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Glenn A Marvin, Richard Bryan, James Hardwick
Although feeding in some plethodontid salamander species, such as Dusky Salamanders (Desmognathus, family Plethodontidae), occurs at short-term (acute) low temperature below 5°C, it is unknown whether feeding, digestion, and gut passage continue to occur during periods of long-term (chronic) low temperature. We performed a controlled laboratory experiment to examine the effect of several chronic low environmental temperatures on both feeding and gut passage in semiaquatic Spotted Dusky Salamanders (D. conanti)...
October 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
Blake Klocke, Matthew Becker, James Lewis, Robert C Fleischer, Carly R Muletz-Wolz, Larry Rockwood, A Alonso Aguirre, Brian Gratwicke
We engaged pet salamander owners in the United States to screen their animals for two amphibian chytrid fungal pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and B. salamandrivorans (Bsal). We provided pet owners with a sampling kit and instructional video to swab the skin of their animals. We received 639 salamander samples from 65 species by mail, and tested them for Bd and Bsal using qPCR. We detected Bd on 1.3% of salamanders (95% CI 0.0053-0.0267) and did not detect Bsal (95% CI 0.0000-0.0071). If Bsal is present in the U...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Akira Tazaki, Elly M Tanaka, Jifeng Fei
Repairing injured tissues / organs is one of the major challenges for the maintenance of proper organ function in adulthood. In mammals, the central nervous system including the spinal cord, once established during embryonic development, has very limited capacity to regenerate. In contrast, salamanders such as axolotls can fully regenerate the injured spinal cord, making this a very powerful vertebrate model system for studying this process. Here we discuss the cellular and molecular requirements for spinal cord regeneration in the axolotl...
October 10, 2017: Developmental Biology
Pascale Van Rooij, Frank Pasmans, Yanaika Coen, An Martel
The recently emerged chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) causes European salamander declines. Proper hygiene protocols including disinfection procedures are crucial to prevent disease transmission. Here, the efficacy of chemical disinfectants in killing Bsal was evaluated. At all tested conditions, Biocidal®, Chloramine-T®, Dettol medical®, Disolol®, ethanol, F10®, Hibiscrub®, potassium permanganate, Safe4®, sodium hypochlorite, and Virkon S®, were effective at killing Bsal. Concentrations of 5% sodium chloride or lower, 0...
2017: PloS One
Jérémy Tissier, Jean-Claude Rage, Michel Laurin
Fossils are almost always represented by hard tissues but we present here the exceptional case of a three-dimensionally preserved specimen that was 'mummified' (likely between 40 and 34 million years ago) in a terrestrial karstic environment. This fossil is the incomplete body of a salamander, Phosphotriton sigei, whose skeleton and external morphology are well preserved, as revealed by phase-contrast synchrotron X-ray microtomography. In addition, internal structures composed of soft tissues preserved in three dimensions are now identified: a lung, the spinal cord, a lumbosacral plexus, the digestive tract, muscles and urogenital organs that may be cloacal glands...
2017: PeerJ
Qihuan Zhang, Panpan Han, Bei Huang, Zisheng Wang, Guo Qiao, Puze Wang, Zhitao Qi
Cathepsin A (CTSA) is serine carboxypeptidase, an important protease in the lysosome. In this study, the full complementary DNA (cDNA) sequence of CTSA in Chinese giant salamanders Andrias davidianus was cloned, and its sequence features were analyzed. Tissue expression patterns of CTSA in healthy and Aeromonas hydrophila-infected salamanders were also investigated. The full cDNA sequence of salamander CTSA was 1,620 base pairs in length, encoding 472 amino acids. Salamander CTSA shared high sequence identities with other vertebrates' CTSAs, ranging from 62...
December 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Justin L Rheubert, Hanna E Cook, Dustin S Siegel, Stanley E Trauth
Previous studies have revealed variations in the urogenital system morphology of amphibians. Recently, the urogenital system of salamanders was reviewed and terminology was synonymized across taxa. Discrepancies exist in the terminology describing the urogenital system of anurans, which prompted our group to develop a complete, detailed description of the urogenital system in an anuran species and provide nomenclature that is synonymous with those of other amphibian taxa. In Rana catesbeiana, sperm mature within spermatocysts of the seminiferous tubule epithelia and are transported to a series of intratesticular ducts that exit the testes and merge to form vasa efferentia...
