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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926702/animal-models-unlock-your-inner-salamander
#1
Sujata Gupta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909757/erratum-to-small-rnas-from-a-big-genome-the-pirna-pathway-and-transposable-elements-in-the-salamander-species-desmognathus-fuscus
#2
M J Madison-Villar, Cheng Sun, Nelson C Lau, Matthew L Settles, Rachel Lockridge Mueller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2, 2016: Journal of Molecular Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903729/joint-encoding-of-object-motion-and-motion-direction-in-the-salamander-retina
#3
Norma Krystyna Kühn, Tim Gollisch
: The processing of motion in visual scenes is important for detecting and tracking moving objects as well as for monitoring self-motion through the induced optic flow. Specialized neural circuits have been identified in the vertebrate retina for detecting motion direction or for distinguishing between object motion and self-motion, although little is known about how information about these distinct features of visual motion is combined. The salamander retina, which is a widely used model system for analyzing retinal function, contains object-motion-sensitive (OMS) ganglion cells, which strongly respond to local motion signals but are suppressed by global image motion...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900841/the-role-of-the-prod1-membrane-anchor-in-newt-limb-regeneration
#4
Kaoru Nomura, Yasushi Tanimoto, Fumio Hayashi, Erisa Harada, Xiao-Yuan Shan, Masafumi Shionyu, Atsushi Hijikata, Tsuyoshi Shirai, Kenichi Morigaki, Keiko Shimamoto
Prod1 is a protein that regulates limb regeneration in salamanders by determining the direction of limb growth. Prod1 is attached to the membrane by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor, but the role of membrane anchoring in the limb regeneration process is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the functional role of the anchoring of Prod1 to the membrane by using its synthetic mimics in combination with solid-state NMR spectroscopy and fluorescent microscopy techniques. Anchoring did not affect the three-dimensional structure of Prod1 but did induce aggregation by aligning the molecules and drastically reducing the molecular motion on the two-dimensional membrane surface...
November 30, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896924/detailed-tail-proteomic-analysis-of-axolotl-ambystoma-mexicanum-using-an-mrna-seq-reference-database
#5
Turan Demircan, Ilknur Keskin, Seda Nilgun Dumlu, Nilufer Ayturk, Mahmut Erhan Avsaroglu, Emel Akgun, Gurkan Ozturk, Ahmet Tarik Baykal
Salamander Axolotl has been emerging as an important model for stem cell research due to its powerful regenerative capacity. Several advantages, such as the high capability of advanced tissue, organ and appendages regeneration, promote Axolotl as an ideal model system to extend our current understanding on the mechanisms of regeneration. Acknowledging the common molecular pathways between amphibians and mammals, there is a great potential to translate the messages from Axolotl research to mammalian studies...
November 29, 2016: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896029/biology-of-tiny-animals-three-new-species-of-minute-salamanders-plethodontidae-thorius-from-oaxaca-mexico
#6
Gabriela Parra-Olea, Sean M Rovito, Mario García-París, Jessica A Maisano, David B Wake, James Hanken
We describe three new species of minute salamanders, genus Thorius, from the Sierra Madre del Sur of Oaxaca, Mexico. Until now only a single species, T. minutissimus, has been reported from this region, although molecular data have long shown extensive genetic differentiation among geographically disjunct populations. Adult Thorius pinicola sp. nov., T. longicaudus sp. nov., and T. tlaxiacus sp. nov. are larger than T. minutissimus and possess elliptical rather than oval nostrils; T. pinicola and T. longicaudus also have longer tails...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887877/a-discrete-stage-structured-model-of-california-newt-population-dynamics-during-a-period-of-drought
#7
Marjorie T Jones, William R Milligan, Lee B Kats, Thomas L Vandergon, Rodney L Honeycutt, Robert N Fisher, Courtney L Davis, Timothy A Lucas
We introduce a mathematical model for studying the population dynamics under drought of the California newt (Taricha torosa), a species of special concern in the state of California. Since 2012, California has experienced a record-setting drought, and multiple studies predict drought conditions currently underway will persist and even increase in severity. Recent declines and local extinctions of California newt populations in Santa Monica Mountain streams motivate our study of the impact of drought on newt population sizes...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886423/an-approach-for-identifying-cryptic-barriers-to-gene-flow-that-limit-species-geographic-ranges
#8
Steven J Micheletti, Andrew Storfer
Species' geographic range limits are most often not demarcated by obvious dispersal barriers. Poor quality habitat at the edge of a species' range can prevent range expansion by preventing outward migration or through reducing adaptive potential resulting from decreased genetic diversity. We identified habitat variables that constrain gene flow across the entire geographic range of an endemic salamander (Ambystoma barbouri) in the eastern United States, and we tested whether increased resistance resulting from these variables provides cryptic dispersal barriers at the range edges...
