg's contributions to elucidate the reinforcing effects of nicotine and to summarize the implications of his research for medication development, tobacco regulation, and potential tobacco control policy options...
October 21, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Lili Zhang, Marianne Gallup, Lorna Zlock, Yu Ting Feeling Chen, Walter E Finkbeiner, Nancy A McNamara
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death, and 87% of these deaths are directly attributable to smoking. Using three-dimensional cultures of primary human bronchial epithelial cells, we demonstrated that loss of adherens junction protein, epithelial cadherin, and the aberrant interaction of its adherens junction binding partner, p120-catenin (p120ctn), with the cytoplasmic tail of apical mucin-1 (MUC1-CT) represent initiating steps in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Smoke provoked the rapid nuclear entry of p120ctn in complex with MUC1-CT that was inhibited using the MUC1-CT inhibitory peptides, PMIP and GO-201...
October 17, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
Berrin Serdar, Stephen Brindley, Greg Dooley, John Volckens, Elizabeth Juarez-Colunga, Ryan Gan
BACKGROUND: Roofers are at increased risk for various malignancies and their occupational exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been considered as important risk factors. The overall goal of this project was to investigate the usefulness of phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX) as a short-term biomarker of DNA damage among roofers. METHODS: Blood, urine, and dermal wipe samples were collected from 20 roofers who work with hot asphalt before and after 6 h of work on Monday and Thursday of the same week (4 sampling periods)...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
George Mammen, Jürgen Rehm, Sergio Rueda
No abstract available.
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Joshua B Lewis, Dallin C Milner, Adam L Lewis, Todd M Dunaway, Kaleb M Egbert, Scott C Albright, Brigham J Merrell, Troy D Monson, Dallin S Broberg, Jason R Gassman, Daniel B Thomas, Juan A Arroyo, Paul R Reynolds
It has long been understood that increased epithelial permeability contributes to inflammation observed in many respiratory diseases. Recently, evidence has revealed that environmental exposure to noxious material such as cigarette smoke reduces tight junction barrier integrity, thus enhancing inflammatory conditions. Claudin-6 (Cldn6) is a tetraspanin transmembrane protein found within the tight junctional complex and is implicated in maintaining lung epithelial barriers. To test the hypothesis that increased Cldn6 ameliorates inflammation at the respiratory barrier, we utilized the Tet-On inducible transgenic system to conditionally over-express Clnd6 in the distal lung...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Takahisa Miyatake, Tomoyuki Yokoi, Taro Fuchikawa, Nobuyoshi Korehisa, Toru Kamura, Kana Nanba, Shinsuke Ryouji, Nagisa Kamioka, Mantaro Hironaka, Midori Osada, Takahiko Hariyama, Rikiya Sasaki, Kazutaka Shinoda
The cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (F.), is an important stored-product pest worldwide because it damages dry foods. Detection and removal of the female L. serricorne will help to facilitate the control of the insect by removal of the egg-laying populations. In this manuscript, we examined the responses by L. serricorne to direct and reflected light in transparent cube (50 m(3)) set in a chamber (200 m(3)) and a stored facility with both direct and reflected UV-LED lights. The study also examined the responses by the beetles to light in the presence or absence of pheromone in traps that are placed at different heights...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
Carolyn M Reyes-Guzman, Ruth M Pfeiffer, Jay Lubin, Neal D Freedman, Sean D Cleary, Paul H Levine, Neil E Caporaso
BACKGROUND: Light and/or intermittent smokers have been the fastest growing segment of cigarette smokers in the U.S. over the past two decades. Defining their behavioral characteristics is a critical public health priority. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our sample included 78,229 U.S. adults from three pooled contemporary population-based surveys: the 2012 NHIS, 2012 NSDUH, and 2011-2012 NHANES. We classified current smokers into four categories (light and intermittent [LITS], light-daily, heavier-intermittent and heavier-daily) and assessed smoking behaviors, illicit drug use, and mental health indicators using weighted analyses...
October 19, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Jeremy T Goldbach, Ethan H Mereish, Claire Burgess
BACKGROUND: Prescription drug, e-cigarette, smokeless tobacco, and synthetic marijuana use has risen dramatically in the United States over the past decade. OBJECTIVES: This paper investigates the use of risky substances among adolescents, and examines disparities between sexual minority (i.e., mostly heterosexual and lesbian, gay, bisexual; LGB) and heterosexual adolescents in use of novel and emerging substances. Given the public health risk and the imminence of these substances in the media, emerging drug use was examined in a county wide sample of adolescents in a Southern state...
October 19, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Johannes Thrul, Danielle E Ramo
BACKGROUND: Young adults underutilize current evidence-based smoking cessation strategies; yet social media are widely used and accepted among this population. A better understanding of whether and how young adults try to quit smoking in the context of a social media smoking cessation intervention could inform future intervention improvements. OBJECTIVES: We examined frequency, strategies used, and predictors of self-initiated 24-hour quit attempts among young adults participating in a Facebook intervention...
October 19, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Harri Hemilä
BACKGROUND: Vitamin E has influenced the immune system in laboratory studies. Dozens of animal experiments have found that vitamin E offered protection against infections caused by viruses and bacteria. Previously, significant heterogeneity was found in the effect of vitamin E supplementation on pneumonia in humans. The aim of this study was to examine how the effect of vitamin E on pneumonia risk depends on age. METHODS: Secondary analysis of the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention study in Finland, 1985-1993, was performed...
2016: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Hannah Anderson, Cheryl Richie, Andrew Bernard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Monica Webb Hooper, Stephanie K Kolar
The prevalence of e-cigarette use is increasing, yet few studies have focused on its use in racial/ethnic minority populations. We examined associations between race/ethnicity and e-cigarette use, plans to continue using e-cigarettes, and reasons for use among current/former smokers. Participants (285 in total; 29% non-Hispanic White, 42% African American/Black, and 29% Hispanic) were recruited between June and November 2014. Telephone-administered surveys assessed demographics, cigarette smoking, e-cigarette use, plans to continue using, and reasons for use...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Michael S Businelle, Ping Ma, Darla E Kendzor, Summer G Frank, David W Wetter, Damon J Vidrine
BACKGROUND: Mobile phone‒based real-time ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) have been used to record health risk behaviors, and antecedents to those behaviors, as they occur in near real time. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine if intensive longitudinal data, collected via mobile phone, could be used to identify imminent risk for smoking lapse among socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers seeking smoking cessation treatment. METHODS: Participants were recruited into a randomized controlled smoking cessation trial at an urban safety-net hospital tobacco cessation clinic...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
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