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Mark O Wielpütz, Ho Yun Lee, Hisanobu Koyama, Takeshi Yoshikawa, Shinichiro Seki, Yuji Kishida, Yasuhiro Sakai, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Kazuro Sugimura, Yoshiharu Ohno
OBJECTIVE: Ultrashort TE (UTE) MRI has been shown to deliver high-resolution images comparable to CT images. Here we evaluate the potential of UTE-MRI for precise lung nodule characterization. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Fifty-one patients (mean [± SD] age, 68.7 ± 10.8 years) with 119 nodules or masses (mean size, 17.4 ± 16.3 mm; range, 4-88 mm) prospectively underwent CT (1-mm slice thickness) and UTE-MRI (TE, 192 μs; 1 mm3 resolution). Two radiologists assessed nodule dimensions and morphologic features (i...
March 16, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Dawei Chen, Xinyu Song, Yan Zhang, Li Kong, Haiyong Wang, Jinming Yu
AIM: Intrapleural infusion of bevacizumab (BEV) is an emerging clinical treatment for malignant pleural effusion, but many details of usage need to be determined, especially for the effective dose. PATIENTS & METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of the records of malignant pleural effusion patients from non-small-cell lung cancer who underwent intrapleural infusion of BEV. According to the BEV dose commonly used in clinical, patients were allocated into either low-dose group or high-dose group...
March 16, 2018: Future Oncology
Midori Tanaka, Hidenobu Ishii, Hayato Moribuchi, Yoshiko Naito, Norikazu Matsuo, Masayuki Nakamura, Takaaki Tokito, Koichi Azuma, Kazuhiko Yamada, Tomoaki Hoshino
Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) combined with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations is extremely rare, and standard chemotherapeutic strategies have not yet been established. In the present study, we report a case of a 67-year-old man who presented with combined SCLC with EGFR mutation (exon 19 deletion). Systemic chemotherapy with cisplatin and irinotecan was initiated as first-line chemotherapy, and computed tomography findings revealed tumor shrinkage after two cycles of chemotherapy. However, after the third cycle of the treatment, disease progression was observed including the appearance of pleural and pericardial effusion...
March 15, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
Yalda B Naeini, Ramir Arcega, Sharon Hirschowitz, Nagesh Rao, Haodong Xu
Malignant mesotheliomas are rather uncommon neoplasms associated primarily with asbestos exposure; however, they may also arise as second primary malignancies after radiation therapy, with a latency period of 15-25 years. Numerous studies have reported an association between pleural malignant mesothelioma and chest radiation performed for other malignancies; on the other hand, post-irradiation mesotheliomas of the pericardium have been reported in only a few published cases to date, and no homozygous deletion of 9p21 has been described in such cases...
February 2018: Cancer Biology & Medicine
Tina Streitparth, Denis Schumacher, Robert Damm, Bjoern Friebe, Konrad Mohnike, Ortrud Kosiek, Maciej Pech, Jens Ricke, Florian Streitparth
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety and predictive factors of RFA of primary and secondary lung malignancies. Patients and Methods: 79 patients with 129 primary and secondary lung malignancies were enrolled in a retrospective study. We treated 74 pulmonary metastases of colorectal cancer, 13 malignant melanoma lesions, 13 renal cancer metastases, 5 primary lung malignancies and 24 tumors of other different entities. All patients were considered to be unsuitable candidates for surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Shudan Wang, Noam Broder, Paula Marchetta, Johannes Nowatzky
A 46-year-old Hispanic man presented with fever, genital ulcers, left eye redness and chest pain. Physical examination was notable for a healed oral ulcer and scrotal ulcers, and bilateral superficial thrombophlebitis. He was found to have new-onset pancytopenia. CT of the chest showed pericardial and pleural effusions and rapidly progressing inflammation of the aortic arch and ascending vessels. Although the patient had Behcet's disease (BD)-like symptoms, pancytopenia could not be explained by the diagnosis, prompting a bone marrow biopsy which showed myelodysplastic syndrome...
