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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425998/drivers-of-salamander-extirpation-mediated-by-batrachochytrium-salamandrivorans
#1
Gwij Stegen, Frank Pasmans, Benedikt R Schmidt, Lieze O Rouffaer, Sarah Van Praet, Michael Schaub, Stefano Canessa, Arnaud Laudelout, Thierry Kinet, Connie Adriaensen, Freddy Haesebrouck, Wim Bert, Franky Bossuyt, An Martel
The recent arrival of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in Europe was followed by rapid expansion of its geographical distribution and host range, confirming the unprecedented threat that this chytrid fungus poses to western Palaearctic amphibians. Mitigating this hazard requires a thorough understanding of the pathogen's disease ecology that is driving the extinction process. Here, we monitored infection, disease and host population dynamics in a Belgian fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra) population for two years immediately after the first signs of infection...
April 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425424/spatial-distribution-of-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis-in-south-american-caecilians
#2
Carolina Lambertini, C Guilherme Becker, Cecilia Bardier, Domingos da Silva Leite, Luís Felipe Toledo
The amphibian-killing fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is linked to population declines in anurans and salamanders globally. To date, however, few studies have attempted to screen Bd in live caecilians; Bd-positive caecilians have only been reported in Africa and French Guiana. Here, we performed a retrospective survey of museum preserved specimens to (1) describe spatial patterns of Bd infection in Gymnophiona across South America and (2) test whether areas of low climatic suitability for Bd in anurans predict Bd spatial epidemiology in caecilians...
April 20, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424346/the-male-escape-hypothesis-sex-biased-metamorphosis-in-response-to-climatic-drivers-in-a-facultatively-paedomorphic-amphibian
#3
Anthony G E Mathiron, Jean-Paul Lena, Sarah Baouch, Mathieu Denoël
Paedomorphosis is a major evolutionary process that bypasses metamorphosis and allows reproduction in larvae. In newts and salamanders, it can be facultative with paedomorphs retaining gills and metamorphs dispersing. The evolution of these developmental processes is thought to have been driven by the costs and benefits of inhabiting aquatic versus terrestrial habitats. In this context, we aimed at testing the hypothesis that climatic drivers affect phenotypic transition and the difference across sexes because sex-ratio is biased in natural populations...
April 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413781/sequencing-and-de-novo-transcriptome-assembly-of-the-chinese-giant-salamander-andrias-davidianus
#4
Yong Huang, Xiao Chan Gao, Jian Li Xiong, Hong Tao Ren, Xi Hong Sun
Next-generation technologies for determination of genomics and transcriptomics composition have a wide range of applications. Andrias davidianus, has become an endangered amphibian species of salamander endemic in China. However, there is a lack of the molecular information. In this study, we obtained the RNA-Seq data from a pool of A. davidianus tissue including spleen, liver, muscle, kidney, skin, testis, gut and heart using Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. A total of 15,398,997,600 bp were obtained, corresponding to 102,659,984 raw reads...
June 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405365/dynamics-of-host-populations-affected-by-the-emerging-fungal-pathogen-batrachochytrium-salamandrivorans
#5
Benedikt R Schmidt, Claudio Bozzuto, Stefan Lötters, Sebastian Steinfartz
Emerging infectious diseases cause extirpation of wildlife populations. We use an epidemiological model to explore the effects of a recently emerged disease caused by the salamander-killing chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) on host populations, and to evaluate which mitigation measures are most likely to succeed. As individuals do not recover from Bsal, we used a model with the states susceptible, latent and infectious, and parametrized the model using data on host and pathogen taken from the literature and expert opinion...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397601/life-history-of-a-unique-asian-plethodontid-salamander-karsenia-koreana
#6
Jae-Young Song, Masafumi Matsui, Takashi Matsuki, Kanto Nishikawa, Kyo-Soung Koo, Hong-Shik Oh
Using preserved specimens, we studied the basic life history of the topotypic population of the unique Asian plethodontid salamander, Karsenia koreana. Of 51 individuals examined, 11 males and 13 females were judged as mature from the development of gonads. The ovarian eggs were large (diameter 3.7-4.8 mm) and yellow to orange in color, and the clutch size was about 8-10. These values approximate those of actually spawned eggs recently reported. Skeletochronological analyses revealed the average age of males (5...
April 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376251/tissue-regeneration-in-dentistry-can-salamanders-provide-insight
#7
Fadi Sader, Jean-François Denis, Stéphane Roy
The ability to regenerate damaged tissues would be of tremendous benefit for medicine and dentistry. Unfortunately, humans are unable to regenerate tissues such teeth, fingers or to repair injured spinal cord. With an aging population, health problems are more prominent and dentistry is no exception as loss of bone tissue in the orofacial sphere from periodontal disease is on the rise. Humans can repair oral soft tissues exceptionally well, however hard tissues, like bone and teeth, are devoid of the ability to repair well or at all...
