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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543305/effects-of-nitrogenous-wastes-on-survival-of-the-barton-springs-salamander-eurycea-sosorum
#1
Justin C Crow, Kenneth G Ostrand, Michael R J Forstner, Matthew Catalano, Joseph R Tomasso
The objective of our study was to determine the acute toxicity of 3 common aquatic nitrogenous toxicants to the federally endangered Barton Springs salamander (Eurycea sosorum). Based on our findings, the 96-hour median-lethal concentration (96-h LC50) for un-ionized ammonia-N, nitrite-N, and nitrate-N to E. sosorum are 2.0 ± 0.32 mg/L, 31.7 ± 4.02 mg/L, and 968.5 ± 150.6 mg/L, respectively. These results establish a benchmark for the tolerance of plethodontid salamanders to these toxicants and indicate that current water quality criteria are adequate for their protection...
May 23, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531969/biogeographical-factors-affecting-the-distribution-of-stream-salamanders-on-the-cumberland-plateau-usa
#2
P R Gould, K K Cecala, S S Drukker, B A McKenzie, C Van de Ven
Geophysical and climate conditions play an important role in the distribution of organisms at both fine and broad scales. Headwater streams integrate changes at broad geographical scales and serve as important regions of nutrient processing and support high biodiversity. Stream salamanders are important members of headwater aquatic communities as both predators and prey. Combined with their biphasic life histories and physiological requirements, stream amphibians may serve as indicators for headwater stream conditions...
May 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520733/environmental-dna-method-for-estimating-salamander-distribution-in-headwater-streams-and-a-comparison-of-water-sampling-methods
#3
Izumi Katano, Ken Harada, Hideyuki Doi, Rio Souma, Toshifumi Minamoto
Environmental DNA (eDNA) has recently been used for detecting the distribution of macroorganisms in various aquatic habitats. In this study, we applied an eDNA method to estimate the distribution of the Japanese clawed salamander, Onychodactylus japonicus, in headwater streams. Additionally, we compared the detection of eDNA and hand-capturing methods used for determining the distribution of O. japonicus. For eDNA detection, we designed a qPCR primer/probe set for O. japonicus using the 12S rRNA region. We detected the eDNA of O...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515895/disruptive-natural-selection-predicts-divergence-between-the-sexes-during-adaptive-radiation
#4
Stephen P De Lisle, Locke Rowe
Evolution of sexual dimorphism in ecologically relevant traits, for example, via resource competition between the sexes, is traditionally envisioned to stall the progress of adaptive radiation. An alternative view is that evolution of ecological sexual dimorphism could in fact play an important positive role by facilitating sex-specific adaptation. How competition-driven disruptive selection, ecological sexual dimorphism, and speciation interact during real adaptive radiations is thus a critical and open empirical question...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502615/reduce-reuse-recycle-developmental-signals-in-spinal-cord-regeneration
#5
REVIEW
Marcos Julian Cardozo, Karolina S Mysiak, Thomas Becker, Catherina G Becker
Anamniotes, fishes and amphibians, have the capacity to regenerate spinal cord tissue after injury, generating new neurons that mature and integrate into the spinal circuitry. Elucidating the molecular signals that promote this regeneration is a fundamental question in regeneration research. Model systems, such as salamanders and larval and adult zebrafish are used to analyse successful regeneration. This shows that many developmental signals, such as Notch, Hedgehog (Hh), Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP), Wnt, Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF), Retinoic Acid (RA) and neurotransmitters are redeployed during regeneration and activate resident spinal progenitor cells...
May 11, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500336/phylogeographical-structure-and-demographic-expansion-in-the-endemic-alpine-stream-salamander-hynobiidae-batrachuperus-of-the-qinling-mountains
#6
Zu-Shi Huang, Feng-Lan Yu, Hui-Sheng Gong, Yan-Ling Song, Zhi-Gao Zeng, Qiong Zhang
The Qinling Mountains of China provide an excellent study area for assessing the effect of Pleistocene climatic oscillations and paleogeological events on intraspecific diversification. To assess genetic diversity of an endemic stream salamander, Batrachuperus tibetanus, for its conservation, a phylogeographical survey was performed based on mitochondrial DNA and morphological data. The mitochondrial data revealed three lineages of B. tibetanus in the Qinling Mountains. A lineage present in the northwestern Qinling Mountains groups with the Tibet lineage of B...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500054/linkage-map-of-lissotriton-newts-provides-insight-into-the-genetic-basis-of-reproductive-isolation
#7
Marta Niedzicka, Katarzyna Dudek, Anna Fijarczyk, Piotr Zieliński, Wiesław Babik
Linkage maps are widely used to investigate structure, function and evolution of genomes. In speciation research, maps facilitate the study of the genetic architecture of reproductive isolation by allowing identification of genomic regions underlying reduced fitness of hybrids. Here we present a linkage map for European newts of the Lissotriton vulgaris species complex, constructed using two families of F2 L. montandoni x L. vulgaris hybrids. The map consists of 1146 protein coding genes on 12 linkage groups, equal to the haploid chromosome number, with a total length of 1484 cM (1...
