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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468045/an-interaction-driven-cannibalistic-reaction-norm
#1
Kinya Nishimura
Cannibalism is induced in larval-stage populations of the Hokkaido salamander, Hynobius retardatus , under the control of a cannibalism reaction norm. Here, I examined phenotypic expression under the cannibalism reaction norm, and how the induction of a cannibalistic morph under the norm leads to populational morphological diversification. I conducted a set of experiments in which density was manipulated to be either low or high. In the high-density treatment, the populations become dimorphic with some individuals developing into the cannibal morph type...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466603/temperature-dependent-oxygen-limitation-and-the-rise-of-bergmann-s-rule-in-species-with-aquatic-respiration
#2
Njal Rollinson, Locke Rowe
Bergmann's Rule is the propensity for species-mean body size to decrease with increasing temperature. Temperature-dependent oxygen limitation has been hypothesized to help drive temperature-size relationships among ectotherms, including Bergmann's Rule, where organisms reduce body size under warm oxygen-limited conditions, thereby maintaining aerobic scope. Temperature-dependent oxygen limitation should be most pronounced among aquatic ectotherms that cannot breathe aerially, as oxygen solubility in water decreases with increasing temperature...
February 21, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466379/activation-of-retinal-glial-m%C3%A3-ller-cells-by-extracellular-atp-induces-pronounced-increases-in-extracellular-h-flux
#3
Boriana K Tchernookova, Chad Heer, Marin Young, David Swygart, Ryan Kaufman, Michael Gongwer, Lexi Shepherd, Hannah Caringal, Jason Jacoby, Matthew A Kreitzer, Robert Paul Malchow
Small alterations in extracellular acidity are potentially important modulators of neuronal signaling within the vertebrate retina. Here we report a novel extracellular acidification mechanism mediated by glial cells in the retina. Using self-referencing H+-selective microelectrodes to measure extracellular H+ fluxes, we show that activation of retinal Müller (glial) cells of the tiger salamander by micromolar concentrations of extracellular ATP induces a pronounced extracellular H+ flux independent of bicarbonate transport...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411437/influence-of-immunogenetics-sex-and-body-condition-on-the-cutaneous-microbial-communities-of-two-giant-salamanders
#4
Obed Hernández-Gómez, Jeffrey T Briggler, Rod N Williams
The complex association between hosts and microbial symbionts requires the implementation of multiple approaches to evaluate variation in host physiology. Within amphibians, heterogeneity in immunogenetic traits and cutaneous microbiota is associated with variation in disease resistance. Ozark (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi) and eastern hellbenders (C. a. alleganiensis) provide a model system to assess variation in host traits and microbial communities. Ozark hellbenders have experienced declines throughout their range, are federally endangered, and experience wound retardation that is absent in the eastern subspecies...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364872/the-axolotl-genome-and-the-evolution-of-key-tissue-formation-regulators
#5
Sergej Nowoshilow, Siegfried Schloissnig, Ji-Feng Fei, Andreas Dahl, Andy W C Pang, Martin Pippel, Sylke Winkler, Alex R Hastie, George Young, Juliana G Roscito, Francisco Falcon, Dunja Knapp, Sean Powell, Alfredo Cruz, Han Cao, Bianca Habermann, Michael Hiller, Elly M Tanaka, Eugene W Myers
Salamanders serve as important tetrapod models for developmental, regeneration and evolutionary studies. An extensive molecular toolkit makes the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) a key representative salamander for molecular investigations. Here we report the sequencing and assembly of the 32-gigabase-pair axolotl genome using an approach that combined long-read sequencing, optical mapping and development of a new genome assembler (MARVEL). We observed a size expansion of introns and intergenic regions, largely attributable to multiplication of long terminal repeat retroelements...
February 1, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364850/protective-immunity-induced-by-dna-vaccination-against-ranavirus-infection-in-chinese-giant-salamander-andrias-davidianus
#6
Zhong-Yuan Chen, Tao Li, Xiao-Chan Gao, Chen-Fei Wang, Qi-Ya Zhang
Andrias davidianus ranavirus (ADRV) is an emerging viral pathogen that causes severe systemic hemorrhagic disease in Chinese giant salamanders. There is an urgent need for developing an effective vaccine against this fatal disease. In this study, DNA vaccines containing the ADRV 2L gene (pcDNA-2L) and the 58L gene (pcDNA-58L) were respectively constructed, and their immune protective effects were evaluated in Chinese giant salamanders. In vitro and in vivo expression of the vaccine plasmids were confirmed in transfected cells and muscle tissues of vaccinated Chinese giant salamanders by using immunoblot analysis or RT-PCR...
January 24, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351016/patterns-of-local-community-composition-are-linked-to-large-scale-diversification-and-dispersal-of-clades
#7
John J Wiens
At any location, a group of organisms may be represented by several clades. What determines which clades will dominate local communities in terms of their species richness? Here, this relatively neglected question is addressed by analyzing 166 local assemblages of snakes distributed globally. For most regions, local assemblages are dominated by clades with higher global-scale diversification rates and more frequent dispersal into each region, and not by clades that have been present in that region longer. This result contrasts with many other studies of local richness (in other organisms), which show strong impacts of regional colonization time on overall local species richness of clades...
