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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239487/evolution-of-skull-shape-in-the-family-salamandridae-amphibia-caudata
#1
Ana Ivanović, Jan W Arntzen
We carried out a comparative morphometric analysis of 56 species of salamandrid salamanders, representing 19 out of 21 extant genera, with the aim of uncovering the major patterns of skull shape diversification, and revealing possible trends and directions of evolutionary change. To do this we used micro-computed tomography scanning and three-dimensional geometric morphometrics, along with a well-resolved molecular phylogeny. We found that allometry explains a relatively small amount of shape variation across taxa...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230380/the-axolotl-limb-regeneration-model-as-a-discovery-tool-for-engineering-the-stem-cell-niche
#2
Negar Seyedhassantehrani, Takayoshi Otsuka, Shambhavi Singh, David M Gardiner
Purpose of review: Recent advances in genomics and gene editing have expanded the range of model organisms to include those with interesting biological capabilities such as regeneration. Among these are the classic models of regeneration biology, the salamander. Although stimulating endogenous regeneration in humans likely is many years away, with advances in stem cell biology and biomedical engineering (e.g. bio-inspired materials), it is evident that there is great potential to enhance regenerative outcomes by approaching the problem from an engineering perspective...
September 2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219040/taxonomic-relationships-of-hynobius-stejnegeri-and-h-yatsui-with-description-of-the-amber-colored-salamander-from-kyushu-japan-amphibia-caudata
#3
Masafumi Matsui, Kanto Nishikawa, Atsushi Tominaga
Examination of the holotype of Hynobius stejnegeri Dunn, 1923 revealed that the species is identical with H. yatsui Oyama, 1947 , recently resurrected from H. naevius (Temminck and Schlegel, 1838). The name H. yatsui is therefore relegated to a subjective junior synonym of H. stejnegeri. The latter name, however, has been widely applied to an amber-colored or tortoise-shell salamander from Kyushu, southwestern Japan, which now requires a new name. We, thus, describe the ambercolored salamander as a new species Hynobius ikioi...
December 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217751/cellular-basis-of-brain-maturation-and-acquisition-of-complex-behaviors-in-salamanders
#4
Alberto Joven, Heng Wang, Tiago Pinheiro, L Shahul Hameed, Laure Belnoue, András Simon
The overall bauplan of the tetrapod brain is highly conserved, yet significant variations exist among species in terms of brain size, structural composition and cellular diversity. Understanding processes underlying neural and behavioral development in a wide range of species is important both from an evolutionary developmental perspective as well as for the identification of cell sources with post-developmental neurogenic potential. Here we characterize germinal processes in the brain of Notophthalmus viridescens and Pleurodeles waltl during both development and adulthood...
December 7, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212843/movements-of-vastly-different-performance-have-similar-underlying-muscle-physiology
#5
Jeffrey P Olberding, Jeffrey A Scales, Stephen M Deban
Many animals use elastic-recoil mechanisms to power extreme movements, achieving levels of performance that would not be possible using muscle power alone. Contractile performance of vertebrate muscle depends strongly on temperature, but the release of energy from elastic structures is far less thermally dependent, thus elastic recoil confers thermal robustness to whole-animal performance. Here we explore the role that muscle contractile properties play in the differences in performance and thermal robustness between elastic and non-elastic systems by examining muscle from two species of plethodontid salamanders that use elastically powered tongue projection to capture prey and one that uses non-elastic tongue projection...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202948/queen-anne-s-lace-gooseneck-loosestrife-untitled-poppy-maidenhair-fern-blushing-deathcap-untitled-trillium-and-untitled-trillium-pear-blossom-salamander-by-victor-schrager
#6
Margaret R Wentz
Recognizing the contribution art has had in the Mayo Clinic environment since the original Mayo Clinic Building was finished in 1914, Mayo Clinic Proceedings features some of the numerous works of art displayed throughout the buildings and grounds on Mayo Clinic campuses as interpreted by the author.
December 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201433/heart-regeneration-in-the-salamander-relies-on-macrophage-mediated-control-of-fibroblast-activation-and-the-extracellular-landscape
#7
J W Godwin, R Debuque, E Salimova, N A Rosenthal
In dramatic contrast to the poor repair outcomes for humans and rodent models such as mice, salamanders and some fish species are able to completely regenerate heart tissue following tissue injury, at any life stage. This capacity for complete cardiac repair provides a template for understanding the process of regeneration and for developing strategies to improve human cardiac repair outcomes. Using a cardiac cryo-injury model we show that heart regeneration is dependent on the innate immune system, as macrophage depletion during early time points post-injury results in regeneration failure...
