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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235129/association-of-gene-polymorphisms-of-pattern-recognition-receptor-signalling-pathway-with-the-risk-and-severity-of-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-caused-by-enterovirus-71-in-chinese-han-population
#1
Ya-Ping Li, Mei Li, Xiao-Li Jia, Hui-Ling Deng, Wen-Jun Wang, Feng-Ping Wu, Jun Wang, Shuang-Suo Dang
Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) presents with a wide variety of clinical manifestations. Host immune response is a factor that influences disease susceptibility and severity. We investigated the potential association of gene polymorphisms in the pattern recognition receptor (PRR) pathway with the risk and severity of EV71 infection. A total of 180 EV71 HFMD cases (108 severe case; 72 mild cases) were enrolled. A group of 201 sex- and age-matched children was included as a control...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207132/irf3-signaling-pathway-serves-an-important-role-in-poly-i-c-induced-procollagen-reduction-in-human-skin-fibroblasts
#2
Cheng Yao, Sangbum Han, Chi-Hyun Park, Ye-Ji Kim, Dong Hun Lee, Jin Ho Chung
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are part of the immune system. They can recognize pathogen‑associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Toll‑like receptors (TLRs) and retinoic acid‑inducible gene 1 (RIG‑1)‑like receptors (RLRs) are 2 types of PRR in the innate immune system. Double‑stranded RNA (dsRNA) can exist as a PAMP, including dsRNA viruses. dsRNA is known as a ligand not only for TLR3 but also for RLRs, including melanoma differentiation‑associated gene 5 and RIG‑1. Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the skin...
November 22, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201911/transmissible-gastroenteritis-virus-papain-like-protease-1-antagonizes-production-of-interferon-%C3%AE-through-its-deubiquitinase-activity
#3
Xiaoliang Hu, Jin Tian, Hongtao Kang, Dongchun Guo, Jiasen Liu, Dafei Liu, Qian Jiang, Zhijie Li, Juanjuan Qu, Liandong Qu
Coronaviruses (CoVs), such as human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63), severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV), murine hepatitis virus (MHV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), encode papain-like (PL) proteases that inhibit Sendai virus- (SeV-) induced interferon (IFN-β) production. Recently, the crystal structure of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) PL1 has been solved, which was similar to that of SARS-CoV PL2pro, which may antagonize host innate immunity...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173188/innate-immune-surveillance-in-the-central-nervous-system-in-legionella-pneumophila-infection
#4
Pasqualina Lagana, Luca Soraci, Maria Elsa Gambuzza, Santi Delia
Innate immune response represents a common event in many neuroinflammatory diseases. The resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) are capable of sensing and reacting to both infections and sterile trauma. Peripheral immune cell migration into CNS is regulated by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), although peripheral immune cells can invade CNS through meninges, choroid plexus, perivascular spaces, and cerebrospinal fluid. Consequently, in the brain immune reactions can be mediated by both resident and peripheral immune cells...
November 23, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108970/inducers-of-salmon-innate-immunity-an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-approach
#5
Rosana A Estévez, Miriam G Contreras Mostazo, Eduardo Rodriguez, Juan Carlos Espinoza, Juan Kuznar, Zophonías O Jónsson, Guðmundur H Guðmundsson, Valerie H Maier
Maintaining fish health is one of the most important aims in aquaculture. Prevention of fish diseases therefore is crucial and can be achieved by various different strategies, including most often a combination of different methods such as optimal feed and fish density, as well as strengthening the immune system. Understanding the fish innate immune system and developing methods to activate it, in an effort to prevent infections in the first place, has been a goal in recent years. In this study we choose different inducers of the innate immune system and examined their effects in vitro on the salmon cell line CHSE-214...