February 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348208/learning-to-make-external-sensory-stimulus-predictions-using-internal-correlations-in-populations-of-neurons
#8
Audrey J Sederberg, Jason N MacLean, Stephanie E Palmer
To compensate for sensory processing delays, the visual system must make predictions to ensure timely and appropriate behaviors. Recent work has found predictive information about the stimulus in neural populations early in vision processing, starting in the retina. However, to utilize this information, cells downstream must be able to read out the predictive information from the spiking activity of retinal ganglion cells. Here we investigate whether a downstream cell could learn efficient encoding of predictive information in its inputs from the correlations in the inputs themselves, in the absence of other instructive signals...
January 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343600/rapid-phenotypic-evolution-following-shifts-in-life-cycle-complexity
#9
Ronald M Bonett, John G Phillips, Nicholus M Ledbetter, Samuel D Martin, Luke Lehman
Life cycle strategies have evolved extensively throughout the history of metazoans. The expression of disparate life stages within a single ontogeny can present conflicts to trait evolution, and therefore may have played a major role in shaping metazoan forms. However, few studies have examined the consequences of adding or subtracting life stages on patterns of trait evolution. By analysing trait evolution in a clade of closely related salamander lineages we show that shifts in the number of life cycle stages are associated with rapid phenotypic evolution...
January 31, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332146/mercury-concentrations-in-northern-two-lined-salamanders-from-stream-ecosystems-in-garrett-county-maryland
#10
Mark S Castro, Robert H Hilderbrand, Morgan Kaumeyer
The purpose of this study was to increase our understanding of the bioaccumulation of mercury in northern two-lined salamanders (Eurycea bislineata bislineata) in freshwater stream ecosystems. We collected 111 adults and 131 larval northern two-lined salamanders from six streams in Garrett County, Maryland. These salamanders were collected in April, July, and September 2010. We measured the size and tissue mercury content in all of these salamanders. We also measured the total and methyl mercury concentrations in stream water on monthly basis from April through December 2010...
January 13, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330138/a-biogeographic-and-ecological-perspective-to-the-evolution-of-reproductive-behaviour-in-the-family-salamandridae
#11
Sarah Kieren, Max Sparreboom, Axel Hochkirch, Michael Veith
Amphibians have a complex reproductive behaviour, which shows the highest diversity among tetrapodes. The family Salamandridae, distributed across the entire Holarctic, is one of the most diverse groups of extant salamanders comprising 114 species in 21 genera. The family has a remarkable diversity of courtship modes, amplexus and sperm transfer. It is often hypothesised that this diversity has evolved in adaptation to a specific mating and/or breeding habitat. We test this hypothesis based upon a phylogenetic reconstruction using the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of 45 Salamandridae species, representing all existing genera...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321345/genetic-variability-and-structure-of-an-isolated-population-of-ambystoma-altamirani-a-mole-salamander-that-lives-in-the-mountains-of-one-of-the-largest-urban-areas-in-the-world
#12
Rosa-Laura Heredia-Bobadilla, Octavio Monroy-Vilchis, Martha M Zarco-González, Daniel Martínez-Gómez, Germán David Mendoza-Martínez, Armando Sunny
Amphibians are globally threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation; species within the order Ambystoma are not the exception, as there are 18 species of mole salamanders in México, of which 16 are endemic and all species are under some national or international status of protection. The mole salamander, Ambystoma altamirani is a microendemic species, which is distributed in central México, within the trans-Mexican volcanic belt, and is one of the most threatened species due to habitat destruction and the introduction of exotic species...
December 2017: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316544/the-impact-of-aging-on-mechanisms-of-mammalian-epimorphic-regeneration
#13
Regina Brunauer, Ken Muneoka
Aging is associated with a significant decline of tissue repair and regeneration, ultimately resulting in tissue dysfunction, multimorbidity, and death. Salamanders possess remarkable regenerative abilities and have been studied with the prospect of inducing regeneration in humans and counteracting regenerative decline with aging. However, epimorphic regeneration, the full replacement of amputated structures, also occurs in mammals. One of the best studied models is digit tip regeneration, which is described for mice, and occurs in humans in a comparable manner...
January 10, 2018: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299325/limb-regeneration-in-a-direct-developing-terrestrial-salamander-bolitoglossa-ramosi-caudata-plethodontidae-limb-regeneration-in-plethodontid-salamanders
#14
Claudia Marcela Arenas Gómez, Andrea Gómez Molina, Juliana D Zapata, Jean Paul Delgado
Appendage regeneration is one of the most compelling phenomena in regenerative biology and is extensively studied in axolotls and newts. However, the regenerative capacity in other families of salamanders remains poorly described. Here we characterize the limb regeneration process in Bolitoglossa ramosi, a direct-developing terrestrial salamander of the plethodontid family. We (1) describe the major morphological features at different stages of limb regeneration, (2) show that appendage regeneration in a terrestrial salamander varies from other amphibians and (3) show that limb regeneration in this species is considerably slower than in axolotls and newts (95 days post-amputation for complete regeneration) despite having a significantly smaller genome size than axolotls or newts...
