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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760314/the-neuroprotective-and-antioxidative-effects-of-submicron-and-blended-lycium-barbarum-in-experimental-retinal-degeneration-in-rats
#1
Jen-Shuai Chang, Yih-Jing Lee, David A Wilkie, Chung-Tien Lin
The object is to determine the neuroprotective and antioxidative effects of submicron and blended Lycium barbarum (LB) on retinal degeneration as evaluated by ERG, retinal histopathology and assays of antioxidant (total GSH) and peroxidant (MDA) in the retina. A rat model of light-induced retinal degeneration was used to assess the protective effect of different forms of Lycium barbarum (LB) on retinal degeneration. Rats were divided into four experimental groups, normal control, light-induced untreated, submicron LB and blended LB treated...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760178/region-and-activity-dependent-regulation-of-extracellular-glutamate
#2
Nawrin F Pinky, Crystal M Wilkie, Jocelyn R Barnes, Matthew P Parsons
Transporter-mediated glutamate uptake plays an essential role in shaping synaptic neurotransmission. The rapid removal of synaptically-released glutamate ensures the high temporal dynamics characteristic of fast excitatory chemical neurotransmission and prevents the overexcitation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors that have been implicated in synaptic plasticity impairments and cell death. Despite clear regional differences in plasticity and excitotoxic thresholds, few studies have compared extracellular glutamate dynamics across different brain regions and in response to a range of neural activity including plasticity-inducing stimuli...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724276/continuity-index-measures-in-the-acute-care-hospital-setting-an-analytic-review-and-tests-using-electronic-health-record-data-and-computer-simulation
#3
Yingwei Yao, Hyochol Ahn, Janet Stifter, Diana J Wilkie, Gail Keenan
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Multiple continuity indexes are available; however, their properties are insufficiently understood for examining the influence of nurse staffing patterns on patient outcomes. We conceptually and analytically examined continuity measures to reveal their properties and relationships with each other and identify potential limitations. METHODS: We examined behavior of continuity indexes as applied to clinical practice data that were collected with the HANDS (Hands-On Automated Nursing Data System) and data from computer simulation...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nursing Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716648/genomic-and-biologic-comparisons-of-cyprinid-herpesvirus-3-strains
#4
Yuan Gao, Nicolás M Suárez, Gavin S Wilkie, Chuanfu Dong, Sven Bergmann, Pei-Yu Alison Lee, Andrew J Davison, Alain F C Vanderplasschen, Maxime Boutier
Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the archetypal fish alloherpesvirus and the etiologic agent of a lethal disease in common and koi carp. To date, the genome sequences of only four CyHV-3 isolates have been published, but no comparisons of the biologic properties of these strains have been reported. We have sequenced the genomes of a further seven strains from various geographical sources, and have compared their growth in vitro and virulence in vivo. The major findings were: (i) the existence of the two genetic lineages previously described as European and Asian was confirmed, but inconsistencies between the geographic origin and genotype of some strains were revealed; (ii) potential inter-lineage recombination was detected in one strain, which also suggested the existence of a third, as yet unidentified lineage; (iii) analysis of genetic disruptions led to the identification of non-essential genes and their potential role in virulence; (iv) comparison of the in vitro and in vivo properties of strains belonging to the two lineages revealed that inter-lineage polymorphisms do not contribute to the differences in viral fitness observed; and (v) a negative correlation was observed among strains between viral growth in vitro and virulence in vivo...
May 2, 2018: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707637/guns-germs-and-trees-determine-density-and-distribution-of-gorillas-and-chimpanzees-in-western-equatorial-africa
#5
Samantha Strindberg, Fiona Maisels, Elizabeth A Williamson, Stephen Blake, Emma J Stokes, Rostand Aba'a, Gaspard Abitsi, Anthony Agbor, Ruffin D Ambahe, Parfait C Bakabana, Martha Bechem, Antoine Berlemont, Bruno Bokoto de Semboli, Patrick R Boundja, Nicolas Bout, Thomas Breuer, Genevieve Campbell, Pauwel De Wachter, Marc Ella Akou, Fidel Esono Mba, Anna T C Feistner, Bernard Fosso, Roger Fotso, David Greer, Clement Inkamba-Nkulu, Calixte F Iyenguet, Kathryn J Jeffery, Max Kokangoye, Hjalmar S Kühl, Stephanie Latour, Bola Madzoke, Calixte Makoumbou, Guy-Aimé F Malanda, Richard Malonga, Victor Mbolo, David B Morgan, Prosper Motsaba, Gabin Moukala, Brice S Mowawa, Mizuki Murai, Christian Ndzai, Tomoaki Nishihara, Zacharie Nzooh, Lilian Pintea, Amy Pokempner, Hugo J Rainey, Tim Rayden, Heidi Ruffler, Crickette M Sanz, Angelique Todd, Hilde Vanleeuwe, Ashley Vosper, Ymke Warren, David S Wilkie
We present a range-wide assessment of sympatric western lowland gorillas Gorilla gorilla gorilla and central chimpanzees Pan troglodytes troglodytes using the largest survey data set ever assembled for these taxa: 59 sites in five countries surveyed between 2003 and 2013, totaling 61,000 person-days of fieldwork. We used spatial modeling to investigate major drivers of great ape distribution and population trends. We predicted density across each taxon's geographic range, allowing us to estimate overall abundance: 361,900 gorillas and 128,700 chimpanzees in Western Equatorial Africa-substantially higher than previous estimates...