November 8, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102119/rig-1-and-mda-5-signaling-pathways-contribute-to-ifn-%C3%AE-production-and-viral-replication-in-porcine-circovirus-virus-type-2-infected-pk-15-cells-in-vitro
#6
Bei Huang, Jiansheng Li, Xinchen Zhang, Qiling Zhao, Mingqing Lu, Yingjun Lv
Type I Interferons (IFNs) is known for its antiviral activity; however, it is surprising that in vitro treatment of IFN-α and IFN-γ enhanced the replication of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), indicating a complex relationship between interferon and PCV2. To date, it remains poorly understood how the interferon is produced during PCV2 infection and whether the interferon induced by PCV2 itself can promote viral replication. In this study, PCV2 induced the up-regulation of IFN-β in PK-15 cells, while treatment of PCV2-infected cells with the interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF3) inhibitor, BX795, decreased the expression of IFN-β, whereas treatment with the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) inhibitor, BAY11-7082, did not...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100916/molecular-characterization-ontogeny-and-expression-profiling-of-mitochondrial-antiviral-signaling-adapter-mavs-from-asian-seabass-lates-calcarifer-bloch-1790
#7
Rahul Krishnan, P Girish Babu, K Jeena, Gayathri Tripathi, Kurcheti Pani Prasad
Mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS), an innate immune signaling adapter coordinates the signals received from two independent cytosolic pathogen recognition receptors (RIG-1 and MDA5) to induce antiviral genes. In the present study the MAVS gene of Lates calcarifer (LcMAVS) was cloned and characterized. The complete cDNA sequence of LcMAVS was 3160 bp and encodes a poly peptide of 577 amino acids. Structural analysis of LcMAVS revealed an N-terminal CARD-like domain, central proline-rich domain and a C-terminal transmembrane domain...
October 31, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957692/4-3h-quinazolone-regulates-innate-immune-signaling-upon-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-by-moderately-inhibiting-the-rig-1-pathway-in-raw264-7-cell
#8
Liwei He, Fangtian Fan, Xianbang Hou, Hongyan Wu, Juan Wang, Huiqin Xu, Yun Sun
The root of Isatis indigotica, also known as Ban-Lan-Gen (BLG), is commonly used for prevention and early treatment of respiratory virus infection, but the underlying mechanisms of action remain unclear. In the early stage of infection, the innate immune system is activated by virus, and related immune cells such as macrophages secrete large amounts of cytokines including IFNs and ILs. On the one hand, these cytokines can remove virus. On the other hand, they dominantly mediate the inflammatory injury caused by viral infection...
September 25, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919361/molecular-characterisation-ontogeny-and-expression-analysis-of-melanoma-differentiation-associated-factor-5-mda5-from-asian-seabass-lates-calcarifer
#9
Anutosh Paria, M Makesh, Aparna Chaudhari, C S Purushothaman, K V Rajendran
MDA5 is the pivotal member of the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) and is reported to play a crucial role in type I IFN-mediated responses against pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), especially nucleic acids. In this study, we have identified and cloned the full-length cDNA sequence of MDA5, which comprises 3398 nucleotides and encodes for a putative protein of 978 AA length, in Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer. From the putative amino acid sequence of AsMDA5, four different conserved domains could be predicted: two N-terminal CARD domains, a DExDc domain, a HELICc domain and a C-terminal RIG-1_C-RD domain...
September 15, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916494/transflammation-innate-immune-signaling-in-nuclear-reprogramming
#10
Shu Meng, Palas Chanda, Rajarajan A Thandavarayan, John P Cooke
Induction of pluripotency in somatic cells by retroviral overexpression of four transcription factors has revolutionized the field of stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. The efficient induction of pluripotency requires the activation of innate immune signaling in a process termed "transflammation" (Lee et al., 2012). Specifically, the stimulation of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) causes global alterations in the expression and activity of epigenetic modifiers to favor an open chromatin configuration...
September 13, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705469/systematic-prioritization-of-functional-hotspot-in-rig-1-domains-using-pattern-based-conventional-molecular-dynamic-simulation
#11
P Raghuraman, R Jesu Jaya Sudan, J Lesitha Jeeva Kumari, C Sudandiradoss
BACKGROUND: Retinoic acid inducible gene 1 (RIG-1), multi-domain protein has a role-play in detecting viral nucleic acids and stimulates the antiviral response. Dysfunction of this protein due to mutations makes the route vulnerable to viral diseases. AIM: Identification of functional hotspots that maintains conformational stability in RIG-1 domains. METHODS: In this study, we employed a systematic in silico strategy on RIG-1 protein to understand the mechanism of structural changes upon mutation...
