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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782816/a-new-microsporidium-apotaspora-heleios-n-g-n-sp-from-the-riverine-grass-shrimp-palaemonetes-paludosus-decapoda-caridea-palaemonidae
#1
Yuliya Y Sokolova, Robin M Overstreet
We report a new microsporidium from a key species of the estuarine communities of the Gulf States, the Riverine grass shrimp, Palaemonetes paludosus. A milky-white shrimp was found in the Mobile Bay Delta, a large, oligohaline-freshwater wetland in Alabama, USA. Light microscopy of smears and thick sections of the abdominal tissues demonstrated infection with microsporidian spores enclosed in sporophorous vesicles (SVs) in sets of eight. Broadly oval spores measured 2.9 ± 0.06 x 1.7 ± 0.03 µm (2.5-3.3 x 1...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781099/flow-cytometric-analysis-of-extracellular-vesicle-subsets-in-plasma-impact-of-swarm-by-particles-of-non-interest
#2
S F W M Libregts, G J A Arkesteijn, A Németh, E N M Nolte-'t Hoen, M H M Wauben
BACKGROUND: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) in plasma are increasingly recognized as potential biomarkers. EV analysis for diagnostic purposes should be robust and should allow analysis of EV subsets in a wide range of abundance and in a large number of patient samples. Flow cytometry offers possibilities to meet these criteria as it allows multi-parameter analysis of individual EVs. However, analysis of plasma EVs is challenging due to their size and heterogeneity and the presence of other submicron-sized particles in plasma that could interfere in EV-analysis...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778909/n-acetylcysteine-protects-against-diabetic-nephropathy-through-control-of-oxidative-and-nitrosative-stress-by-recovery-of-nitric-oxide-in-rats
#3
Guilherme B Nogueira, Giovana R Punaro, Clemerson S Oliveira, Fabiane R Maciel, Thamires O Fernandes, Deyse Y Lima, Adelson M Rodrigues, Margaret G Mouro, Sergio R R Araujo, Elisa M S Higa
The diabetes mellitus (DM) induces several changes, with substantial increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS cause damage to systemic and renal microvasculature, which could be one of the mechanisms involved in the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). The ROS modulate other substances like the nitric oxide (NO), a vasodilator with important role in the renal function. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is an antioxidant that acts replenishing intracellular cysteine levels, which is essential for glutathione formation...
May 17, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774664/the-lupus-associated-fc%C3%AE-riib-i232t-polymorphism-results-in-impairment-in-the-negative-selection-of-low-affinity-germinal-center-b-cells-via-c-abl
#4
Jyun-Pei Jhou, I-Shing Yu, Haw Hwai, Chih-Shan Chen, Pei-Lung Chen, Shiang-Jong Tzeng
OBJECTIVE: FcγRIIB is an essential negative regulator of B cells to block BCR signaling and to trigger c-Abl-dependent apoptosis of B cells. FcγRIIB-deficient mice display splenomegaly with expansion of B cells, leading to lupus. FcγRIIB-I232T is a hypo-functional polymorphism associated with lupus susceptibility in humans, an autoimmune disease linked to diminished deletion of autoreactive B cells. In the context of FcγRIIB-I232T polymorphism, we investigated the role of FcγRIIB in the deletion of low-affinity germinal center (GC) B cells, an important mechanism for preventing autoimmunity...
May 17, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774038/altered-expression-of-the-malate-permeable-anion-channel-osalmt4-reduces-the-growth-of-rice-under-low-radiance
#5
Jie Liu, Muyun Xu, Gonzalo M Estavillo, Emmanuel Delhaize, Rosemary G White, Meixue Zhou, Peter R Ryan
We examined the function of OsALMT4 in rice ( Oryza sativa L.) which is a member of the aluminum-activated malate transporter family. Previous studies showed that OsALMT4 localizes to the plasma membrane and that expression in transgenic rice lines results in a constitutive release of malate from the roots. Here, we show that OsALMT4 is expressed widely in roots, shoots, flowers, and grain but not guard cells. Expression was also affected by ionic and osmotic stress, light and to the hormones ABA, IAA, and salicylic acid...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771451/modulation-of-inflammatory-and-hormonal-parameters-in-response-to-testosterone-therapy-effects-on-the-ventral-prostate-of-adult-rats
#6
Leonardo O Mendes, Anthony C S Castilho, Cristiane F Pinho, Bianca F Gonçalvez, Eduardo M Razza, Luiz Gustavo A Chuffa, Janete A Anselmo-Franci, Wellerson R Scarano, Francisco E Martinez
Testosterone is often recommended in the treatment of several aging-related conditions. However, there are still questions about the consequences of this therapy in terms of hormonal and inflammatory parameters that are crucial for prostate homeostasis.Thus, we investigate if the testosterone therapy (TT) modulates the hormone receptors and inflammatory cytokines in the ventral prostate of adult rats. Wistar rats aging 150 days were divided into two experimental groups(n = 10/group): T: received subcutaneous injections of testosterone cypionate (5mg/kg body weight) diluted in corn oil every other day for 4 weeks; and C: received corn oil as vehicle...
May 17, 2018: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771111/the-chemical-history-of-a-bubble
#7
Kenneth S Suslick, Nathan C Eddingsaas, David J Flannigan, Stephen D Hopkins, Hangxun Xu
Acoustic cavitation (the growth, oscillation, and rapid collapse of bubbles in a liquid) occurs in all liquids irradiated with sufficient intensity of sound or ultrasound. The collapse of such bubbles creates local heating and provides a unique source of energy for driving chemical reactions. In addition to sonochemical bond scission and formation, cavitation also induces light emission in many liquids. This phenomenon of sonoluminescence (SL) has captured the imagination of many researchers since it was first observed 85 years ago...