October 2017: Zoological Science
Ellen Heber-Katz
The discovery that the Murphy Roths Large (MRL) mouse strain is a fully competent, epimorphic tissue regenerator, proved that the machinery of regeneration was preserved through evolution from hydra, to salamanders, to mammals. Such concepts have allowed translation of the biology of amphibians, and their ability to regenerate, to a mammalian context. We identified the ancient hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α pathway, operating through prolyl hydroxylase domain proteins (PHDs), as a central player in mouse regeneration...
October 5, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
Xiangyi Wen, Grant W Saltzgaber, Wallace B Thoreson
Accompanying sustained release in darkness, rod and cone photoreceptors exhibit rapid endocytosis of synaptic vesicles. Membrane capacitance measurements indicated that rapid endocytosis retrieves at least 70% of the exocytotic membrane increase. One mechanism for rapid endocytosis is kiss-and-run fusion where vesicles briefly contact the plasma membrane through a small fusion pore. Release can also occur by full-collapse in which vesicles merge completely with the plasma membrane. We assessed relative contributions of full-collapse and kiss-and-run in salamander photoreceptors using optical techniques to measure endocytosis and exocytosis of large vs...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Sanie Sesay, Jerzy Brzostek, Ingo Meyer, Yves Donazzolo, Geert Leroux-Roels, Régine Rouzier, Béatrice Astruc, Henryk Szymanski, Nicole Toursarkissian, Corinne Vandermeulen, Edyta Kowalska, Pierre Van Damme, Camille Salamand, Stephanie Pepin
Here, we report a randomized multicenter phase III trial assessing the lot-to-lot consistency of the 2014-2015 Northern Hemisphere quadrivalent split-virion inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4; Sanofi Pasteur) and comparing its immunogenicity and safety with that of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) in younger and older adults (EudraCT no. 2014-000785-21). Younger (18-60 y, n = 1114) and older (>60 y, n = 1111) adults were randomized 2:2:2:1:1 to receive a single dose of one of three lots of IIV4, the licensed IIV3 containing the B Yamagata lineage strain, or an investigational IIV3 containing the B Victoria lineage strain...
October 2, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
D J Goedbloed, T Czypionka, J Altmüller, A Rodriguez, E Küpfer, O Segev, L Blaustein, A R Templeton, A W Nolte, S Steinfartz
The utilization of similar habitats by different species provides an ideal opportunity to identify genes underlying adaptation and acclimatization. Here, we analysed the gene expression of two closely related salamander species: Salamandra salamandra in Central Europe and Salamandra infraimmaculata in the Near East. These species inhabit similar habitat types: 'temporary ponds' and 'permanent streams' during larval development. We developed two species-specific gene expression microarrays, each targeting over 12 000 transcripts, including an overlapping subset of 8331 orthologues...
September 27, 2017: Heredity
Qiaomu Hu, Hanbing Xiao, Qilong Wang, Haifeng Tian, Yan Meng
In the present study, 21 forkhead box (Fox) genes were identified in Andrias davidianus, including 13 full-length genes and eight partial sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that most were conserved in other investigated amphibians, whereas the Foxk1 gene was found exclusively in A. davidianus. Molecular evolution analysis indicated that most Fox genes underwent purifying selection, whereas two sites of the adFoxp4 gene showed positive selection and were located on the adFoxp4 protein surface. Expression profiles of all Fox genes identified were analysed in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad axis by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
September 26, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Jie Tang, Yuan Yu, Hanxue Zheng, Lu Yin, Mei Sun, Wenjun Wang, Jihong Cui, Wenguang Liu, Xin Xie, Fulin Chen
BACKGROUND: Salamanders regenerate their limbs after amputation. However, the molecular mechanism of this unique regeneration remains unclear. In this study, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) coupled with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was employed to quantitatively identify differentially expressed proteins in regenerating limbs 3, 7, 14, 30 and 42 days post amputation (dpa). RESULTS: Of 2636 proteins detected in total, 253 proteins were differentially expressed during different regeneration stages...