September 1, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674528/host-differences-affecting-resistance-and-susceptibility-of-the-second-generation-of-a-pekin-duck-flock-to-duck-hepatitis-a-virus-genotype-3
#12
Xiaoyan Wang, Jiaojiao Zhang, Runze Meng, Yong Jiang, Suyun Liang, Yunsheng Zhang, Ming Xie, Zhengkui Zhou, Shuisheng Hou
Earlier work suggested the possibility to anti duck hepatitis A virus genotype 3 (DHAV-3) using the resistance breeding strategy. Here, we report the creation of the second generations of a resistant Pekin duck flock (designated Z8R2) and a highly susceptible Pekin duck flock (designated Z8S2) and the investigation of their responses to DHAV-3. Experimental infection with DHAV-3 at 7 days of age resulted in a high mortality (66.3%) in 11 susceptible Z8S2 families and an extremely low mortality rate (2.67%) in 32 Z8R2 families, indicating that Z8R2 exhibits strong resistance to DHAV-3, while Z8S2 is highly susceptible to the virus...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651013/loss-of-prion-protein-induces-a-primed-state-of-type-i-interferon-responsive-genes
#13
Giulia Malachin, Malin R Reiten, Øyvind Salvesen, Håvard Aanes, Jorke H Kamstra, Kerstin Skovgaard, Peter M H Heegaard, Cecilie Ersdal, Arild Espenes, Michael A Tranulis, Maren K Bakkebø
The cellular prion protein (PrPC) has been extensively studied because of its pivotal role in prion diseases; however, its functions remain incompletely understood. A unique line of goats has been identified that carries a nonsense mutation that abolishes synthesis of PrPC. In these animals, the PrP-encoding mRNA is rapidly degraded. Goats without PrPC are valuable in re-addressing loss-of-function phenotypes observed in Prnp knockout mice. As PrPC has been ascribed various roles in immune cells, we analyzed transcriptomic responses to loss of PrPC in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from normal goat kids (n = 8, PRNP+/+) and goat kids without PrPC (n = 8, PRNPTer/Ter) by mRNA sequencing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614378/comparative-analysis-of-virus-host-interactions-caused-by-a-virulent-and-an-attenuated-duck-hepatitis-a-virus-genotype-1
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Xumin Ou, Sai Mao, Jingyu Cao, Anchun Cheng, Mingshu Wang, Dekang Zhu, Shun Chen, Renyong Jia, Mafeng Liu, Kunfeng Sun, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Xiaoyue Chen
Because of their better immunogenicity and the improved protection they afford, live attenuated vaccines derived from serial passaging in an abnormal host are widely used to protect humans or animals from certain pathogens. Here, we used a virulent and a chicken embryo-attenuated duck hepatitis A virus genotype 1 to compare the different regulated immune responses induced by viruses with differing virulence. In this study, the attenuated strains had lower protein expression levels than the virulent strains as identified by immunohistochemistry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523924/comparison-of-transcriptional-profiles-of-interferons-cxcl10-and-rig-1-in-influenza-infected-a549-cells-stimulated-with-exogenous-interferons
#15
V Lachová, L Škorvanová, D Svetlíková, L Turianová, A Kostrábová, T Betáková
Type I and type III interferons (IFNs) are induced by viral infection. It was concluded that these IFN species are identical in regulation and biological functions. However, these two systems differ in the tissue expression of their receptors and their transcriptional regulation is fundamentally different as well as cellular signaling pathways that drive expression of each IFN. Here, we have investigated the transcriptional profile of endogenous IFNs after stimulation of cells with exogenous IFNs and subsequent infection of A549 cells with A/chicken/Germany/27 [H7N7] influenza virus...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28519900/type-i-interferon-pathway-in-cns-homeostasis-and-neurological-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Thomas Blank, Marco Prinz
Type I interferons (IFNs), IFN-α and IFN-β, represent the major effector cytokines of the host immune response against viruses and other intracellular pathogens. These cytokines are produced via activation of numerous pattern recognition receptors, including the Toll-like receptor signaling network, retinoic acid-inducible gene-1 (RIG-1), melanoma differentiation-associated protein-5 (MDA-5) and interferon gamma-inducible protein-16 (IFI-16). Whilst the contribution of type I IFNs to peripheral immunity is well documented, they can also be produced by almost every cell in the central nervous system (CNS)...
