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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101674/posterior-tail-development-in-the-salamander-eurycea-cirrigera-exploring-cellular-dynamics-across-life-stages
#1
Janet L Vaglia, Chet Fornari, Paula K Evans
During embryogenesis, the body axis elongates and specializes. In vertebrate groups such as salamanders and lizards, elongation of the posterior body axis (tail) continues throughout life. This phenomenon of post-embryonic tail elongation via addition of vertebrae has remained largely unexplored, and little is known about the underlying developmental mechanisms that promote vertebral addition. Our research investigated tail elongation across life stages in a non-model salamander species, Eurycea cirrigera (Plethodontidae)...
January 18, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099779/trapped-within-the-city-integrating-demography-time-since-isolation-and-population-specific-traits-to-assess-the-genetic-effects-of-urbanization
#2
André Lourenço, David Álvarez, Ian J Wang, Guillermo Velo-Antón
Urbanization is a severe form of habitat fragmentation that can cause many species to be locally extirpated and many others to become trapped and isolated within an urban matrix. The role of drift in reducing genetic diversity and increasing genetic differentiation is well recognized in urban populations. However, explicit incorporation and analysis of the demographic and temporal factors promoting drift in urban environments is poorly studied. Here, we genotyped 15 microsatellites in 320 fire salamanders from the historical city of Oviedo (Est...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096430/testing-hypotheses-about-individual-variation-in-plasma-corticosterone-in-free-living-salamanders
#3
Jessica R Thomas, Andrew J Magyan, Peter E Freeman, Sarah K Woodley
In vertebrates, many responses to stress as well as homeostatic maintenance of basal metabolism are regulated by plasma glucocorticoid hormones (GCs). Despite having crucial functions, levels of GCs are typically variable among individuals. We examined the contribution of several physiological factors to individual variation in plasma corticosterone (CORT) and the number of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons in the magnocellular preoptic area of the brain in free-living Allegheny Mountain dusky salamanders...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092623/ultrasonography-a-method-used-for-pregnancy-imaging-of-the-fire-salamander-salamandra-salamandra
#4
A Najbar, Z Kiełbowicz, J Szymczak, M Ogielska
Ultrasound imaging has more frequently been used in veterinary medicine of amphibians and reptiles. In this study, we have verified the usefulness of ultrasound imaging in pregnancy determination of the fire salamander Salamandra salamandra. We have also undertaken to estimate the number of larvae and their developmental stage directly in the oviducts. Three gravid females from Lower Silesia (southern Poland) were examined. Due to the small size of the scanned animals, and the particular arrangement of embryos in the oviducts and ultrasound beams dispersal, the method proved to be inaccurate...
December 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087637/retinoic-acid-receptor-regulation-of-epimorphic-and-homeostatic-regeneration-in-the-axolotl
#5
Matthew Nguyen, Pankhuri Singhal, Judith Piet, Sandra J Shefelbine, Malcolm Maden, S Randal Voss, James R Monaghan
Salamanders are capable of regenerating amputated limbs by generating a mass of lineage-restricted cells called a blastema. Blastemas only generate structures distal to their origin unless treated with retinoic acid (RA), which results in proximodistal (PD) limb duplications. Little is known about the transcriptional network that regulates PD duplication. In this study, we target specific retinoic acid receptors (RARs) to either PD duplicate (RA treatment or RARγ agonist) or truncate (RARβ antagonist) regenerating limbs...
January 13, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074838/the-effect-of-brumation-on-memory-retention
#6
Anna Wilkinson, Anne Hloch, Julia Mueller-Paul, Ludwig Huber
Long-term torpor is an adaptive strategy that allows animals to survive harsh winter conditions. However, the impact that prolonged torpor has on cognitive function is poorly understood. Hibernation causes reduced synaptic activity and experiments with mammals reveal that this can have adverse effects on memories formed prior to hibernation. The impact of brumation, the winter dormancy that is observed in ectotherms, on memory remains unknown. The aim of this study was to examine whether an amphibian, the fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra), was able to retain learned spatial information after a period of brumation...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073020/regeneration-recorded-live
#7
Gilbert Weidinger
Salamanders and fish can regenerate amputated limbs/fins. Which cells drive this intriguing process? Two recent papers have used live imaging of labelled clones of cells to reveal the contribution of connective tissue.
