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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345609/environmental-dna-in-subterranean-biology-range-extension-and-taxonomic-implications-for-proteus
#1
Špela Gorički, David Stanković, Aleš Snoj, Matjaž Kuntner, William R Jeffery, Peter Trontelj, Miloš Pavićević, Zlatko Grizelj, Magdalena Năpăruş-Aljančič, Gregor Aljančič
Europe's obligate cave-dwelling amphibian Proteus anguinus inhabits subterranean waters of the north-western Balkan Peninsula. Because only fragments of its habitat are accessible to humans, this endangered salamander's exact distribution has been difficult to establish. Here we introduce a quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction-based environmental DNA (eDNA) approach to detect the presence of Proteus using water samples collected from karst springs, wells or caves. In a survey conducted along the southern limit of its known range, we established a likely presence of Proteus at seven new sites, extending its range to Montenegro...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343933/testing-the-immunocompetence-handicap-hypothesis-testosterone-manipulation-does-not-affect-wound-healing-in-male-salamanders
#2
Jessica R Thomas, Sarah K Woodley
In vertebrates, a bidirectional relationship exists between the immune system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. In addition, sexual dimorphism in immunity has been documented in many vertebrates as well as some invertebrates, and males are generally less immunocompetent than their female counterparts. A possible explanation for this is described by the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis (ICHH), which proposes that elevated testosterone (T) levels direct resources towards the promotion of secondary sexual characteristics at a cost to immune function...
March 23, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341996/structural-insights-into-ligand-binding-of-pgrp1-splice-variants-in-chinese-giant-salamander-andrias-davidianus-from-molecular-dynamics-and-free-energy-calculations
#3
Zhitao Qi, Fancui Meng, Qihuan Zhang, Zisheng Wang, Guo Qiao, Wei Xu, Rong Shao, Chenglung Chen
Peptidoglycan (PGN) recognition proteins (PGRPs) are important pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. A number of PGRP splicing variants produced by alternative splicing of PGRP genes have been reported. However, several important aspects of interactions between PGRP splice variants and their ligands are still unclear. In the present study, three dimensional models of salamander PGRP1 (adPGRP1) and its splice variant (adPGRP1a) were constructed, and their key amino acids involved in interacting with PGNs were analyzed...
April 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296353/methodological-considerations-for-detection-of-terrestrial-small-body-salamander-edna-and-implications-for-biodiversity-conservation
#4
Donald M Walker, Jacob E Leys, Kelly E Dunham, Joshua C Oliver, Emily E Schiller, Kelsey S Stephenson, John T Kimrey, Jessica Wooten, Mark W Rogers
Environmental DNA (eDNA) can be used as an assessment tool to detect populations of threatened species and provide fine-scale data required to make management decisions. The objectives of this project were to use quantitative PCR (qPCR) to: 1) detect spiked salamander DNA in soil, 2) quantify eDNA degradation over time, 3) determine detectability of salamander eDNA in a terrestrial environment using soil, feces, and skin swabs, 4) detect salamander eDNA in a mesocosm experiment. Salamander eDNA was positively detected in 100% of skin swabs and 66% of fecal samples and concentrations did not differ between the two sources...
March 15, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287614/batrachochytrium-salamandrivorans-is-the-predominant-chytrid-fungus-in-vietnamese-salamanders
#5
Alexandra E Laking, Hai Ngoc Ngo, Frank Pasmans, An Martel, Tao Thien Nguyen
The amphibian chytrid fungi, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and B. salamandrivorans (Bsal), pose a major threat to amphibian biodiversity. Recent evidence suggests Southeast Asia as a potential cradle for both fungi, which likely resulted in widespread host-pathogen co-existence. We sampled 583 salamanders from 8 species across Vietnam in 55 locations for Bsal and Bd, determined scaled mass index as a proxy for fitness and collected environmental data. Bsal was found within 14 of the 55 habitats (2 of which it was detected in 2013), in 5 salamandrid species, with a prevalence of 2...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262636/effects-of-corticosterone-on-infection-and-disease-in-salamanders-exposed-to-the-amphibian-fungal-pathogen-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis
#6
Chris W Fonner, Shreya A Patel, Shelby M Boord, Matthew D Venesky, Sarah K Woodley
Although it is well established that glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) alter immune function and disease resistance in humans and laboratory animal models, fewer studies have linked elevated GCs to altered immune function and disease resistance in wild animals. The chytrid fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) infects amphibians and can cause the disease chytridiomycosis, which is responsible for worldwide amphibian declines. It is hypothesized that long-term exposure to environmental stressors reduces host resistance to Bd by suppressing host immunity via stress-induced release of GCs such as corticosterone (CORT)...
