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Xumin Ou, Sai Mao, Jingyu Cao, Anchun Cheng, Mingshu Wang, Dekang Zhu, Shun Chen, Renyong Jia, Mafeng Liu, Kunfeng Sun, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Xiaoyue Chen
Because of their better immunogenicity and the improved protection they afford, live attenuated vaccines derived from serial passaging in an abnormal host are widely used to protect humans or animals from certain pathogens. Here, we used a virulent and a chicken embryo-attenuated duck hepatitis A virus genotype 1 to compare the different regulated immune responses induced by viruses with differing virulence. In this study, the attenuated strains had lower protein expression levels than the virulent strains as identified by immunohistochemistry...
2017: PloS One
V Lachová, L Škorvanová, D Svetlíková, L Turianová, A Kostrábová, T Betáková
Type I and type III interferons (IFNs) are induced by viral infection. It was concluded that these IFN species are identical in regulation and biological functions. However, these two systems differ in the tissue expression of their receptors and their transcriptional regulation is fundamentally different as well as cellular signaling pathways that drive expression of each IFN. Here, we have investigated the transcriptional profile of endogenous IFNs after stimulation of cells with exogenous IFNs and subsequent infection of A549 cells with A/chicken/Germany/27 [H7N7] influenza virus...
2017: Acta Virologica
Thomas Blank, Marco Prinz
Type I interferons (IFNs), IFN-α and IFN-β, represent the major effector cytokines of the host immune response against viruses and other intracellular pathogens. These cytokines are produced via activation of numerous pattern recognition receptors, including the Toll-like receptor signaling network, retinoic acid-inducible gene-1 (RIG-1), melanoma differentiation-associated protein-5 (MDA-5) and interferon gamma-inducible protein-16 (IFI-16). Whilst the contribution of type I IFNs to peripheral immunity is well documented, they can also be produced by almost every cell in the central nervous system (CNS)...
May 18, 2017: Glia
Tyler J Goodwin, Leaf Huang
The lipid calcium phosphate nanoparticle is a versatile platform capable of encapsulating a wide range of phosphorylated molecules from single nucleotides to pDNA. The use of this platform has shown great success as an immunotherapeutic vaccine carrier, capable of delivering co-encapsulated phosphorylated adjuvants and peptides. Three potent vaccine formulations were investigated for anti-cancer efficacy. The phosphorylated adjuvants, CpG, 2'3'cGAMP, and 5'pppdsRNA were co-encapsulated with a model phosphorylated tumor specific peptide antigen (p-AH1-A5)...
May 2, 2017: Vaccine
A H Bryant, G E Menzies, L M Scott, S Spencer-Harty, L B Davies, R A Smith, R H Jones, C A Thornton
The role of viral infections in adverse pregnancy outcomes has gained interest in recent years. Innate immune pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and their signalling pathways, that yield a cytokine output in response to pathogenic stimuli, have been postulated to link infection at the maternal-fetal interface and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression and functional response of nucleic acid ligand responsive Toll-like receptors (TLR-3, -7, -8 and -9), and retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I)-like receptors [RIG-I, melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5) and Laboratory of Genetics and Physiology 2(LGP2)] in human term gestation-associated tissues (placenta, choriodecidua and amnion) using an explant model...
July 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Nazish Sayed, Frank Ospino, Farhan Himmati, Jieun Lee, Palas Chanda, Edward S Mocarski, John P Cooke
We have revealed a critical role for innate immune signaling in nuclear reprogramming to pluripotency, and in the nuclear reprogramming required for somatic cell transdifferentiation. Activation of innate immune signaling causes global changes in the expression and activity of epigenetic modifiers to promote epigenetic plasticity. In our previous articles, we focused on the role of toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) in this signaling pathway. Here, we define the role of another innate immunity pathway known to participate in response to viral RNA, the retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 receptor (RIG-1)-like receptor (RLR) pathway...
May 2017: Stem Cells
A A Belova, A O Sosnovtseva, A V Lipatova, K M Njushko, N N Volchenko, M M Belyakov, O V Sudalenko, A A Krasheninnikov, P V Shegai, A F Sadritdinova, M S Fedorova, N V Vorobjov, B Y Alekseev, A D Kaprin, A V Kudryavtseva
Metastatic prostate cancer is often associated with either primary or intractable castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), thus justifying the search for entirely new ways of treatment. Oncolytic viruses are able to selectively induce the death of tumor cells without affecting normal cells. A murine Sendai virus has potential to be used as an oncolytic agent. However, tumors vary in their sensitivity to different viruses, prompting us to attempt to identify corresponding biomarkers that reflect the interaction of cancer cells and the virus...