April 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699407/the-current-landscape-of-early-drug-development-for-patients-with-sarcoma-in-the-immunotherapy-era
#6
Ana Sebio, Breelyn A Wilky, Vicki L Keedy, Robin L Jones
Immunotherapy has changed the treatment paradigm of melanoma and other malignancies. Recently, trials of checkpoint inhibition in sarcomas have been far from outstanding, although specific sarcoma subtypes appear to benefit from these novel therapies. The next steps involve combining immune checkpoint inhibition with classic cancer therapies in order to increase immunogenicity and also potentially complex immunotherapy techniques such as adoptive cell therapy. Currently, numerous clinical trials are exploring different immunotherapies in the sarcomas...
April 27, 2018: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691324/suppression-of-costimulation-by-human-cytomegalovirus-promotes-evasion-of-cellular-immune-defenses
#7
Eddie C Y Wang, Mariana Pjechova, Katie Nightingale, Virginia-Maria Vlahava, Mihil Patel, Eva Ruckova, Simone K Forbes, Luis Nobre, Robin Antrobus, Dawn Roberts, Ceri A Fielding, Sepehr Seirafian, James Davies, Isa Murrell, Betty Lau, Gavin S Wilkie, Nicolás M Suárez, Richard J Stanton, Borivoj Vojtesek, Andrew Davison, Paul J Lehner, Michael P Weekes, Gavin W G Wilkinson, Peter Tomasec
CD58 is an adhesion molecule that is known to play a critical role in costimulation of effector cells and is intrinsic to immune synapse structure. Herein, we describe a virally encoded gene that inhibits CD58 surface expression. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL148 was necessary and sufficient to promote intracellular retention of CD58 during HCMV infection. Blocking studies with antagonistic anti-CD58 mAb and an HCMV UL148 deletion mutant (HCMV∆UL148) with restored CD58 expression demonstrated that the CD2/CD58 axis was essential for the recognition of HCMV-infected targets by CD8+ HCMV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs)...
April 24, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686883/double-blind-acupuncture-needles-a-multi-needle-multi-session-randomized-feasibility-study
#8
Judith M Schlaeger, Nobuari Takakura, Hiroyoshi Yajima, Miho Takayama, Alana D Steffen, Elizabeth M Gabzdyl, Robyn A Nisi, Kathleen McGowan Gruber, Jason M Bussell, Diana J Wilkie
Background: Efficacy of acupuncture is difficult to demonstrate without a feasible double-blind milieu. Double-blind acupuncture needles have been validated in single session protocols with one or two needles but not been tested in a protocol requiring many needles and repeated sessions. Methods: We determined the feasibility of a 13-needle, 10-session study protocol. Feasibility focused on (1) enrolling and retaining participants; (2) two acupuncturists accurately implementing a double-blind, multi-needle, multi-session protocol; (3) participants completing measures; and (4) protocol acceptability to participants...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680942/morphological-and-molecular-evidence-for-a-new-species-of-the-genus-cosmocercoides-wilkie-1930-ascaridida-cosmocercidae-from-the-asiatic-toad-bufo-gargarizans-cantor-amphibia-anura
#9
Hui-Xia Chen, Lu-Ping Zhang, Minoru Nakao, Liang Li
A new cosmocercid species, Cosmocercoides qingtianensis sp. n., collected from the intestine of the Asiatic toad Bufo gargarizans Cantor (Amphibia: Anura) is described using integrated approaches, including light and scanning electron microscopy, and sequencing and analyzing the ribosomal [small ribosomal DNA (18S) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS)] and mitochondrial [cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1)] target regions, respectively. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by the combination of the following morphological characters, including the large body size, the presence of lateral alae and somatic papillae in both sexes, the length of spicules, the particular morphology and length of gubernaculum, the number, arrangement and morphology of caudal rosettes, the presence of large medioventral precloacal papilla and the long tail...