March 6, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251304/safe-caves-and-dangerous-forests-predation-risk-may-contribute-to-salamander-colonization-of-subterranean-habitats
#7
Sebastiano Salvidio, Giulia Palumbi, Antonio Romano, Andrea Costa
Recent studies suggest that many organisms actively colonize the subterranean environment to avoid climatic stress, exploit new ecological opportunities and reduce competition and predation. Terrestrial salamanders are known to colonize the more stable subterranean habitats mainly to escape external climatic extremes, while the role of predation avoidance remains untested. To better understand the importance of predation, we used clay models of the cave salamander Speleomantes strinatii to compare the predation occurring in woodland and subterranean habitats...
April 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247910/persistence-of-an-egg-mass-polymorphism-in-ambystoma-maculatum-differential-performance-under-high-and-low-nutrients
#8
Matthew R Pintar, William J Resetarits
Polymorphisms play critical roles in allowing organisms to adapt to novel environments while enabling ecological speciation under divergent selection. Ambystoma maculatum, the spotted salamander, exhibits a unique polymorphism in the structure and appearance of its egg masses with two common morphs, white and clear. Amphibian egg jelly layers mediate interactions between embryos and the environment and are more responsive to ecological pressures of natural selection than other egg coat components. The A. maculatum egg mass polymorphism was hypothesized to be adaptive with regard to varying dissolved nutrient levels in ponds...
March 1, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238880/analysis-on-the-expression-and-function-of-a-chicken-type-and-goose-type-lysozymes-in-chinese-giant-salamanders-andrias-davidianus
#9
Hui Yang, Ranran Liu, Dan Cui, Haixia Liu, Dongmei Xiong, Xiaolin Liu, Lixin Wang
Lysozymes as an important immune factor, play vital roles in innate immune response against pathogen infection. In the present study, one c-type and g-type lysozymes were identified from Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus). They shared highly conserved structural features with lysozymes from other species. Spatial expression analysis revealed that AdlysC transcript was most abundant in liver and stomach, and least in muscle and brain. In contrast, the expression level of AdlysG was most abundant in liver and least in muscle and skin...
February 24, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237665/modeling-the-population-dynamics-and-community-impacts-of-ambystoma-tigrinum-a-case-study-of-phenotype-plasticity
#10
Maeve L McCarthy, Dorothy Wallace, Howard H Whiteman, Evan T Rheingold, Ann M Dunham, Olivia Prosper, Michelle Chen, Eileen Hu-Wang
Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of an organism to change its phenotype in response to changes in the environment. General mathematical descriptions of the phenomenon rely on an abstract measure of "viability" that, in this study, is instantiated in the case of the Tiger Salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum. This organism has a point in its development when, upon maturing, it may take two very different forms. One is a terrestrial salamander (metamorph)that visits ponds to reproduce and eat, while the other is an aquatic form (paedomorph) that remains in the pond to breed and which consumes a variety of prey including its own offspring...
February 24, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220619/the-palatal-interpterygoid-vacuities-of-temnospondyls-and-the-implications-for-the-associated-eye-and-jaw-musculature
#11
Florian Witzmann, Ingmar Werneburg
A diagnostic feature of temnospondyls is the presence of an open palate with large interpterygoid vacuities, unlike the closed palate of most other early tetrapods, in which the vacuities are either slit-like or completely absent. Attachment sites on neurocranium and palatal bones in temnospondyls allow the reconstruction of a powerful m. retractor bulbi and a large, sheet-like m. levator bulbi that formed the elastic floor of the orbit. This muscle arrangement indicates that temnospondyls were able to retract the eyeballs through the interpterygoid vacuities into the buccal cavity, like extant frogs and salamanders...
February 21, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213545/antifungal-bacteria-on-woodland-salamander-skin-exhibit-high-taxonomic-diversity-and-geographic-variability
#12
Carly R Muletz-Wolz, Graziella V DiRenzo, Stephanie A Yarwood, Evan H Campbell Grant, Robert C Fleischer, Karen R Lips
Diverse bacteria inhabit amphibian skin, some of which inhibit growth of the fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Yet, there has been no systematic survey of anti-Bd bacteria across localities, species and elevations. This is important given geographic and taxonomic variation in amphibian susceptibility to Bd. Our sites were within the Appalachian Mountains where previous sampling indicated low Bd prevalence. We determined the number and identity of anti-Bd bacteria on 61 Plethodon salamanders (37 P...
February 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204480/a-reference-gene-set-construction-using-rna-seq-of-multiple-tissues-of-chinese-giant-salamander-andrias-davidianus
#13
Xiaofang Geng, Wanshun Li, Haitao Shang, Qiang Gou, Fuchun Zhang, Xiayan Zang, Benhua Zeng, Jiang Li, Ying Wang, Ji Ma, Jianlin Guo, Jianbo Jian, Bing Chen, Zhigang Qiao, Minghui Zhou, Hong Wei, Xiaodong Fang, Cunshuan Xu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166938/population-level-differences-in-thermal-sensitivity-of-energy-assimilation-in-terrestrial-salamanders
#14
Timothy A Clay, Matthew E Gifford
Thermal adaptation predicts that thermal sensitivity of physiological traits should be optimized to thermal conditions most frequently experienced. Furthermore, thermodynamic constraints predict that species with higher thermal optima should have higher performance maxima and narrower performance breadths. We tested these predictions by examining the thermal sensitivity of energy assimilation between populations within two species of terrestrial-lungless salamanders, Plethodon albagula and P. montanus. Within P...