September 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385609/investigation-of-phosphorylated-adjuvants-co-encapsulated-with-a-model-cancer-peptide-antigen-for-the-treatment-of-colorectal-cancer-and-liver-metastasis
#17
Tyler J Goodwin, Leaf Huang
The lipid calcium phosphate nanoparticle is a versatile platform capable of encapsulating a wide range of phosphorylated molecules from single nucleotides to pDNA. The use of this platform has shown great success as an immunotherapeutic vaccine carrier, capable of delivering co-encapsulated phosphorylated adjuvants and peptides. Three potent vaccine formulations were investigated for anti-cancer efficacy. The phosphorylated adjuvants, CpG, 2'3'cGAMP, and 5'pppdsRNA were co-encapsulated with a model phosphorylated tumor specific peptide antigen (p-AH1-A5)...
May 2, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295207/human-gestation-associated-tissues-express-functional-cytosolic-nucleic-acid-sensing-pattern-recognition-receptors
#18
A H Bryant, G E Menzies, L M Scott, S Spencer-Harty, L B Davies, R A Smith, R H Jones, C A Thornton
The role of viral infections in adverse pregnancy outcomes has gained interest in recent years. Innate immune pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and their signalling pathways, that yield a cytokine output in response to pathogenic stimuli, have been postulated to link infection at the maternal-fetal interface and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression and functional response of nucleic acid ligand responsive Toll-like receptors (TLR-3, -7, -8 and -9), and retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I)-like receptors [RIG-I, melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5) and Laboratory of Genetics and Physiology 2(LGP2)] in human term gestation-associated tissues (placenta, choriodecidua and amnion) using an explant model...
July 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276156/retinoic-acid-inducible-gene-1-protein-rig1-like-receptor-pathway-is-required-for-efficient-nuclear-reprogramming
#19
Nazish Sayed, Frank Ospino, Farhan Himmati, Jieun Lee, Palas Chanda, Edward S Mocarski, John P Cooke
We have revealed a critical role for innate immune signaling in nuclear reprogramming to pluripotency, and in the nuclear reprogramming required for somatic cell transdifferentiation. Activation of innate immune signaling causes global changes in the expression and activity of epigenetic modifiers to promote epigenetic plasticity. In our previous articles, we focused on the role of toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) in this signaling pathway. Here, we define the role of another innate immunity pathway known to participate in response to viral RNA, the retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 receptor (RIG-1)-like receptor (RLR) pathway...
May 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251971/-biomarkers-of-prostate-cancer-sensitivity-to-the-sendai-virus
#20
A A Belova, A O Sosnovtseva, A V Lipatova, K M Njushko, N N Volchenko, M M Belyakov, O V Sudalenko, A A Krasheninnikov, P V Shegai, A F Sadritdinova, M S Fedorova, N V Vorobjov, B Y Alekseev, A D Kaprin, A V Kudryavtseva
Metastatic prostate cancer is often associated with either primary or intractable castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), thus justifying the search for entirely new ways of treatment. Oncolytic viruses are able to selectively induce the death of tumor cells without affecting normal cells. A murine Sendai virus has potential to be used as an oncolytic agent. However, tumors vary in their sensitivity to different viruses, prompting us to attempt to identify corresponding biomarkers that reflect the interaction of cancer cells and the virus...
January 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
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