August 2017: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299288/high-inbreeding-and-low-connectivity-among-ambystoma-texanum-populations-in-fragmented-ohio-forests
#15
Elizabeth A Rhoads, Patrick Kelly Williams, Carissa M Krane
Habitat loss and fragmentation negatively impact the size and diversity of many natural populations. Woodland amphibians require connected aquatic and terrestrial habitats to complete their life cycle, and often rely on metapopulation structure for long-term persistence. Wetland loss and deforestation fragment amphibian populations, which may result in population isolation and its negative effects. The aim of this research was to analyze the population genetic structure of small-mouthed salamanders (Ambystoma texanum) in western Ohio, where agriculture is now the dominant land use...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299273/does-forest-extent-affect-salamander-survival-evidence-from-a-long-term-demographic-study-of-a-tropical-newt
#16
Anthony Lau, Nancy E Karraker, David Dudgeon
Forest loss has been associated with reduced survival in many vertebrates, and previous research on amphibians has mostly focused on effects at early life stages. Paramesotriton hongkongensis is a tropical newt that breeds in streams but spends up to 10 months per year in terrestrial habitats. Populations are threatened by habitat degradation and collection for the pet trade, but the cryptic terrestrial lifestyle of this newt has limited our understanding of its population ecology, which inhibits development of a species-specific conservation plan...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283508/the-lack-of-nasolacrimal-ducts-in-plethodontid-salamanders
#17
Dustin S Siegel, Michael S Taylor, David M Sever, Stanley E Trauth
Nasolacrimal ducts are a terrestrial vertebrate adaptation and appear to have co-evolved with orbital glands. Although plethodontid salamanders possess orbital glands, a recent study concluded that plethodontid salamanders lack nasolacrimal ducts. Functionally, the absence of nasolacrimal ducts closes the route for orbital gland secretion passage into the nasal and vomeronasal organ cavities. Orbital glands have been implicated in enhancement of vomeronasal function so loss could have important implications for communication...
December 28, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281973/polymorphic-duplicate-genes-and-persistent-non-coding-sequences-reveal-heterogeneous-patterns-of-mitochondrial-dna-loss-in-salamanders
#18
Rebecca A Chong, Rachel Lockridge Mueller
BACKGROUND: Mitochondria are the site of the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). In metazoans, the mitochondrial genome is a small, circular molecule averaging 16.5 kb in length. Despite evolutionarily conserved gene content, metazoan mitochondrial genomes show a diversity of gene orders most commonly explained by the duplication-random loss (DRL) model. In the DRL model, (1) a sequence of genes is duplicated in tandem, (2) one paralog sustains a loss-of-function mutation, resulting in selection to retain the other copy, and (3) the non-functional paralog is eventually deleted from the genome...
December 28, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273779/reading-and-editing-the-pleurodeles-waltl-genome-reveals-novel-features-of-tetrapod-regeneration
#19
Ahmed Elewa, Heng Wang, Carlos Talavera-López, Alberto Joven, Gonçalo Brito, Anoop Kumar, L Shahul Hameed, May Penrad-Mobayed, Zeyu Yao, Neda Zamani, Yamen Abbas, Ilgar Abdullayev, Rickard Sandberg, Manfred Grabherr, Björn Andersson, András Simon
Salamanders exhibit an extraordinary ability among vertebrates to regenerate complex body parts. However, scarce genomic resources have limited our understanding of regeneration in adult salamanders. Here, we present the ~20 Gb genome and transcriptome of the Iberian ribbed newt Pleurodeles waltl, a tractable species suitable for laboratory research. We find that embryonic stem cell-specific miRNAs mir-93b and mir-427/430/302, as well as Harbinger DNA transposons carrying the Myb-like proto-oncogene have expanded dramatically in the Pleurodeles waltl genome and are co-expressed during limb regeneration...
December 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245904/functional-characterization-of-a-short-peptidoglycan-recognition-protein-from-chinese-giant-salamander-andrias-davidianus
#20
Zhitao Qi, Shisi Ren, Qihuan Zhang, Jun Zou, Qiaoqing Xu, Zisheng Wang, Guo Qiao, Pin Nie, Mingxian Chang
Peptidoglycan (PGN) recognition proteins (PGRPs) are important pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) involved in immune defense against bacterial infections. In this study, a short PGRP (termed AdPGRP-S1) was cloned and functionally characterized from Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus), the largest extant urodela amphibian species. AdPGRP-S1 was 184 aa in length and shared 38.7%-54.9% sequence identities with other vertebrates' short PGRPs. It contained one typical PGRP domain at the C-terminal region and several conserved amino acid (aa) residues involved in amidase and PGN binding...
November 21, 2017: Oncotarget
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