May 12, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493499/length-mass-allometries-in-amphibians
#8
L Santini, A Benítez-López, G F Ficetola, M A J Huijbregts
Body mass is rarely recorded in amphibians, and other body measurements (e.g. Snout to vent length, SVL) are generally collected instead. However length measurements, when used as proxies of body mass in comparative analyses, are problematic if different taxa and morphotypes are included. We developed allometric relationships to derive body mass from SVL measurements. We fitted Phylogenetic Generalized Least Square models for frogs (Anura) and salamanders (Caudata) and for several families separately. We tested whether allometric relationships differed between species with different habitat preferences and between morphs in salamanders...
May 11, 2017: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487741/regeneration-and-regrowth-potentials-of-digit-tips-in-amphibians-and-mammals
#9
REVIEW
Yohan Choi, Fanwei Meng, Charles S Cox, Kevin P Lally, Johnny Huard, Yong Li
Tissue regeneration and repair have received much attention in the medical field over the years. The study of amphibians, such as newts and salamanders, has uncovered many of the processes that occur in these animals during full-limb/digit regeneration, a process that is highly limited in mammals. Understanding these processes in amphibians could shed light on how to develop and improve this process in mammals. Amputation injuries in mammals usually result in the formation of scar tissue with limited regrowth of the limb/digit; however, it has been observed that the very tips of digits (fingers and toes) can partially regrow in humans and mice under certain conditions...
2017: International Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476431/identification-and-characterization-of-known-and-novel-micrornas-in-three-tissues-of-chinese-giant-salamander-base-on-deep-sequencing-approach
#10
Yong Huang, Hong Tao Ren, Jian Li Xiong, Xiao Chan Gao, Xi Hong Sun
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding small RNAs that play important roles in the regulation of gene expression. Although animal miRNAs have been extensively studied in model systems, less is known in other animal with limited genome sequence data, including Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus). The identification of the full repertoire of miRNAs expressed in the liver, spleen and muscle of A. davidianus would significantly increase our understanding for physiological function of A. davidianus, in this ancient and endangered urodele amphibian...
May 2, 2017: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470466/relative-predation-risk-and-risk-of-desiccation-co-determine-oviposition-preferences-in-cope-s-gray-treefrog-hyla-chrysoscelis
#11
Matthew R Pintar, William J Resetarits
Habitat permanence and threat of predation are primary drivers of community assembly and composition in lentic freshwater systems. Pond-breeding amphibians select oviposition sites to maximize fitness and minimize risks of predation and desiccation of their offspring, typically facing a trade-off between the two as predation risk often increases as desiccation risk decreases. To experimentally determine if Hyla chrysoscelis partition oviposition along gradients of relative desiccation risk and predation risk, we tested oviposition site preference in a natural population of treefrogs colonizing experimental ponds that varied in water depth and contained predatory larvae of two Ambystoma salamander species...
May 3, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466089/intraspecific-variation-in-the-skin-associated-microbiome-of-a-terrestrial-salamander
#12
Sofia R Prado-Irwin, Alicia K Bird, Andrew G Zink, Vance T Vredenburg
Resident microbial communities living on amphibian skin can have significant effects on host health, yet the basic ecology of the host-microbiome relationship of many amphibian taxa is poorly understood. We characterized intraspecific variation in the skin microbiome of the salamander Ensatina eschscholtzii xanthoptica, a subspecies composed of four genetically distinct populations distributed throughout the San Francisco Bay Area and the Sierra Nevada mountains in California, USA. We found that salamanders from four geographically and genetically isolated populations harbor similar skin microbial communities, which are dominated by a common core set of bacterial taxa...
May 2, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462779/transcriptome-analysis-illuminates-the-nature-of-the-intracellular-interaction-in-a-vertebrate-algal-symbiosis
#13
John A Burns, Huanjia Zhang, Elizabeth Hill, Eunsoo Kim, Ryan Kerney
During embryonic development, cells of the green alga Oophila amblystomatis enter cells of the salamander Ambystoma maculatum forming an endosymbiosis. Here, using de novo dual-RNA seq, we compared the host salamander cells that harbored intracellular algae to those without algae and the algae inside the animal cells to those in the egg capsule. This two-by-two-way analysis revealed that intracellular algae exhibit hallmarks of cellular stress and undergo a striking metabolic shift from oxidative metabolism to fermentation...