April 4, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369297/genome-expression-balance-in-a-triploid-trihybrid-vertebrate
#8
Kyle E McElroy, Robert D Denton, Joel Sharbrough, Laura Bankers, Maurine Neiman, H Lisle Gibbs
Polyploidy is increasingly recognized as a driver of biological diversity. How and why polyploidization affects gene expression is critical to understanding the link between ploidy elevation and diversification. In polyploid plants multiple studies have demonstrated that ploidy elevation can confer major but variable consequences for gene expression, ranging from gene-by-gene alterations to entirely silenced genomes. In contrast, animal polyploids remain largely uncharacterized. Accordingly, how animals respond to and manage polyploidy events is not understood...
March 22, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365231/embryonic-yolk-removal-affects-neither-morphology-nor-escape-performance-of-larval-axolotls
#9
Charity Brain, Tobias Landberg
Maternal effects, the influences of maternal phenotype on the phenotypes of her offspring, mediate early ontogenetic traits through maternal investment. In amphibians, provisioning eggs with yolk is the main source of maternal investment. While larger eggs generally result in larger, higher-quality offspring, the relationship between egg size and offspring phenotype is complicated because offspring can evolve to be more or less responsive to variation in yolk provisions. Previous studies of several ambystomatid salamanders suggest that the effects of embryonic yolk reserve reduction on hatchling life history traits increase with egg size...
March 9, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363980/a-presynaptic-group-iii-mglur-recruits-g%C3%AE-%C3%AE-snare-interactions-to-inhibit-synaptic-transmission-by-cone-photoreceptors-in-the-vertebrate-retina
#10
Matthew J Van Hook, Norbert Babai, Zack Zurawski, Yun Young Yim, Heidi E Hamm, Wallace B Thoreson
G-protein βγ subunits (Gβγ) interact with presynaptic proteins and regulate neurotransmitter release downstream of Ca(2+) influx. To accomplish their roles in sensory signaling, photoreceptor synapses employ specialized presynaptic proteins that support neurotransmission at active zone structures known as ribbons. While several G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) influence synaptic transmission at ribbon synapses of cones and other retinal neurons, it is unknown whether Gβγ contributes to these effects...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359344/the-retina-visual-cycle-is-driven-by-cis-retinol-oxidation-in-the-outer-segments-of-cones
#11
Shinya Sato, Rikard Frederiksen, M Carter Cornwall, Vladimir J Kefalov
Vertebrate rod and cone photoreceptors require continuous supply of chromophore for regenerating their visual pigments after photoactivation. Cones, which mediate our daytime vision, demand a particularly rapid supply of 11-cis retinal chromophore in order to maintain their function in bright light. An important contribution to this process is thought to be the chromophore precursor 11-cis retinol, which is supplied to cones from Müller cells in the retina and subsequently oxidized to 11-cis retinal as part of the retina visual cycle...
January 2017: Visual Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358844/olfactory-effects-of-a-hypervariable-multicomponent-pheromone-in-the-red-legged-salamander-plethodon-shermani
#12
Damien B Wilburn, Kari A Doty, Adam J Chouinard, Sarah L Eddy, Sarah K Woodley, Lynne D Houck, Richard C Feldhoff
Chemical communication via chemosensory signaling is an essential process for promoting and modifying reproductive behavior in many species. During courtship in plethodontid salamanders, males deliver a mixture of non-volatile proteinaceous pheromones that activate chemosensory neurons in the vomeronasal epithelium (VNE) and increase female receptivity. One component of this mixture, Plethodontid Modulating Factor (PMF), is a hypervariable pheromone expressed as more than 30 unique isoforms that differ between individual males-likely driven by co-evolution with female receptors to promote gene duplication and positive selection of the PMF gene complex...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345609/environmental-dna-in-subterranean-biology-range-extension-and-taxonomic-implications-for-proteus
#13
Špela Gorički, David Stanković, Aleš Snoj, Matjaž Kuntner, William R Jeffery, Peter Trontelj, Miloš Pavićević, Zlatko Grizelj, Magdalena Năpăruş-Aljančič, Gregor Aljančič
Europe's obligate cave-dwelling amphibian Proteus anguinus inhabits subterranean waters of the north-western Balkan Peninsula. Because only fragments of its habitat are accessible to humans, this endangered salamander's exact distribution has been difficult to establish. Here we introduce a quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction-based environmental DNA (eDNA) approach to detect the presence of Proteus using water samples collected from karst springs, wells or caves. In a survey conducted along the southern limit of its known range, we established a likely presence of Proteus at seven new sites, extending its range to Montenegro...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343933/testing-the-immunocompetence-handicap-hypothesis-testosterone-manipulation-does-not-affect-wound-healing-in-male-salamanders
#14
Jessica R Thomas, Sarah K Woodley
In vertebrates, a bidirectional relationship exists between the immune system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. In addition, sexual dimorphism in immunity has been documented in many vertebrates as well as some invertebrates, and males are generally less immunocompetent than their female counterparts. A possible explanation for this is described by the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis (ICHH), which proposes that elevated testosterone (T) levels direct resources towards the promotion of secondary sexual characteristics at a cost to immune function...