January 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065604/characterization-of-galectin-1-from-chinese-giant-salamanders-andrias-davidianus-and-its-involvements-during-immune-response
#8
Hui Yang, Qingjing Lan, Ranran Liu, Dan Cui, Haixia Liu, Dongmei Xiong, Fenggang Li, Xiaolin Liu, Lixin Wang
Galectins are considered as a multifunctional protein which play essential roles in cell adhesion and apoptosis, inflammation, tumor progression and immune response. In spite of extensive studies of galectin importance in immune system among different animals, few studies have been devoted to their functions in amphibian. In the present study, we characterized one proto type of galectin (named AdGal1) from Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus and studied its function in immune response. AdGal1 cDNA possesses an open reading frame of 598 bp, which encodes a putative galectin of 134 amino acids containing one carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs)...
January 5, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060282/isolation-of-giant-lampbrush-chromosomes-from-living-oocytes-of-frogs-and-salamanders
#9
Joseph G Gall, Zehra F Nizami
We describe methods for studying the giant transcriptionally active lampbrush chromosomes (LBCs) found in the oocyte, or unlaid egg, of frogs and salamanders. Individual LBCs can be up to 1 mm in length and they reside in a gigantic nucleus, itself up to 0.5 mm in diameter. The large size of the chromosomes permits unparalleled observations of active genes by light optical microscopy, but at the same time special techniques are required for isolating the nucleus, removing the nuclear envelope, and spreading the chromosomes on a microscope slide...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058686/electrical-discharges-in-chinese-salamander-andrias-davidianus
#10
V M Olshanskii, V D Baron, Xue Wei
In 2-year-old Chinese giant salamanders Andrias davidianus, occasional electric discharges with a characteristic pattern similar to the electric discharges of weakly electric catfish, Polypterus and Protopterus, were recorded for the first time. The discharges markedly differ in shape from the myograms accompanying abrupt movements of the salamander or exceeded them in amplitude by more than an order of magnitude. The discharges were recorded both in the autonomous experiment in the absence of experimenters and at a weak tactile stimulation...
November 2016: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052496/species-interactions-and-the-effects-of-climate-variability-on-a-wetland-amphibian-metacommunity
#11
Courtney L Davis, David A W Miller, Susan C Walls, William J Barichivich, Jeffrey W Riley, Mary E Brown
Disentangling the role that multiple interacting factors have on species responses to shifting climate poses a significant challenge. However, our ability to do so is of utmost importance to predict the effects of climate change on species distributions. We examined how populations of three species of wetland-breeding amphibians, which varied in life history requirements, responded to a six-year period of extremely variable precipitation. This interval was punctuated by both extensive drought and heavy precipitation and flooding, providing a natural experiment to measure community responses to environmental perturbations...
January 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035265/evaluating-within-population-variability-in-behavior-and-demography-for-the-adaptive-potential-of-a-dispersal-limited-species-to-climate-change
#12
David J Muñoz, Kyle Miller Hesed, Evan H Campbell Grant, David A W Miller
Multiple pathways exist for species to respond to changing climates. However, responses of dispersal-limited species will be more strongly tied to ability to adapt within existing populations as rates of environmental change will likely exceed movement rates. Here, we assess adaptive capacity in Plethodon cinereus, a dispersal-limited woodland salamander. We quantify plasticity in behavior and variation in demography to observed variation in environmental variables over a 5-year period. We found strong evidence that temperature and rainfall influence P...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031401/segmental-specificity-in-belly-dance-mimics-primal-trunk-locomotor-patterns
#13
Marilee Margaret Nugent, Theodore E Milner
Belly dance was used to investigate control of rhythmic undulating trunk movements in humans. Activation patterns in lumbar erector spinae muscles were recorded using surface electromyography at four segmental levels spanning T10 to L4. Muscle activation patterns for movement tempos of 2 Hz, 3 Hz and as fast as possible (up to 6 Hz) were compared to test the hypothesis that frequency modulates muscle timing, causing pattern changes analogous to gait transitions. Groups of trained and untrained female subjects were compared to test the hypothesis that experience modifies muscle coordination patterns and the capacity for selective motion of spinal segments...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028909/regulation-of-injury-induced-ovarian-regeneration-by-activation-of-oogonial-stem-cells
#14
Piril Erler, Alexandra Sweeney, James R Monaghan
Some animals have the ability to generate large numbers of oocytes throughout life. This raises the question whether persistent adult germline stem cell populations drive continuous oogenesis and whether they are capable of mounting a regenerative response after injury. Here we demonstrate the presence of adult oogonial stem cells (OSCs) in the adult axolotl salamander ovary and show that ovarian injury induces OSC activation and functional regeneration of the ovaries to reproductive capability. Cells that have morphological similarities to germ cells were identified in the developing and adult ovaries via histological analysis...