November 25, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870048/contacts-with-large-active-individuals-intensify-the-predation-risk-of-small-conspecifics
#9
Aya Yamaguchi, Kunio Takatsu, Osamu Kishida
Size variation within a population can influence the structure of ecosystem interactions, because ecological performance differs between individuals of different sizes. Although the impact of size variation in a predator species on the structure of interactions is well understood, our knowledge about how size variation in a prey species might modify the interactions between predators and prey is very limited. Here, by examining the interactions between predatory Hynobius retardatus salamander larvae and their prey, Rana pirica frog tadpoles, we investigated how large prey individuals affect the predation mortality of small prey conspecifics...
November 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862524/sequence-capture-and-next-generation-sequencing-of-ultraconserved-elements-in-a-large-genome-salamander
#10
Catherine E Newman, Christopher C Austin
Amidst the rapid advancement in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology over the last few years, salamanders have been left behind. Salamanders have enormous genomes - up to 40 times the size of the human genome - and this poses challenges to generating NGS data sets of quality and quantity similar to those of other vertebrates. However, optimization of laboratory protocols is time-consuming and often cost prohibitive, and continued omission of salamanders from novel phylogeographic research is detrimental to species facing decline...
November 14, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861781/digest-salamanders-slow-slither-into-genomic-gigantism
#11
Steven Dodsworth, Maïté Guignard, Oriane Hidalgo, Jaume Pellicer
Genome size varies enormously across the eukaryotic tree of life (c. 66,000-fold), with the largest reported nuclear genomes found in vertebrates (e.g. salamanders, lungfish) and angiosperms (e.g. mistletoe, fritillaries). Yet despite this huge diversity, most genomes are considerably smaller than the largest reported (c. 150 Gb), with the mean size of both vertebrate and plant genomes being similar, c. 5 Gb. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
November 12, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814363/using-matrix-and-tensor-factorizations-for-the-single-trial-analysis-of-population-spike-trains
#12
Arno Onken, Jian K Liu, P P Chamanthi R Karunasekara, Ioannis Delis, Tim Gollisch, Stefano Panzeri
Advances in neuronal recording techniques are leading to ever larger numbers of simultaneously monitored neurons. This poses the important analytical challenge of how to capture compactly all sensory information that neural population codes carry in their spatial dimension (differences in stimulus tuning across neurons at different locations), in their temporal dimension (temporal neural response variations), or in their combination (temporally coordinated neural population firing). Here we investigate the utility of tensor factorizations of population spike trains along space and time...
November 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811642/a-beautiful-new-yellow-salamander-genus-bolitoglossa-caudata-plethodontidae-from-the-northeastern-slopes-of-the-cordillera-de-talamanca-costa-rica
#13
Brian Kubicki, Erick Arias
A new yellow salamander belonging to the genus Bolitoglossa, subgenus Eladinea, is described from a premontane rainforest in the vicinity of Moravia de Chirripó, on the northeastern slopes of the Cordillera de Talamanca in Costa Rica at an elevation of ca. 1300 m. This new taxon is distinguished from its congeners by its chromatic and morphological characteristics, and by differentiation in DNA sequences of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA and cytochrome b genes.
November 3, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804976/tetrapod-limb-and-sarcopterygian-fin-regeneration-share-a-core-genetic-programme
#14
Acacio F Nogueira, Carinne M Costa, Jamily Lorena, Rodrigo N Moreira, Gabriela N Frota-Lima, Carolina Furtado, Mark Robinson, Chris T Amemiya, Sylvain Darnet, Igor Schneider
Salamanders are the only living tetrapods capable of fully regenerating limbs. The discovery of salamander lineage-specific genes (LSGs) expressed during limb regeneration suggests that this capacity is a salamander novelty. Conversely, recent paleontological evidence supports a deeper evolutionary origin, before the occurrence of salamanders in the fossil record. Here we show that lungfishes, the sister group of tetrapods, regenerate their fins through morphological steps equivalent to those seen in salamanders...