March 15, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Muhammad Saeed, Farhan Rasheed, Shagufta Iram, Shahida Hussain, Adeel Ahmad, Saba Riaz, Maqsood Ahmad
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the false negative results of Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) smear microscopy. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Mycobacteriology Laboratory, Allama Iqbal Medical College (AIMC) and Jinnah Hospital, Lahore (JHL), Pakistan, from February 2014 to August 2016. METHODOLOGY: A total of 3,951 (pulmonary 2,773 and extra-pulmonary 1,178) samples were collected from strong TB suspected patients attending JHL Lahore...
March 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Rafael E de la Hoz, Jonathan Weber, Dongming Xu, John T Doucette, Xiaoyu Liu, Deborah A Carson, Juan C Celedón
We examined the chest CT scans of 1,453 WTC responders using the International Classification of High-resolution CT for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases. Univariate and bivariate analyses of potential work-related pleural abnormalities were performed with pre-WTC and WTC-related occupational exposure data, spirometry, demographics and quantitative CT measurements. Logistic regression was used to evaluate occupational predictors of those abnormalities. Chest CT scans were performed first at a median of 6...
March 15, 2018: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
Ahmed A Aljohaney
OBJECTIVES: To determine the mortality rates and predictors among patients hospitalized with active tuberculosis (TB) at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH) in Jeddah. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on 291 active TB patients hospitalized in KAUH, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia from December 2011 to December 2016. Medical records were collected and evaluated using a dedicated data extraction sheet. The records included demographics, clinical, radiological, laboratory, and drug resistance data...
March 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
Nicholas Agyepong, Usha Govinden, Alex Owusu-Ofori, Sabiha Yusuf Essack
Background: Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria have emerged as major clinical and therapeutic dilemma in hospitals in Ghana.To describe the prevalence and profile of infections attributable to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria among patients at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in the Ashanti region of Ghana. Methods: Bacterial cultures were randomly selected from the microbiology laboratory from February to August, 2015. Bacterial identification and minimum inhibitory concentrations were conducted using standard microbiological techniques and the Vitek-2 automated system...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Arnaud Boyer, Eddy Pasquier, Pascale Tomasini, Joseph Ciccolini, Laurent Greillier, Nicolas Andre, Fabrice Barlesi, Celine Mascaux
Drug repurposing is the use of known drugs for new indications. Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare cancer with a poor prognosis. So far, few treatments have been approved in this disease. However, its incidence is expected to increase significantly, particularly in developing countries. Consequently, drug repurposing appears as an attractive strategy for drug development in MPM, since the known pharmacology and safety profile based on previous approvals of repurposed drugs allows for faster time-to-market for patients and lower treatment cost...
March 31, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
Qing Liu, Yan-Xia Yu, Xiao-Juan Wang, Zheng Wang, Zhen Wang
BACKGROUND: The concentration assay of pleural effusion interleukin-27 (IL-27) has raised concern for diagnosing tuberculous pleurisy. Compared with malignant pleural effusion (MPE), the concentration of IL-27 in tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) increased significantly. Accurate differentiating diagnosis is essential for choosing treatment for pleural effusion. OBJECTIVE: The present meta-analysis is aimed at determining the accuracy of IL-27 in the differential diagnosis between TPE and MPE...
March 14, 2018: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
A Skiada, C Lass-Floerl, N Klimko, A Ibrahim, E Roilides, G Petrikkos
The diagnosis and treatment of mucormycosis are challenging. The incidence of the disease seems to be increasing. Hematological malignancies are the most common underlying disease in countries with high income and uncontrolled diabetes in developing countries. Clinical approach to diagnosis lacks sensitivity and specificity. Radiologically, multiple (≥10) nodules and pleural effusion are reportedly associated with pulmonary mucormycosis. Another finding on computerized tomography (CT) scan, which seems to indicate the presence of mucormycosis, is the reverse halo sign...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Ulrich Mayr, Eugen Karsten, Tobias Lahmer, Sebastian Rasch, Philipp Thies, Benedikt Henschel, Gerrit Fischer, Roland M Schmid, Wolfgang Huber
INTRODUCTION: Appropriate mechanical ventilation and prevention of alveolar collaps is mainly dependent on transpulmonary pressure TPP. TPP is assessed by measurement of esophageal pressure EP, largely influenced by pleural and intraabdominal pressure IAP. Consecutively, TPP-guided ventilation might be particularly useful in patients with high IAP. This study investigates the impact of large volume paracentesis LVP on TPP, EP, IAP as well as on hemodynamic and respiratory function in patients with liver cirrhosis and tense ascites...