January 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
Parimala R Vajjhala, Thomas Ve, Adam Bentham, Katryn J Stacey, Bostjan Kobe
The innate immune system is the first line of defense against infection and responses are initiated by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that detect pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). PRRs also detect endogenous danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that are released by damaged or dying cells. The major PRRs include the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family members, the nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain, leucine-rich repeat containing (NLR) family, the PYHIN (ALR) family, the RIG-1-like receptors (RLRs), C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) and the oligoadenylate synthase (OAS)-like receptors and the related protein cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)...
February 26, 2017: Molecular Immunology
Darin K Edwards, Edith Jasny, Heesik Yoon, Nigel Horscroft, Brian Schanen, Tanya Geter, Mariola Fotin-Mleczek, Benjamin Petsch, Vaughan Wittman
BACKGROUND: Prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines often depend upon a strong activation of the innate immune system to drive a potent adaptive immune response, often mediated by a strong adjuvant. For a number of adjuvants immunological readouts may not be consistent across species. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the innate immunostimulatory potential of mRNA vaccines in both humans and mice, using a novel mRNA-based vaccine encoding influenza A hemagglutinin of the pandemic strain H1N1pdm09 as a model...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
Kai Zheng, Yingchun Jiang, Zhendan He, Kaio Kitazato, Yifei Wang
Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is a unique cytoplasmic deacetylase that regulates various important biological processes by preventing protein aggregation and deacetylating different non-histone substrates including tubulin, heat shock protein 90, cortactin, retinoic acid inducible gene I and β-catenin. Growing evidence has indicated a dual role for HDAC6 in viral infection and pathogenesis: HDAC6 may represent a host defence mechanism against viral infection by modulating microtubule acetylation, triggering antiviral immune response and stimulating protective autophagy, or it may be hijacked by the virus to enhance proinflammatory response...
March 2017: Journal of General Virology
Ghayathri Balasundaram, Timothy Weixin Kwang, Shu Wang
Recombinant insect baculoviral vectors efficiently transduce several types of cells in the brain and can possibly be used in gene therapy for brain disorders. However, together with contaminating insect cell proteins, they trigger immune responses that might damage host brain cells. To substantially reduce unwanted immune responses due to the insect cell impurities, we purified and concentrated baculoviral vectors by combining an ion-exchange membrane chromatography method with high-speed centrifugation and demonstrated reduced immune responses of the vector preparations in the mouse brain...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Vivekanandhan Aravindhan, Haridoss Madhumitha
Globally, noncommunicable chronic diseases such as Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) are posing a major threat to the world. T2DM is known to potentiate CAD which had led to the coining of a new clinical entity named diabetic CAD (DM-CAD), leading to excessive morbidity and mortality. The synergistic interaction between these two comorbidities is through sterile inflammation which is now being addressed as metabolic inflammation or metainflammation, which plays a pivotal role during both early and late stages of T2DM and also serves as a link between T2DM and CAD...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
Manisha Priyam, Mamta Tripathy, Umesh Rai, Soma Mondal Ghorai
Reptiles remain a deprived class in the area of genomic and molecular resources for the vertebrate classes. The transition of squamates from aquatic to terrestrial mode of life caused profound changes in their immune system to combat the altered variety of pathogens on land. The current study aims at delineating the evolution of defence mechanisms in wall lizard, Hemidactylus flaviviridis, by exploring its immunome. De novo sequencing of splenic transcriptome from wall lizard on the Illumina Hi-Seq platform generated 258,128 unique transcripts with an average GC content of 45%...
April 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Rose Yvonne Reins, Hasna Baidouri, Alison Marie McDermott
PURPOSE: Vitamin D is recognized to be an important modulator of the immune system. In the eye, studies have shown that deficiencies and genetic differences in vitamin D-related genes have a significant impact on the development of various ocular diseases. Our current study examines the ability of human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) to activate vitamin D and the effect of vitamin D treatment on antimicrobial peptide production and cytokine modulation during inflammation, with the ultimate goal of using vitamin D therapeutically for corneal inflammation...