April 21, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673098/wilkie-s-syndrome-in-monozygotic-twins-treated-by-3-d-laparoscopic-duodenojejunostomy
#10
Belén Aneiros Castro, Indalecio Cano Novillo, Araceli García Vázquez, Rubén Martín Alelu, Andrés Gómez Fraile
Superior mesenteric artery syndrome, also known as Wilkie's syndrome, is a rare cause of proximal duodenum obstruction in children. Here, we describe the first pediatric case of superior mesenteric artery syndrome in monozygotic twin brothers. Both patients underwent 3-D laparoscopic duodenojejunostomy at the same age with an uneventful recovery.
April 19, 2018: Asian Journal of Endoscopic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621981/the-home-electronic-media-environment-and-parental-safety-concerns-relationships-with-outdoor-time-after-school-and-over-the-weekend-among-9-11-year-old-children
#11
Hannah J Wilkie, Martyn Standage, Fiona B Gillison, Sean P Cumming, Peter T Katzmarzyk
BACKGROUND: Time spent outdoors is associated with higher physical activity levels among children, yet it may be threatened by parental safety concerns and the attraction of indoor sedentary pursuits. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between these factors and outdoor time during children's discretionary periods (i.e., after school and over the weekend). METHODS: Data from 462 children aged 9-11 years old were analysed using generalised linear mixed models...
April 5, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620434/transient-receptor-potential-polymorphism-and-haplotype-associate-with-crisis-pain-in-sickle-cell-disease
#12
Ellie H Jhun, Xiaoyu Hu, Nilanjana Sadhu, Yingwei Yao, Ying He, Diana J Wilkie, Robert E Molokie, Zaijie J Wang
AIM: Episodes of acute pain crisis contribute to considerable morbidity and mortality in sickle cell disease (SCD). Incomprehensive understanding of the underlying pain heterogeneity results in inadequate pain management. The transient receptor potential (TRP) family of voltage-gated ion channels acts as sensory transducers of diverse noxious stimuli. We performed an association study of polymorphisms in candidate genes TRPV1 and TRPA1 with pain in SCD patients. METHODS: Utilization rate, in other words, number of emergency department/acute care center admissions over 12 months as a result of pain crisis, served as a marker for acute pain...
April 5, 2018: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596445/time-spent-with-cats-is-never-wasted-lessons-learned-from-feline-acromegalic-cardiomyopathy-a-naturally-occurring-animal-model-of-the-human-disease
#13
Kieran Borgeat, Stijn J M Niessen, Lois Wilkie, Norelene Harrington, David B Church, Virginia Luis Fuentes, David J Connolly
BACKGROUND: In humans, acromegaly due to a pituitary somatotrophic adenoma is a recognized cause of increased left ventricular (LV) mass. Acromegalic cardiomyopathy is incompletely understood, and represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality. We describe the clinical, echocardiographic and histopathologic features of naturally occurring feline acromegalic cardiomyopathy, an emerging disease among domestic cats. METHODS: Cats with confirmed hypersomatotropism (IGF-1>1000ng/ml and pituitary mass; n = 67) were prospectively recruited, as were two control groups: diabetics (IGF-1<800ng/ml; n = 24) and healthy cats without known endocrinopathy or cardiovascular disease (n = 16)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570110/pain-and-mortality-mechanisms-for-a-relationship
#14
Diane Smith, Ross Wilkie, Peter Croft, Simran Parmar, John McBeth
Moderate to severe chronic pain affects one in five adults and its impact increases with age. People with chronic pain that interferes with their lives have an increased risk of mortality. Identifying how interfering chronic pain can lead to mortality may highlight potential intervention strategies. This study uses a novel approach to test whether lifestyle, health, social and psychological factors mediate the relationship between pain and mortality.Survival analyses (Cox's proportional hazard modelling and a technique to assess mediation within survival models) were conducted on a large population study of adults aged ≥50 years from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) (n=6324)...