2018: PloS One
Ka Pang Chan, Deirdre B Fitzgerald, Y C Gary Lee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pleural infection remains an important pulmonary disease, causing significant morbidity and mortality. There is a resurgence of disease burden despite introduction of antibiotics and pneumococcal vaccines. A revisit of the pathogenesis and update on intervention may improve the care of pleural infection. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have uncovered the prognostic implication of the presence of a pleural effusion in patients with pneumonia. Identifying where the bacteria lives may have diagnostic and therapeutic implications...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
John H Harris, William H Harris, Sanjay Jain, A Y Ferguson, David A Hill, Amy M Trahan
PURPOSE: CTA is routinely ordered on level II blunt thoraco-abdominally injured patients for assessment of injury to the thoracic aorta. The vast majority of such assessments are negative. The question being asked is, Does the accurate interpretation of the three mediastinal signs permit reliable determination of which patients need CTA for aortic assessment? The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the role of three specifically selected mediastinal anatomic signs on the initial supine chest radiograph (CXR) of adult level II blunt thoraco-abdominally injured patients for the presence or absence of a mediastinal hematoma...
March 13, 2018: Emergency Radiology
Sijan Basnet, Izza Mir, Elan Mohanty, Rashmi Dhital, Biswaraj Tharu, Dilli Ram Poudel
Empyema caused by clostridial infections is rare especially in the absence of invasive thoracic procedures. We present the case of an 81-year-old man without a history of preceding trauma who presented with shortness of breath and nonproductive cough and grew Clostridium perfringens only in the pleural cavity. He was predisposed to the infection due to his swallowing dysfunction. He was treated with penicillin and chest tube placement for drainage and subsequently improved.
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Hiroaki Kuroda, Shnsuke Mori, Hirotaka Tanaka, Tatsuya Yoshida, Tetsuya Mizuno, Noriaki Sakakura, Yasushi Yatabe, Hiroshi Iwata, Yukinori Sakao
Background: We previously proposed measuring tumor size using mediastinal window setting on high-resolution computed tomography (CT) as a simple and useful modality for preoperative prognostication of small adenocarcinoma. Hence, the importance of tumor volume and positron emission tomography (PET) for preoperative prognostication of clinical stage IA (cIA) adenocarcinoma was studied. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated total 324 patients who underwent pulmonary resection of cIA adenocarcinoma between July 2008 and August 2015...
February 13, 2018: Oncotarget
Hisanori Fukunaga, Yasuko Tatewaki, Tatsushi Mutoh, Hideo Shimomura, Shuzo Yamamoto, Chiaki Terao, Tomoko Totsune, Manabu Nakagawa, Yasuyuki Taki
BACKGROUND Primary cardiac lymphoma is rare and can be an aggressive disease, depending on the grade. A case is reported of low-grade primary cardiac lymphoma associated with a pericardial effusion. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) imaging was useful in the diagnosis and in evaluating the disease activity in this case. CASE REPORT A 72-year-old Japanese woman visited a general practitioner, complaining of dyspnea associated with cardiac tamponade. Pericardiocentesis was performed, and Group V malignant cells were identified by cytology, suspicious for malignant lymphoma...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Dileep Unnikrishnan, Nasreen Shaikh, Ahmad Sharayah, Chandler Patton
A 47-year-old woman with a medical history of Raynaud's phenomenon presented with fever, cough and shortness of breath. She was found to have left lower lobe consolidation and pleural effusion and was treated as a case of pneumonia. During the hospital course, her respiratory status worsened, and she was intubated on the third hospital day. To investigate the high A-a gradient, a Computerized Tomographic Pulmonary Embolism (CTPE) study was done which identified a large left lower pulmonary artery embolism. She was also found to have a new murmur, and an echocardiogram demonstrated a large lesion on tricuspid valve...
March 13, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
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