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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896660/ayahuasca-exposure-descriptive-analysis-of-calls-to-us-poison-control-centers-from-2005-to-2015
#1
C William Heise, Daniel E Brooks
BACKGROUND: Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic plant preparation which usually contains the vine Banisteriopsis caapi and the shrub Psychotria viridis. This tea originates from the Amazon Basin where it is used in religious ceremonies. Because interest in these religious groups spreading as well as awareness of use of ayahuasca for therapeutic and recreational purposes, its use is increasing. Banisteriopsis caapi is rich in β-carbolines, especially harmine, tetrahydroharmine and harmaline, which have monoamine oxidase inhibiting (MAOI) activity...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889404/adolescent-suicidal-ingestion-national-trends-over-a-decade
#2
David C Sheridan, Robert G Hendrickson, Amber L Lin, Rongwei Fu, B Zane Horowitz
PURPOSE: Suicide attempts by adolescents most commonly involve the overdose of medications. To date, there has been little information on the over-the-counter or prescription medicines that adolescents ingest for self-harm. Identification of medications chosen in suicide attempts may help guide anticipatory guidance to parents by primary care providers and Poison Centers in prevention programs. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study using the American Association of Poison Control Center's National Poison Data System...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888682/affective-temperaments-as-measured-by-temps-a-among-self-poisoning-nonlethal-suicide-attempters
#3
Amir Rezaei Ardani, Farhad Farid Hosseini, Zahra Asadpour, Amir Masoud Hashemian, Bita Dadpour, Mahsa Nahidi
Suicidal behaviors are serious public health problems. The prominent association of mood disorders with suicide, along with the renaissance of the spectrum concept of psychiatric disorders in the recent decades, prioritizes the investigation of temperament variants in suicidal individuals. This study aimed to explore the relationship between affective temperaments and nonviolent suicide attempts. We administered Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Auto questionnaire (TEMPS-A) to 141 (27 males and 114 females) consecutive self-poisoning non-lethal suicide attempters at a Medical Toxicology Center and a sex and age matched group of healthy individuals (28 males, 112 females)...
November 17, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869952/-poison-related-hospitalizations-of-children-aged-0-14-at-a-teaching-hospital-in-southern-brazil-2006-2011
#4
Samara Messias Domingos, Nataly Barbosa Alves Borghesan, Maria de Fátima Garcia Lopes Merino, Ieda Harumi Higarashi
OBJECTIVE: to describe the profile of poisoning leading to children's hospitalizations, as registered at the Maringá Regional University Hospital Poisoning Control Center in the period 2006 to 2011. METHODS: this was a descriptive epidemiological study using secondary data from Intoxication Incident Report Forms, involving poisoned children aged between 0 and 14 years, hospitalized for at least 12 hours. RESULTS: 694 hospitalizations due to poisoning were registered, with medication poisoning accounting for 42...
April 2016: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855148/notes-from-the-field-cardiac-dysrhythmias-after-loperamide-abuse-new-york-2008-2016
#5
William Eggleston, Jeanna M Marraffa, Christine M Stork, Maria Mercurio-Zappala, Mark K Su, Rachel S Wightman, Karen R Cummings, Joshua G Schier
Loperamide is an over-the-counter antidiarrheal with opioid-receptor agonist properties. Recommended over-the-counter doses (range = 2-8 mg daily) do not produce opioid effects in the central nervous system because of poor oral bioavailability and P-glycoprotein efflux* of the medication (1); recent reports suggest that large doses (50-300 mg) of loperamide produce euphoria, central nervous system depression, and cardiotoxicity (2-4). Abuse of loperamide for its euphoric effect or for self-treatment of opioid withdrawal is increasing (5)...
November 18, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853104/characteristics-of-hand-tremor-and-postural-sway-in-patients-with-fetal-type-minamata-disease
#6
Toyoto Iwata, Shigeru Takaoka, Mineshi Sakamoto, Eri Maeda, Masaaki Nakamura, Xiao-Jie Liu, Katsuyuki Murata
About forty certified patients aged around 50 years old existed as living witnesses to fetal-type Minamata disease (methylmercury poisoning due to in utero exposure) in Minamata, Japan in 2006. Computerized hand tremor and postural sway tests with spectral analysis were conducted for 24 of them and in matched control subjects to examine the pathophysiological feature of neuromotor function. The tremor intensities of the patients with fetal-type Minamata disease were significantly larger than those of the 67 controls at every frequency band for both hands...
2016: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818322/an-overview-of-herb-and-dietary-supplement-efficacy-safety-and-government-regulations-in-the-united-states-with-suggested-improvements-part-1-of-5-series
#7
REVIEW
Amy Christine Brown
This is the first of five review articles investigating dietary supplements (DS; includes herbs) that now exceed over 50,000 in the Office of Dietary Supplement's "Dietary Supplement Label Database." Four review articles follow summarizing published medical case reports of DS related to liver toxicity, kidney toxicity, heart toxicity, and cancer. The most popular DS were vitamin or mineral supplements (43%) followed by specialty supplements (20%), botanicals (herbs; 20%), and sports supplements (16%). The 2013 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers revealed 1692 fatalities due to drugs and zero deaths due to DS...