2017: NPJ Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159068/transcriptome-analysis-of-the-chinese-giant-salamander-andrias-davidianus-using-rna-sequencing
#8
Yong Huang, Jian Li Xiong, Xiao Chan Gao, Xi Hong Sun
The Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus) is an economically important animal on academic value. However, the genomic information of this species has been less studied. In our study, the transcripts of A. davidianus were obtained by RNA-seq to conduct a transcriptomic analysis. In total 132,912 unigenes were generated with an average length of 690 bp and N50 of 1263 bp by de novo assembly using Trinity software. Using a sequence similarity search against the nine public databases (CDD, KOG, NR, NT, PFAM, Swiss-prot, TrEMBL, GO and KEGG databases), a total of 24,049, 18,406, 36,711, 15,858, 20,500, 27,515, 36,705, 28,879 and 10,958 unigenes were annotated in databases, respectively...
December 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156776/uchl1-expression-and-localization-on-testicular-development-and-spermatogenesis-of-chinese-giant-salamanders
#9
Yuanxian Wang, Liqing Wang, Huihui Gao, Yao Gao, Changming Yang, Hong Ji, Wuzi Dong
Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1), which is extensively expressed in vertebrates, is a deubiquitinating enzymes that inhibits the degradation of proteins by reversing ubiquitination modification. Herein, a 1087-bp sequence encoding UCHL1 was identified from the Chinese giant salamander (CGS; Andrias davidianus). The coding sequences (CDS) of UCHL1 encoded a putative poly peptide of 222 amino acids. The CGS UCHL1 isoforms were more related to their human and mouse counterparts. The phylogenic tree of vertebrate UCHL1 indicated that CGS UCHL1 has the closest relationship with human UCHL1 (up to 73...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147975/batrachochytrium-salamandrivorans-and-the-risk-of-a-second-amphibian-pandemic
#10
REVIEW
Tiffany A Yap, Natalie T Nguyen, Megan Serr, Alexander Shepack, Vance T Vredenburg
Amphibians are experiencing devastating population declines globally. A major driver is chytridiomycosis, an emerging infectious disease caused by the fungal pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal). Bd was described in 1999 and has been linked with declines since the 1970s, while Bsal is a more recently discovered pathogen that was described in 2013. It is hypothesized that Bsal originated in Asia and spread via international trade to Europe, where it has been linked to salamander die-offs...
November 16, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141955/the-constant-threat-from-a-non-native-predator-increases-tail-muscle-and-fast-start-swimming-performance-in-xenopus-tadpoles
#11
Tsukasa Mori, Yukio Yanagisawa, Yoichiro Kitani, Goshi Yamamoto, Naoko Goto-Inoue, Tadashi Kimura, Keiko Kashiwagi, Akihiko Kashiwagi
Predator-induced phenotypic plasticity is the ability of prey to adapt to their native predator. However, owing to environmental changes, encounters with unknown predators are inevitable. Therefore, study of prey and non-native predator interaction will reveal the primary stages of adaptive strategies in prey-predator interactions in the context of evolutionary processes. Here, Xenopus tadpoles exposed to a non-native predator, a larval salamander, showed a significant increase in body weight and tail length to body length ratio...
November 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107037/transcriptional-correlates-of-proximal-distal-identify-and-regeneration-timing-in-axolotl-limbs
#12
S Randal Voss, David Murrugarra, Tyler B Jensen, James R Monaghan
Cells within salamander limbs retain memories that inform the correct replacement of amputated tissues at different positions along the length of the arm, with proximal and amputations completing regeneration at similar times. We investigated the possibility that positional memory is associated with variation in transcript abundances along the proximal-distal limb axis. Transcripts were deeply sampled from Ambystoma mexicanum limbs at the time they were administered fore arm vs upper arm amputations, and at 20 post-amputation time points...
October 26, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098663/antibiotics-reduce-retinal-cell-survival-in-vitro
#13
Amy E Lindsey, Ellen Townes-Anderson
Antibiotics such as gentamicin (an aminoglycoside) and penicillin (a beta-lactam antibiotic) are routinely used in retinal cell and explant cultures. In many cases, these in vitro systems are testing parameters regarding photoreceptor transplantation or preparing cells for transplantation. In vivo, milligram doses of gentamicin are neurotoxic to the retina. However, little is known about the effects of antibiotics to retina in vitro and whether smaller doses of gentamicin are toxic to retinal cells. To test toxicity, retinal cells were dissociated from tiger salamander, placed in culture, and treated with either 20 μg/ml gentamicin, 100 μg/ml streptomycin, 100 U/ml antibiotic/antimycotic, 0...