February 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148215/historical-demography-of-an-endangered-salamander-ranodon-sibiricus-amphibia-urodela-hynobiidae-a-reassessment
#15
Kanto Nishikawa, Tatjana Dujsebayeva, Masafumi Matsui, Natsuhiko Yoshikawa, Atsushi Tominaga
Chinese populations of the endangered Siberian salamander Ranodon sibiricus are reported to have diverged only about 120 years ago, and to have the lowest genetic diversity of any amphibian. However, these conclusions require verification, as the main range of the species is in Kazakhstan. Moreover, the generation time used for estimating divergence time has a weak ground. In order to clarify these problems, we investigated the molecular phylogenetic relationship and historical demography of the species covering its whole distribution range using the mitochondrial DNA region reported for Chinese population (1072 bp sequences of the control region), while conducting skeletochronological analysis to estimate accurate generation time...
February 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127056/identification-of-mutant-genes-and-introgressed-tiger-salamander-dna-in-the-laboratory-axolotl-ambystoma-mexicanum
#16
M Ryan Woodcock, Jennifer Vaughn-Wolfe, Alexandra Elias, D Kevin Kump, Katharina Denise Kendall, Nataliya Timoshevskaya, Vladimir Timoshevskiy, Dustin W Perry, Jeramiah J Smith, Jessica E Spiewak, David M Parichy, S Randal Voss
The molecular genetic toolkit of the Mexican axolotl, a classic model organism, has matured to the point where it is now possible to identify genes for mutant phenotypes. We used a positional cloning-candidate gene approach to identify molecular bases for two historic axolotl pigment phenotypes: white and albino. White (d/d) mutants have defects in pigment cell morphogenesis and differentiation, whereas albino (a/a) mutants lack melanin. We identified in white mutants a transcriptional defect in endothelin 3 (edn3), encoding a peptide factor that promotes pigment cell migration and differentiation in other vertebrates...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121461/the-dynamic-evolutionary-history-of-genome-size-in-north-american-woodland-salamanders
#17
Catherine E Newman, T Ryan Gregory, Christopher C Austin
The genus Plethodon is the most species-rich salamander genus in North America, and nearly half of its species face an uncertain future. It is also one of the most diverse families in terms of genome sizes, which range from 1C = 18.2 to 69.3 pg, or 5-20 times larger than the human genome. Large genome size in salamanders results in part from accumulation of transposable elements and is associated with various developmental and physiological traits. However, genome sizes have been reported for only 25% of the species of Plethodon (14 of 55)...
December 11, 2016: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116063/stabilization-of-a-salamander-moving-hybrid-zone
#18
Michaël Visser, Maarten de Leeuw, Annie Zuiderwijk, Jan W Arntzen
When related species meet upon postglacial range expansion, hybrid zones are frequently formed. Theory predicts that such zones may move over the landscape until equilibrium conditions are reached. One hybrid zone observed to be moving in historical times (1950-1979) is that of the pond-breeding salamanders Triturus cristatus and Triturus marmoratus in western France. We identified the ecological correlates of the species hybrid zone as elevation, forestation, and hedgerows favoring the more terrestrial T. marmoratus and pond density favoring the more aquatic T...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101674/posterior-tail-development-in-the-salamander-eurycea-cirrigera-exploring-cellular-dynamics-across-life-stages
#19
Janet L Vaglia, Chet Fornari, Paula K Evans
During embryogenesis, the body axis elongates and specializes. In vertebrate groups such as salamanders and lizards, elongation of the posterior body axis (tail) continues throughout life. This phenomenon of post-embryonic tail elongation via addition of vertebrae has remained largely unexplored, and little is known about the underlying developmental mechanisms that promote vertebral addition. Our research investigated tail elongation across life stages in a non-model salamander species, Eurycea cirrigera (Plethodontidae)...
January 18, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099779/trapped-within-the-city-integrating-demography-time-since-isolation-and-population-specific-traits-to-assess-the-genetic-effects-of-urbanization
#20
André Lourenço, David Álvarez, Ian J Wang, Guillermo Velo-Antón
Urbanization is a severe form of habitat fragmentation that can cause many species to be locally extirpated and many others to become trapped and isolated within an urban matrix. The role of drift in reducing genetic diversity and increasing genetic differentiation is well recognized in urban populations. However, explicit incorporation and analysis of the demographic and temporal factors promoting drift in urban environments are poorly studied. Here, we genotyped 15 microsatellites in 320 fire salamanders from the historical city of Oviedo (Est...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
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