November 3, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749797/adolescent-intentional-abuse-ingestions-overall-10-year-trends-and-regional-variation
#8
David C Sheridan, Robert G Hendrickson, Gillian Beauchamp, Amber Laurie, Rongwei Fu, B Zane Horowitz
OBJECTIVE: Adolescent intentional ingestions remain a significant public health problem in the United States with little research to date on the over-the-counter or prescription medicines that adolescents abuse. These data are important for anticipatory guidance by primary care providers, preventive health, and poison center outreach. METHODS: This was an observational study using the American Association of Poison Control Centers National Poison Data System. The study population consisted of all cases of patients aged 13 to 19 years from 2004 to 2013 with a coding of "intentional abuse...
October 4, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718162/impact-of-the-use-of-regional-poison-control-centers-in-an-urban-ems-dispatch-system
#9
Michael Levine, John Flores, Seth A Seabury, Stephen Sanko, Marc Eckstein
BACKGROUND: The public commonly calls 911 for unintentional ingestions, rather than calling the local poison center. By utilizing a series of scripted questions, 911 dispatchers in Los Angeles determine if an ingestion meets "omega-1" classification. Under such circumstances, the regional poison center is contacted prior to dispatch of paramedics. If the poison center advises that the patient can remain at home, EMS is not dispatched and the patient is followed at home by the poison center...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650036/electronic-cigarette-toxicity
#10
J Drew Payne, David Michaels, Menfil Orellana-Barrios, Kenneth Nugent
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are often advertised as a healthier product when compared with traditional cigarettes. Currently, there are limited data to support this and only a threat of federal regulation from the US Food and Drug Administration. Calls to poison control centers about e-cigarette toxicity, especially in children, and case reports of toxic exposures have increased over the past 3 years. This research letter reports the frequency of hazardous exposures to e-cigarettes and characterizes the reported adverse health effects associated with e-cigarette toxicity...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Primary Care & Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595368/analysis-of-gastric-lavage-reported-to-a-statewide-poison-control-system
#11
Jimmy Donkor, Patil Armenian, Isaac N Hartman, Rais Vohra
BACKGROUND: As decontamination trends have evolved, gastric lavage (GL) has become a rare procedure. The current information regarding use, outcomes, and complications of GL could help refine indications for this invasive procedure. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine case type, location, and complications of GL cases reported to a statewide poison control system. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of the California Poison Control System (CPCS) records from 2009 to 2012...
October 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576099/teaching-infant-car-seat-installation-via-interactive-visual-presence-an-experimental-trial
#12
David C Schwebel, Anna Johnston, Jenni Rouse
OBJECTIVE: A large portion of child restraint systems (car seats) are installed incorrectly, especially when first-time parents install infant car seats. Expert instruction greatly improves the accuracy of car seat installation but is labor intensive and difficult to obtain for many parents. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of 3 ways of communicating instructions for proper car seat installation: phone conversation; HelpLightning, a mobile application (app) that offers virtual interactive presence permitting both verbal and interactive (telestration) visual communication; and the manufacturer's user manual...
August 30, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560688/development-of-germline-humanized-antibodies-neutralizing-botulinum-neurotoxin-a-and-b
#13
Sebastian Miethe, Christelle Mazuet, Yvonne Liu, Robert Tierney, Christine Rasetti-Escargueil, Arnaud Avril, André Frenzel, Philippe Thullier, Thibaut Pelat, Remi Urbain, Alexandre Fontayne, Dorothea Sesardic, Michael Hust, Michel Robert Popoff
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are counted among the most toxic substances known and are responsible for human botulism, a life-threatening disease characterized by flaccid muscle paralysis that occurs naturally by food poisoning or colonization of the gastrointestinal tract by BoNT-producing clostridia. To date, 7 serologically distinct serotypes of BoNT (serotype A-G) are known. Due to the high toxicity of BoNTs the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have classified BoNTs as category A agent, including the six biological agents with the highest potential risk of use as bioweapons...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27556270/self-injury-mortality-in-the-united-states-in-the-early-21st-century-a-comparison-with-proximally-ranked-diseases
#14
Ian R H Rockett, Christa L Lilly, Haomiao Jia, Gregory L Larkin, Ted R Miller, Lewis S Nelson, Kurt B Nolte, Sandra L Putnam, Gordon S Smith, Eric D Caine
Importance: Fatal self-injury in the United States associated with deliberate behaviors is seriously underestimated owing to misclassification of poisoning suicides and mischaracterization of most drug poisoning deaths as "accidents" on death certificates. Objective: To compare national trends and patterns of self-injury mortality (SIM) with mortality from 3 proximally ranked top 10 causes of death: diabetes, influenza and pneumonia, and kidney disease. Data, Setting, and Participants: Underlying cause-of-death data from 1999 to 2014 were extracted for this observational study from death certificate data in the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-Ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research online databases...