March 24, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341996/structural-insights-into-ligand-binding-of-pgrp1-splice-variants-in-chinese-giant-salamander-andrias-davidianus-from-molecular-dynamics-and-free-energy-calculations
#15
Zhitao Qi, Fancui Meng, Qihuan Zhang, Zisheng Wang, Guo Qiao, Wei Xu, Rong Shao, Chenglung Chen
Peptidoglycan (PGN) recognition proteins (PGRPs) are important pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. A number of PGRP splicing variants produced by alternative splicing of PGRP genes have been reported. However, several important aspects of interactions between PGRP splice variants and their ligands are still unclear. In the present study, three dimensional models of salamander PGRP1 (adPGRP1) and its splice variant (adPGRP1a) were constructed, and their key amino acids involved in interacting with PGNs were analyzed...
April 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296353/methodological-considerations-for-detection-of-terrestrial-small-body-salamander-edna-and-implications-for-biodiversity-conservation
#16
Donald M Walker, Jacob E Leys, Kelly E Dunham, Joshua C Oliver, Emily E Schiller, Kelsey S Stephenson, John T Kimrey, Jessica Wooten, Mark W Rogers
Environmental DNA (eDNA) can be used as an assessment tool to detect populations of threatened species and provide fine-scale data required to make management decisions. The objectives of this project were to use quantitative PCR (qPCR) to: 1) detect spiked salamander DNA in soil, 2) quantify eDNA degradation over time, 3) determine detectability of salamander eDNA in a terrestrial environment using soil, feces, and skin swabs, 4) detect salamander eDNA in a mesocosm experiment. Salamander eDNA was positively detected in 100% of skin swabs and 66% of fecal samples and concentrations did not differ between the two sources...
March 15, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287614/batrachochytrium-salamandrivorans-is-the-predominant-chytrid-fungus-in-vietnamese-salamanders
#17
Alexandra E Laking, Hai Ngoc Ngo, Frank Pasmans, An Martel, Tao Thien Nguyen
The amphibian chytrid fungi, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and B. salamandrivorans (Bsal), pose a major threat to amphibian biodiversity. Recent evidence suggests Southeast Asia as a potential cradle for both fungi, which likely resulted in widespread host-pathogen co-existence. We sampled 583 salamanders from 8 species across Vietnam in 55 locations for Bsal and Bd, determined scaled mass index as a proxy for fitness and collected environmental data. Bsal was found within 14 of the 55 habitats (2 of which it was detected in 2013), in 5 salamandrid species, with a prevalence of 2...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262636/effects-of-corticosterone-on-infection-and-disease-in-salamanders-exposed-to-the-amphibian-fungal-pathogen-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis
#18
Chris W Fonner, Shreya A Patel, Shelby M Boord, Matthew D Venesky, Sarah K Woodley
Although it is well established that glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) alter immune function and disease resistance in humans and laboratory animal models, fewer studies have linked elevated GCs to altered immune function and disease resistance in wild animals. The chytrid fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) infects amphibians and can cause the disease chytridiomycosis, which is responsible for worldwide amphibian declines. It is hypothesized that long-term exposure to environmental stressors reduces host resistance to Bd by suppressing host immunity via stress-induced release of GCs such as corticosterone (CORT)...
March 6, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251304/safe-caves-and-dangerous-forests-predation-risk-may-contribute-to-salamander-colonization-of-subterranean-habitats
#19
Sebastiano Salvidio, Giulia Palumbi, Antonio Romano, Andrea Costa
Recent studies suggest that many organisms actively colonize the subterranean environment to avoid climatic stress, exploit new ecological opportunities and reduce competition and predation. Terrestrial salamanders are known to colonize the more stable subterranean habitats mainly to escape external climatic extremes, while the role of predation avoidance remains untested. To better understand the importance of predation, we used clay models of the cave salamander Speleomantes strinatii to compare the predation occurring in woodland and subterranean habitats...
April 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247910/persistence-of-an-egg-mass-polymorphism-in-ambystoma-maculatum-differential-performance-under-high-and-low-nutrients
#20
Matthew R Pintar, William J Resetarits
Polymorphisms play critical roles in allowing organisms to adapt to novel environments while enabling ecological speciation under divergent selection. Ambystoma maculatum, the spotted salamander, exhibits a unique polymorphism in the structure and appearance of its egg masses with two common morphs, white and clear. Amphibian egg jelly layers mediate interactions between embryos and the environment and are more responsive to ecological pressures of natural selection than other egg coat components. The A. maculatum egg mass polymorphism was hypothesized to be adaptive with regard to varying dissolved nutrient levels in ponds...
March 1, 2017: Ecology
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