March 19, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563275/united-kingdom-catheter-study-protocol-synopsis
#15
Victoria Briggs, Ivonne Solis-Trapala, Allan Wailloo, Keith McCulloch, Mark Lambie, Fergus Caskey, James Fotheringham, Simon Davies, Martin Wilkie
BACKGROUND: High-quality peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheter insertion pathways are essential for optimal access to the therapy. Dialysis outcomes are influenced by a range of patient and center-related factors, and there is a need to better understand these so that catheter insertion pathways can be better matched to individual circumstances. OBJECTIVES: To examine how patient- and center-related factors influence the choice of catheter insertion pathways for a PD patient, and the impact of such factors and pathways on patient outcomes, and specifically, to compare the occurrence of and recovery from PD catheter-related adverse events and mortality in individuals who had surgical catheter insertion with those who had medical catheter insertion, and evaluate health economics...
March 2018: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563272/fluid-assessment-in-peritoneal-dialysis-there-is-still-a-place-for-clinical-acumen
#16
EDITORIAL
Martin Wilkie, Simon Davies
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559445/symptom-prioritization-among-adults-receiving-in-center-hemodialysis-a-mixed-methods-study
#17
Jennifer E Flythe, Tandrea Hilliard, Graciela Castillo, Kourtney Ikeler, Jazmine Orazi, Emaad Abdel-Rahman, Amy Barton Pai, Matthew B Rivara, Wendy L St Peter, Steven D Weisbord, Caroline Wilkie, Rajnish Mehrotra
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Individuals receiving in-center hemodialysis experience a high symptom burden that detrimentally affects their quality of life. There are few evidence-based interventions for symptom relief in this population. To stimulate innovation in symptom management, data on patient symptom prioritization and treatment preferences are needed. We undertook this study to ( 1 ) identify patient-prioritized symptoms for the development of symptom relief therapies and ( 2 ) elicit preferences for treatments among individuals receiving hemodialysis...
March 20, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558567/operating-list-composition-and-surgical-performance
#18
T W Pike, F Mushtaq, R P Mann, P Chambers, G Hall, J E Tomlinson, R Mir, R M Wilkie, M Mon-Williams, J P A Lodge
BACKGROUND: Recent reviews suggest that the way in which surgeons prepare for a procedure (warm up) can affect performance. Operating lists present a natural experiment to explore this phenomenon. The aim was to use a routinely collected large data set on surgical procedures to understand the relationship between case list order and operative performance. METHOD: Theatre lists involving the 35 procedures performed most frequently by senior surgeons across 38 private hospitals in the UK over 26 months were examined...
March 20, 2018: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551585/establishing-a-core-outcome-measure-for-fatigue-in-patients-on-hemodialysis-a-standardized-outcomes-in-nephrology-hemodialysis-song-hd-consensus-workshop-report
#19
Angela Ju, Mark Unruh, Sara Davison, Juan Dapueto, Mary Amanda Dew, Richard Fluck, Michael Germain, Sarbjit V Jassal, Gregorio Obrador, Donal O'Donoghue, Michelle A Josephson, Jonathan C Craig, Andrea Viecelli, Emma O'Lone, Camilla S Hanson, Braden Manns, Benedicte Sautenet, Martin Howell, Bharathi Reddy, Caroline Wilkie, Claudia Rutherford, Allison Tong
Fatigue is one of the most highly prioritized outcomes for patients and clinicians, but remains infrequently and inconsistently reported across trials in hemodialysis. We convened an international Standardized Outcomes in Nephrology-Hemodialysis (SONG-HD) consensus workshop with stakeholders to discuss the development and implementation of a core outcome measure for fatigue. 15 patients/caregivers and 42 health professionals (clinicians, researchers, policy makers, and industry representatives) from 9 countries participated in breakout discussions...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544460/the-curious-case-of-g%C3%AE-s-gain-of-function-in-neoplasia
#20
Giulio Innamorati, Thomas M Wilkie, Havish S Kantheti, Maria Teresa Valenti, Luca Dalle Carbonare, Luca Giacomello, Marco Parenti, Davide Melisi, Claudio Bassi
BACKGROUND: Mutations activating the α subunit of heterotrimeric Gs protein are associated with a number of highly specific pathological molecular phenotypes. One of the best characterized is the McCune Albright syndrome. The disease presents with an increased incidence of neoplasias in specific tissues. MAIN BODY: A similar repertoire of neoplasms can develop whether mutations occur spontaneously in somatic tissues during fetal development or after birth. Glands are the most "permissive" tissues, recently found to include the entire gastrointestinal tract...
March 15, 2018: BMC Cancer
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