November 2, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093187/functional-morphology-of-terrestrial-prey-capture-in-salamandrid-salamanders
#14
Charlotte M Stinson, Stephen M Deban
Salamanders use the hyobranchial apparatus and its associated musculature for tongue projection on land and for suction feeding in water. Hyobranchial apparatus composition and morphology vary across species, and different morphologies are better suited for feeding in aquatic versus terrestrial environments. We hypothesize that differences in hyobranchial morphology result in functional trade-offs in feeding performance. We predict that semi-aquatic and aquatic salamandrids with hyobranchial morphology suited for aquatic feeding will have lower performance, in terms of tongue-projection distance, velocity, acceleration and power, compared with terrestrial salamandrids when feeding in a terrestrial environment...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080030/progenitors-in-the-ependyma-of-the-spinal-cord-a-potential-resource-for-self-repair-after-injury
#15
Nicolás Marichal, Cecilia Reali, María Inés Rehermann, Omar Trujillo-Cenóz, Raúl E Russo
Traumatic injury of the spinal cord leads to devastating conditions that affect ~2.5 million people worldwide. This is because the mammalian spinal cord reacts to injury with only limited endogenous repair. Functional restoration requires the replacement of lost cells, the growth and navigation of regenerating axons on a permissive scaffold and axon re-myelination. The manipulation of endogenous spinal stem cells is regarded as a potential strategy to restore function. For this type of therapy it is necessary to determine the molecular and functional mechanisms regulating the proliferation, migration and differentiation of adult spinal progenitors...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053730/assessment-of-intra-and-interregional-genetic-variation-in-the-eastern-red-backed-salamander-plethodon-cinereus-via-analysis-of-novel-microsatellite-markers
#16
Alexander C Cameron, Jeffry J Anderson, Robert B Page
The red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus) has long-served as a model system in ecology, evolution, and behavior, and studies surveying molecular variation in this species have become increasingly common over the past decade. However, difficulties are commonly encountered when extending microsatellite markers to populations that are unstudied from a genetic perspective due to high levels of genetic differentiation across this species' range. To ameliorate this issue, we used 454 pyrosequencing to identify hundreds of microsatellite loci...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052233/heterogeneous-expression-of-glycoconjugates-in-the-primary-olfactory-centre-of-the-japanese-sword-tailed-newt-cynops-ensicauda
#17
T Matsui, K Tanaka, Y Kobayashi
Histochemical organization of the Caudata olfactory system remains largely unknown, despite this amphibian order showing phylogenetic diversity in the development of the vomeronasal organ and its primary centre, the accessory olfactory bulb. Here, we investigated the glycoconjugate distribution in the olfactory bulb of a semi-aquatic salamander, the Japanese sword-tailed newt (Cynops ensicauda), by histochemical analysis of the lectins that were present. Eleven lectins showed a specific binding to the olfactory and vomeronasal nerves as well as to the olfactory glomeruli...
October 19, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037400/effect-of-chronic-low-body-temperature-on-feeding-and-gut-passage-in-a-plethodontid-salamander
#18
Glenn A Marvin, Richard Bryan, James Hardwick
Although feeding in some plethodontid salamander species, such as Dusky Salamanders (Desmognathus, family Plethodontidae), occurs at short-term (acute) low temperature below 5°C, it is unknown whether feeding, digestion, and gut passage continue to occur during periods of long-term (chronic) low temperature. We performed a controlled laboratory experiment to examine the effect of several chronic low environmental temperatures on both feeding and gut passage in semiaquatic Spotted Dusky Salamanders (D. conanti)...
October 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030586/batrachochytrium-salamandrivorans-not-detected-in-u-s-survey-of-pet-salamanders
#19
Blake Klocke, Matthew Becker, James Lewis, Robert C Fleischer, Carly R Muletz-Wolz, Larry Rockwood, A Alonso Aguirre, Brian Gratwicke
We engaged pet salamander owners in the United States to screen their animals for two amphibian chytrid fungal pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and B. salamandrivorans (Bsal). We provided pet owners with a sampling kit and instructional video to swab the skin of their animals. We received 639 salamander samples from 65 species by mail, and tested them for Bd and Bsal using qPCR. We detected Bd on 1.3% of salamanders (95% CI 0.0053-0.0267) and did not detect Bsal (95% CI 0.0000-0.0071). If Bsal is present in the U...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030146/salamander-spinal-cord-regeneration-the-ultimate-positive-control-in-vertebrate-spinal-cord-regeneration
#20
REVIEW
Akira Tazaki, Elly M Tanaka, Ji-Feng Fei
Repairing injured tissues / organs is one of the major challenges for the maintenance of proper organ function in adulthood. In mammals, the central nervous system including the spinal cord, once established during embryonic development, has very limited capacity to regenerate. In contrast, salamanders such as axolotls can fully regenerate the injured spinal cord, making this a very powerful vertebrate model system for studying this process. Here we discuss the cellular and molecular requirements for spinal cord regeneration in the axolotl...
October 10, 2017: Developmental Biology
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