January 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026889/genomic-data-detect-corresponding-signatures-of-population-size-change-on-an-ecological-time-scale-in-two-salamander-species
#15
Schyler O Nunziata, Stacey L Lance, David E Scott, Emily Moriarty Lemmon, David W Weisrock
Understanding the demography of species over recent history (e.g., < 100 years) is critical in studies of ecology and evolution, but records of population history are rarely available. Surveying genetic variation is a potential alternative to census-based estimates of population size, and can yield insight into the demography of a population. However, to assess the performance of genetic methods it is important to compare their estimates of population history to known demography. Here, we leveraged the exceptional resources from a wetland with 37 years of amphibian mark-recapture data to study the utility of genetically-based demographic inference on salamander species with documented population declines (Ambystoma talpoideum) and expansions (A...
December 27, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995742/tracking-the-amphibian-pathogens-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis-and-batrachochytrium-salamandrivorans-using-a-highly-specific-monoclonal-antibody-and-lateral-flow-technology
#16
Michael J Dillon, Andrew E Bowkett, Michael J Bungard, Katie M Beckman, Michelle F O'Brien, Kieran Bates, Matthew C Fisher, Jamie R Stevens, Christopher R Thornton
The fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) causes chytridiomycosis, a lethal epizootic disease of amphibians. Rapid identification of the pathogen and biosecurity is essential to prevent its spread, but current laboratory-based tests are time-consuming and require specialist equipment. Here, we describe the generation of an IgM monoclonal antibody (mAb), 5C4, specific to Bd as well as the related salamander and newt pathogen Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal). The mAb, which binds to a glycoprotein antigen present on the surface of zoospores, sporangia and zoosporangia, was used to develop a lateral-flow assay (LFA) for rapid (15 min) detection of the pathogens...
December 19, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988653/taxonomic-revision-of-the-moss-salamander-i-nototriton-i-i-barbouri-i-schmidt-caudata-plethodontidae-with-description-of-two-new-species-from-the-cordillera-nombre-de-dios-honduras
#17
Josiah H Townsend
Moss salamanders (genus Nototriton) are represented in northern Central America by nine putative species: N. barbouri, N. brodiei, N. lignicola, N. limnospectator, N. mime, N. picucha, N. saslaya, N. stuarti, and N. tomamorum. I estimate the phylogenetic relationships for these species based on data from three mitochondrial gene fragments (16S, cytochrome b, and COI), and compare morphological variation among putative taxa. As evidenced here and in previous studies, the taxon N. barbouri is paraphyletic with respect to populations from the Cordillera Nombre de Dios in northern Honduras...
November 24, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988584/a-diversity-and-conservation-inventory-of-the-herpetofauna-of-the-cuautlapan-valley-veracruz-mexico
#18
Nelson M Ceron DE LA Luz, Julio A Lemos-Espinal, Geoffrey R Smith
We compiled an inventory of the amphibians and reptiles of the Cuautlapan Valley, Veracruz, Mexico based on field surveys and museum and literature records. We found a total of 78 species: 28 amphibians (6 Salamanders and 22 anurans); and 50 reptiles (three turtles, 18 lizards, and 29 snakes). These taxa represent 26 families (eight amphibian families, 18 reptile families) and 60 genera (19 amphibian genera, 41 reptile genera). Two of these species are not native to the area (Rhinoclemmys pulcherrima and Hemidactylus frenatus)...
December 5, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976718/amphibian-gut-microbiota-shifts-differentially-in-community-structure-but-converges-on-habitat-specific-predicted-functions
#19
Molly C Bletz, Daniel J Goedbloed, Eugenia Sanchez, Timm Reinhardt, Christoph C Tebbe, Sabin Bhuju, Robert Geffers, Michael Jarek, Miguel Vences, Sebastian Steinfartz
Complex microbial communities inhabit vertebrate digestive systems but thorough understanding of the ecological dynamics and functions of host-associated microbiota within natural habitats is limited. We investigate the role of environmental conditions in shaping gut and skin microbiota under natural conditions by performing a field survey and reciprocal transfer experiments with salamander larvae inhabiting two distinct habitats (ponds and streams). We show that gut and skin microbiota are habitat-specific, demonstrating environmental factors mediate community structure...
December 15, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956483/thermal-sensitivity-of-motor-control-of-muscle-powered-versus-elastically-powered-tongue-projection-in-salamanders
#20
Jeffrey A Scales, Mary Kate O'Donnell, Stephen M Deban
Elastic-recoil mechanisms can improve organismal performance and circumvent the thermal limitations of muscle contraction, yet they require the appropriate motor control to operate. We compare muscle activity during tongue projection in salamanders with elastically powered, ballistic projection to those with muscle-powered, non-ballistic projection across a range of temperatures to understand how motor control is integrated with elastically powered movements, and how this integration contributes to reduced thermal sensitivity...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
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