December 2015: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
P Drayton, B W Morgan, M C Davies, G E B Giddins, A W Miles
Silicone finger arthroplasties are used widely, especially for metacarpophalangeal joint replacement in patients with inflammatory arthritis. Implant failure is well recognized. The rates of failure in vivo differ substantially from experience in vivo. One cause of failure is felt to be post-operative ulnar deviation. The aim of our study was to test the effect of ulnar deviation testing on silicone finger implants. We tested 12 implants in three groups of four implants. The implants were submerged in a bath of Ringer's solution at 370 °C throughout the experiment and tested in a rig held in 0°, 10° and 20° deviation...
November 2016: Journal of Hand Surgery, European Volume
A Pretorius, F E Faber, M van Kleef
Development of African horsesickness (AHS) subunit vaccines will have to include a rational approach that uses knowledge of how the virus interacts with the host immune system. The global in vivo immune response induced by attenuated AHSV serotype 4 in horses was characterised using transcriptome sequencing. PBMC were collected with 24h intervals for four days after inoculation and four days after a second boost, 21 days later. Transcriptome data were normalised to the day 0 naïve transcriptome and up- or down-regulated immune genes identified using the CLC workbench...
February 2016: Immunobiology
Sanna M Mäkelä, Pamela Österlund, Veera Westenius, Sinikka Latvala, Michael S Diamond, Michael Gale, Ilkka Julkunen
UNLABELLED: Influenza B virus causes annual epidemics and, along with influenza A virus, accounts for substantial disease and economic burden throughout the world. Influenza B virus infects only humans and some marine mammals and is not responsible for pandemics, possibly due to a very low frequency of reassortment and a lower evolutionary rate than that of influenza A virus. Influenza B virus has been less studied than influenza A virus, and thus, a comparison of influenza A and B virus infection mechanisms may provide new insight into virus-host interactions...
December 2015: Journal of Virology
Alexander S Jureka, Alex B Kleinpeter, Gabriel Cornilescu, Claudia C Cornilescu, Chad M Petit
The influenza non-structural protein 1 (NS1) plays a critical role in antagonizing the innate immune response to infection. One interaction that facilitates this function is between NS1 and RIG-I, one of the main sensors of influenza virus infection. While NS1 and RIG-I are known to interact, it is currently unclear whether this interaction is direct or if it is mediated by other biomolecules. Here we demonstrate a direct, strain-dependent interaction between the NS1 RNA binding domain (NS1(RBD)) of the influenza A/Brevig Mission/1918 H1N1 (1918(H1N1)) virus and the second caspase activation and recruitment domain of RIG-I...
November 3, 2015: Structure
Xian-Lin Wu, Yu-Hong Luo, Jia Chen, Bin Yu, Kang-Li Liu, Jin-Xiong He, Su-Hong Lu, Jie-Xing Li, Sha Wu, Zhen-You Jiang, Xiao-Yin Chen
Over the past few decades, climate warming has caused profound changes in our living environment, and human diseases, including infectious diseases, have also been influenced by these changes. However, it remains unclear if a warm-wet climate can influence the infectivity of influenza and result in influenza pandemics. This study focused on observations of how the hydrothermal environment influences the infectivity of the influenza virus and the resulting immunoreactions of the infected mice. We used a manual climatic box to establish the following 3 environments with different temperatures and humidity: normal environment (T: 24 ± 1°C, RH: 50% ± 4%), wet environment (T: 24 ± 1 °C, RH: 95% ± 4%) and warm-wet environment (T: 33 ± 1 °C, RH: 95% ± 4%), and the mice were fed and maintained in these 3 different environments...
2015: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Xiaoqing Zhang, Haiyang Yu, Jun Zhao, Xiuqing Li, Jiada Li, Jiantai He, Zanxian Xia, Jinfeng Zhao
Inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase Epsilon (IKKϵ) is an IKK-related kinase. Despite it was originally discovered as a kinase functionally related to TBK-1, studies entailing gene knockout mouse demonstrated that IKKϵ is dispensable for interferon induction by viral infection. In this study, we report that IKKϵ directly phosphorylates a key serine residue within the RNA-binding domain of RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene 1) to inhibit RIG-I-mediate innate immune signaling. Using IKKϵ-deficient MEFs, we found that loss of IKKϵ resulted in increased cytokine production in response to the activation of cytosolic sensors...
April 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
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