November 2, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798698/exploring-the-distribution-of-the-spreading-lethal-salamander-chytrid-fungus-in-its-invasive-range-in-europe-a-macroecological-approach
#15
Stephan Feldmeier, Lukas Schefczyk, Norman Wagner, Günther Heinemann, Michael Veith, Stefan Lötters
The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) is a dangerous pathogen to salamanders and newts. Apparently native to Asia, it has recently been detected in Western Europe where it is expected to spread and to have dramatic effects on naïve hosts. Since 2010, Bsal has led to some catastrophic population declines of urodeles in the Netherlands and Belgium. More recently, it has been discovered in additional, more distant sites including sites in Germany. With the purpose to contribute to a better understanding of Bsal, we modelled its potential distribution in its invasive European range to gain insights about the factors driving this distribution...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796527/genetic-structure-and-diversity-in-an-isolated-population-of-an-endemic-mole-salamander-ambystoma-rivulare-taylor-1940-of-central-mexico
#16
Rosa-Laura Heredia-Bobadilla, Octavio Monroy-Vilchis, Martha M Zarco-González, Daniel Martínez-Gómez, Germán David Mendoza-Martínez, Armando Sunny
Human activities are affecting the distribution of species worldwide by causing fragmentation and isolation of populations. Isolation and fragmentation lead to populations with lower genetic variability and an increased chance of inbreeding and genetic drift, which results in a loss of biological fitness over time. Studies of the genetic structure of small and isolated populations are critically important for management and conservation decisions. Ambystoma rivulare is a micro-endemic Mexican mole salamander from central Mexico...
December 2016: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786157/in-vitro-antiviral-efficacy-of-moroxydine-hydrochloride-and-ribavirin-against-grass-carp-reovirus-and-giant-salamander-iridovirus
#17
Xiao-Bo Yu, Xiao-Hui Chen, Li-Peng Shan, Kai Hao, Gao-Xue Wang
Moroxydine hydrochloride (Mor) and ribavirin (Rib) have been reported to exhibit multi-antiviral activities against DNA and RNA viruses, but their antiviral activities and pharmacologies have seldom been studied in aquaculture. This paper has selected 3 aquatic viruses including a double-stranded RNA virus (grass carp reovirus, GCRV), a single-stranded RNA virus (spring viraemia of carp virus, SVCV) and a DNA virus (giant salamander iridovirus, GSIV) for antiviral testing. The results showed that Mor and Rib can effectively control the infection of GCRV and GSIV in respective host cells...
October 27, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784263/multiplicity-of-buc-copies-in-atlantic-salmon-contrasts-with-loss-of-the-germ-cell-determinant-in-primates-rodents-and-axolotl
#18
Adrijana Škugor, Helge Tveiten, Hanne Johnsen, Øivind Andersen
BACKGROUND: The primordial germ cells (PGCs) giving rise to gametes are determined by two different mechanisms in vertebrates. While the germ cell fate in mammals and salamanders is induced by zygotic signals, maternally delivered germ cell determinants specify the PGCs in birds, frogs and teleost fish. Assembly of the germ plasm in the oocyte is organized by the single Buc in zebrafish, named Velo1 in Xenopus, and by Oskar in Drosophila. Secondary loss of oskar in several insect lineages coincides with changes in germline determination strategies, while the presence of buc in mammals suggests functions not associated with germline formation...
October 26, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771075/autophagy-and-apoptosis-induced-by-chinese-giant-salamander-andrias-davidianus-iridovirus-cgsiv
#19
Jian Du, Liqing Wang, Yuanxian Wang, Jian Shen, Chuanyin Pan, Yan Meng, Changming Yang, Hong Ji, Wuzi Dong
The outbreak of Chinese Giant Salamander (Andrias davidianus, CGS) Iridovirus (CGSIV) caused massive death of CGSs. However, some CGSs with low level of CGSIV usually could survive. In our study, major capsid protein (MCP) DNA replicates of CGSIV in shedding skin were employed to assess the relative content of CGSIV in the living CGSs by qPCR. Furthermore, the examinations of autophagy and apoptosis in CGSs in vivo and in the primary renal cells in vitro were performed, respectively. The results showed that the relative contents of CGSIV in the shedding skin could reflect those in liver, spleen, and kidney of the CGSs...
November 15, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766381/comparative-and-developmental-patterns-of-amphibious-auditory-function-in-salamanders
#20
Jeffrey N Zeyl, Carol E Johnston
Early amphibious tetrapods may have detected aquatic sound pressure using sound-induced lung vibrations, but their lack of tympanic middle ears would have restricted aerial sensitivity. Sharing these characteristics, salamanders could be models for the carryover of auditory function across an aquatic-terrestrial boundary without tympanic middle ears. We measured amphibious auditory evoked potential audiograms in five phylogenetically and ecologically distinct salamanders (Amphiuma means, Notophthalmus viridescens, Ambystoma talpoideum, Eurycea spp...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
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