May 2, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462778/gasping-for-air
#14
Steven G Ball, Ugo Cenci
Transcriptomics is shedding new light on the relationship between photosynthetic algae and salamander eggs.
May 2, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461043/antimicrobial-peptide-from-mucus-of-andrias-davidianus-screening-and-purification-by-magnetic-cell-membrane-separation-technique
#15
Jinjin Pei, Lei Jiang
Andrias davidianus, the Chinese giant salamander, has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for many decades. However, no antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been described from A. davidianus until now. Here we describe a novel AMP (andricin 01) isolated from the mucus of A. davidianus. The peptide was recovered using an innovative magnetic cell membrane separation technique and was characterised using mass spectrometry and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Andricin 01 is comprised of ten amino acid residues with a total molecular mass of 955...
April 28, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460681/identification-and-expression-of-cytochrome-p450-genes-in-the-chinese-giant-salamander-andrias-davidianus
#16
Qiaomu Hu, Hanbing Xiao, Haifeng Tian, Yan Meng
Cytochrome P450 (cyp) genes play vital roles in biological processes, including in metabolism of endogenous and exogenous compounds. Exogenous hormone influences on gene expression that leads to disruption of gonad development have been studied in several species, but whether exogenous hormones affect cyp genes that show sexually dimorphic expression remains to be determined. Here, we identified and characterized cyp genes from the widely-cultured Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus. We obtained 20 cyp genes including 11 genes with complete sequences...
June 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459986/color-biased-dispersal-inferred-by-fine-scale-genetic-spatial-autocorrelation-in-a-color-polymorphic-salamander
#17
Alexa H Grant, Eric B Liebgold
Behavioral traits can be influenced by predation rates of color morphs, potentially leading to reduced boldness or increased escape behaviors in one color morph. The red-backed salamander, Plethodon cinereus, is a small terrestrial salamander whose color morphs have different diets and select different microhabitats, but little is known about potential differences in dispersal behaviors. We used fine-scale genetic spatial autocorrelation to examine 122 P. cinereus in a color-polymorphic population at ten microsatellite loci in order to generate estimates of spatial genetic structure for each color morph...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459075/a-brief-history-of-the-study-of-nerve-dependent-regeneration
#18
REVIEW
Johanna E Farkas, James R Monaghan
Nerve dependence is a phenomenon observed across a stunning array of species and tissues. From zebrafish to fetal mice to humans, research across various animal models has shown that nerves are critical for the support of tissue repair and regeneration. Although the study of this phenomenon has persisted for centuries, largely through research conducted in salamanders, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of nerve dependence remain poorly-understood. Here we highlight the near-ubiquity and clinical relevance of vertebrate nerve dependence while providing a timeline of its study and an overview of recent advancements toward understanding the mechanisms behind this process...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425998/drivers-of-salamander-extirpation-mediated-by-batrachochytrium-salamandrivorans
#19
Gwij Stegen, Frank Pasmans, Benedikt R Schmidt, Lieze O Rouffaer, Sarah Van Praet, Michael Schaub, Stefano Canessa, Arnaud Laudelout, Thierry Kinet, Connie Adriaensen, Freddy Haesebrouck, Wim Bert, Franky Bossuyt, An Martel
The recent arrival of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in Europe was followed by rapid expansion of its geographical distribution and host range, confirming the unprecedented threat that this chytrid fungus poses to western Palaearctic amphibians. Mitigating this hazard requires a thorough understanding of the pathogen's disease ecology that is driving the extinction process. Here, we monitored infection, disease and host population dynamics in a Belgian fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra) population for two years immediately after the first signs of infection...
April 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425424/spatial-distribution-of-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis-in-south-american-caecilians
#20
Carolina Lambertini, C Guilherme Becker, Cecilia Bardier, Domingos da Silva Leite, Luís Felipe Toledo
The amphibian-killing fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is linked to population declines in anurans and salamanders globally. To date, however, few studies have attempted to screen Bd in live caecilians; Bd-positive caecilians have only been reported in Africa and French Guiana. Here, we performed a retrospective survey of museum preserved specimens to (1) describe spatial patterns of Bd infection in Gymnophiona across South America and (2) test whether areas of low climatic suitability for Bd in anurans predict Bd spatial epidemiology in caecilians...
April 20, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
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