October 1, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539866/stereo-and-temporally-controlled-coordination-polymerization-triggered-by-alternating-addition-of-a-lewis-acid-and-base
#15
Bo Liu, Dongmei Cui, Tao Tang
Significant progress has been made with regard to temporally controlled radical and ring-opening polymerizations, for example, by means of chemical reagents, light, and voltage, whereas quantitative switch coordination polymerization is still challenging. Herein, we report the temporally and stereocontrolled 3,4-polymerization of isoprene through allosterically regulating the active metal center by alternating addition of Lewis basic pyridine to "poison" the Lewis acidic active metal species through acid-base interactions and Lewis acidic Al(i) Bu3 to release the original active species through pyridine abstraction...
September 19, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27490214/why-are-we-still-dialyzing-overdoses-to-tricyclic-antidepressants-a-subanalysis-of-the-npds-database
#16
REVIEW
Valery Lavergne, Robert S Hoffman, James B Mowry, Monique Cormier, Sophie Gosselin, Darren M Roberts, Marc Ghannoum
A recent analysis of the American Association of Poison Control Centers database, showed that poisonings from toxins not usually considered amenable to extracorporeal purification ("non-classic toxins" such as ethanol and tricyclic antidepressants) continue to be reported. This publication investigates factors that may explain these findings. Our results suggest that: 1) the relatively high absolute number of ECTR performed for non-classic toxins may simply reflect the large number of exposures to these toxins, 2) poisoning from another toxin may have been the reason for ECTR initiation in some exposures to non-classic toxins, 3) poisoning from non-classic toxins may receive ECTR for purposes other than toxin removal, and 4) the decisional threshold to initiate ECTR may be lower for non-classic toxins because of heightened toxicity...
September 2016: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473610/fentanyl-and-a-novel-synthetic-opioid-u-47700-masquerading-as-street-norco-in-central-california-a-case-report
#17
Patil Armenian, Alexander Olson, Andres Anaya, Alicia Kurtz, Rawnica Ruegner, Roy R Gerona
In 2013 and 2014, more than 700 deaths were attributed to fentanyl and fentanyl analogues in the United States. Of recent concern is the cluster of unintentional fentanyl overdoses because of tablets thought to be "Norco" purchased on the street in Northern California. U-47700 (trans-3,4-dichloro-N-[2-(dimethyl-amino)cyclohexyl]-N-methylbenz-amide) is a nonfentanyl-based synthetic opioid with 7.5 times the binding affinity of morphine to μ-opioid. We report a case of fentanyl and U-47700 intoxication from what was thought to be illicitly purchased Norco...
July 20, 2016: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27466822/notes-from-the-field-kratom-mitragyna-speciosa-exposures-reported-to-poison-centers-united-states-2010-2015
#18
Mehruba Anwar, Royal Law, Josh Schier
Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a plant consumed throughout the world for its stimulant effects and as an opioid substitute (1). It is typically brewed into a tea, chewed, smoked, or ingested in capsules (2). It is also known as Thang, Kakuam, Thom, Ketum, and Biak (3). The Drug Enforcement Administration includes kratom on its Drugs of Concern list (substances that are not currently regulated by the Controlled Substances Act, but that pose risks to persons who abuse them), and the National Institute of Drug Abuse has identified kratom as an emerging drug of abuse (3,4)...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27414166/notes-from-the-field-acute-sulfuryl-fluoride-poisoning-in-a-family-florida-august-2015
#19
Prakash R Mulay, Grethel Clark, William L Jackson, Geoffrey M Calvert
On August 19, 2015, the Florida Department of Health (FDOH) was notified by the Florida Poison Information Center Network and a local hospital of possible sulfuryl fluoride poisonings affecting a family in Martin County, in southeastern Florida. Sulfuryl fluoride is a highly toxic (toxicity category I) gas fumigant used for termite control of homes and buildings.* FDOH personnel in Martin County commenced an investigation and identified a family of five (a grandmother, mother, father, son, and daughter) exposed to sulfuryl fluoride after their house was fumigated...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27335994/acute-poisoning-in-children-in-bahia-brazil
#20
Dilton Rodrigues Mendonça, Marta Silva Menezes, Marcos Antônio Almeida Matos, Daniel Santos Rebouças, Jucelino Nery da Conceição Filho, Reginara Souza de Assis, Leila Carneiro
Acute poisoning is a frequent accident in childhood, particularly in children under 4 years of age. This was a descriptive study with data collected from standardized forms of the Poison Control Center and patient record charts. All the cases of acute poisoning in children aged 0 to 14 years during the period 2008 to 2012 were selected. The variables studied comprised characteristics of the events and toxic agents, clinical development, and outcome. A total of 657 cases of acute poisoning, with higher frequency in the age-group from 1 to 4 years (48...
2016: Global Pediatric Health
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