September 22, 2017: BMC Genomics
Jennifer Simkin, Mimi C Sammarco, Luis Marrero, Lindsay A Dawson, Mingquan Yan, Catherine Tucker, Alex Cammack, Ken Muneoka
In mammals, macrophages are known to play a major role in tissue regeneration. These cells contribute to inflammation, histolysis, re-epithelialization, re-vascularization and cell proliferation. While macrophages have been shown to be essential for regeneration in salamanders and fish, their role has not been elucidated in mammalian epimorphic regeneration. Here, using the regenerating mouse digit tip as a mammalian model, we demonstrate that macrophages are essential for the regeneration process. Using cell depletion strategies, we show that regeneration is completely inhibited; bone histolysis does not occur, wound re-epithelization is inhibited and the blastema does not form...
September 21, 2017: Development
Jody L Heerema, Caren C Helbing, Greg G Pyle
Olfaction is an important sense for aquatic organisms because it provides information about their surroundings, including nearby food, mates, and predators. Electro-olfactography (EOG) is an electrophysiological technique that measures the response of olfactory tissue to olfactory stimuli, and responses are indicative of olfactory acuity. Previous studies have used this technique on a variety of species including frogs, salamanders, daphniids and, most extensively, fish. In the present study, we introduce a novel modified EOG method for use on Lithobates (Rana) catesbeiana tadpoles...
September 16, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Angela M Ritenour, Renee Dickie
Angiogenesis is crucial for tissue growth and repair in mammals, and is chiefly regulated by Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) signaling. We evaluated the effect of chemical inhibition of VEGF receptor signaling in animals with superior regenerative ability, axolotl salamanders, to determine the impact on vascularization and regenerative outgrowth. Following tail amputation, treated animals (100nM PTK787) and controls were examined microscopically and measured over the month-long period of regeneration...
September 16, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Trung P Huynh, James K Jancovich, Latha Tripuraneni, Michael C Heck, Jeffrey O Langland, Bertram L Jacobs
Ambystoma tigrinum virus (ATV) (family Iridoviridae, genus Ranavirus) was isolated from diseased tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum stebbinsi) from the San Rafael Valley in southern Arizona, USA in 1996. Genomic sequencing of ATV, as well as other members of the genus, identified an open reading frame that has homology to the eukaryotic translation initiation factor, eIF2α (ATV eIF2α homologue, vIF2αH). Therefore, we asked if the ATV vIF2αH could also inhibit PKR. To test this hypothesis, the ATV vIF2αH was cloned into vaccinia virus (VACV) in place of the well-characterized VACV PKR inhibitor, E3L...
November 2017: Virology
Grant Parker Flowers, Lucas D Sanor, Craig M Crews
Salamanders are unparalleled among tetrapods in their ability to regenerate many structures, including entire limbs, and the study of this ability may provide insights into human regenerative therapies. The complex structure of the limb poses challenges to the investigation of the cellular and molecular basis of its regeneration. Using CRISPR/Cas, we genetically labelled unique cell lineages within the developing axolotl embryo and tracked the frequency of each lineage within amputated and fully regenerated limbs...
September 16, 2017: ELife
Marco Basile, Antonio Romano, Andrea Costa, Mario Posillico, Daniele Scinti Roger, Aldo Crisci, Ranieri Raimondi, Tiziana Altea, Vittorio Garfì, Giovanni Santopuoli, Marco Marchetti, Sebastiano Salvidio, Bruno De Cinti, Giorgio Matteucci
Many small terrestrial vertebrates exhibit limited spatial movement and are considerably exposed to changes in local environmental variables. Among such vertebrates, amphibians at present experience a dramatic decline due to their limited resilience to environmental change. Since the local survival and abundance of amphibians is intrinsically related to the availability of shelters, conservation plans need to take microhabitat requirements into account. In order to gain insight into the terrestrial ecology of the spectacled salamander Salamandrina perspicillata and to identify appropriate forest management strategies, we investigated the salamander's seasonal variability in habitat use of trees as shelters in relation to tree features (size, buttresses, basal holes) and environmental variables in a beech forest in Italy...
September 12, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
Thomas L Anderson, Freya E Rowland, Raymond D Semlitsch
Variation in the timing of breeding (i.e., phenological variation) can affect species interactions and community structure, in part by shifting body size differences between species. Body size differences can be further altered by density-dependent competition, though synergistic effects of density and phenology on species interactions are rarely evaluated. We tested how field-realistic variation in phenology and density affected ringed salamander (Ambystoma annulatum) predation on spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum), and whether these altered salamander dynamics resulted in trophic cascades...
September 11, 2017: Oecologia
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