May 17, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768499/a-fixable-probe-for-visualizing-flagella-and-plasma-membranes-of-the-african-trypanosome
#8
Justin Wiedeman, Kojo Mensa-Wilmot
The protozoan Trypanosoma brucei sp. cause diseases in humans and animals. Studies of T. brucei cell biology have revealed unique features, such as major endocytic events being limited to a single region, and mitochondrial genome segregation mediated via basal bodies. Further understanding of trypanosome cell biology can be facilitated with super-resolution fluorescence microscopy. Lack of a plasma membrane probe for fixed trypanosomes remains a persistent problem in need of a working solution. Herein, we report protocols developed using mCLING in super-resolution structured illumination fluorescence microscopy (SR-SIM)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767409/the-use-of-serum-free-light-chain-dimerization-patterns-assist-in-the-diagnosis-of-al-amyloidosis
#9
Moshe E Gatt, Batia Kaplan, Dean Yogev, Elana Slyusarevsky, Galina Pogrebijski, Sizilia Golderman, Olga Kukuy, Avi Livneh
The discrimination between benign and malignant forms of plasma cell dyscrasia (PCD) is often difficult. Free light chain monomer-dimer pattern analysis (FLC-MDPA) may assist in solving this dilemma and distinguish between AL amyloidosis and benign PCD. Serum samples of patients with AL amyloidosis and benign PCD were analysed in a blinded manner. Quantitative Western blotting was performed to estimate dimerization and clonality indices, and thereby determine the source of the tested samples, as derived either from benign or malignant PCD...
May 16, 2018: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766682/distinct-ultradian-rhythms-in-plasma-clusterin-concentrations-in-lean-and-obese-korean-subjects
#10
Jong Han Choi, Eunheui Jeong, Byung Soo Youn, Min Seon Kim
BACKGROUND: Blood levels of many hormones show rhythmic fluctuations with variable duration of cycles. Clusterin/apolipoprotein J is a glycoprotein which is highly expressed in the plasma and has modulatory roles in immune and inflammatory reactions, neurobiology, lipid metabolism, and leptin signaling. In this study, we examined the diurnal fluctuations of plasma clusterin concentrations in lean and obese young men. METHODS: For the study, 14 subjects (five lean and five obese men; two lean and two obese women) were admitted to the research ward and blood samples were drawn every 30 minutes during light-on period (6:00 AM to 10:00 PM) and every hour during light-off period...
May 4, 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765992/serological-immunoglobulin-free-light-chain-profile-in-myasthenia-gravis-patients
#11
Umberto Basile, Mariapaola Marino, Cecilia Napodano, Krizia Pocino, Paolo Emilio Alboini, Francesca Gulli, Amelia Evoli, Carlo Provenzano, Emanuela Bartoccioni
Background: Serological levels of free immunoglobulin light chains (FLCs), produced in excess of heavy chains during synthesis of immunoglobulins by plasma cells, can be considered a direct marker of B cell activity in different systemic inflammatory-autoimmune conditions and may represent a useful predictor of rituximab (RTX) therapeutic efficacy, as reported for rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease of the neuromuscular junction with antibodies (abs) targeting the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) or the muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK), inducing muscle weakness and excessive fatigability...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763297/nitrobenzoxadiazole-appended-cell-membrane-modifiers-for-efficient-optoporation-with-non-coherent-light
#12
Saya Otake, Kou Okuro, Davide Bochicchio, Giovanni M Pavan, Takuzo Aida
FL NBD-BAMPEG2k bearing a nitrobenzoxadiazole (NBD) unit and an oleyl terminus conjugated via a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) spacer ( Mn = 2,000), was designed to fluorescently label cell membranes by docking its hydrophobic oleyl terminus. During laser scanning microscopy in a minimal essential medium (MEM), human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B cells labelled with FL NBD-BAMPEG2k appeared to undergo optoporation at their plasma membrane. We confirmed this unprecedented possibility by a series of cellular uptake experiments using negatively charged and therefore membrane-impermeable quantum dots (QDs; Dh = 4...
May 15, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762138/theranostic-gold-magnetite-hybrid-nanoparticles-for-mri-guided-radiosensitization
#13
Devid Maniglio, Filippo Benetti, Luca Minati, Jorge Jovicich, Aldo Valentini, G Speranza, Claudio Migliaresi
The main limitation of drug-enhanced radiotherapy concerns the difficulty to evaluate the effectiveness of cancer targeting after drug administration hindering the standardization of therapies based on current radiosensitizing compounds. The challenge regards the development of systems able to combine imaging and radiotherapy enhancement in order to perform highly reliable cancer theragnosis. For these reasons, gold-magnetite hybrid nanoparticles are proposed as innovative theranostic nanotools for imaging-guided radiosensitization in cancer treatment...
May 15, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760677/one-week-exposure-to-a-free-choice-high-fat-high-sugar-diet-does-not-interfere-with-the-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-phase-response-in-the-hypothalamus-of-male-rats
#14
Evita Belegri, Leslie Eggels, Susanne E la Fleur, Anita Boelen
Obesity has been associated with increased susceptibility to infection in humans and rodents. Obesity is also associated with low-grade hypothalamic inflammation that depends not only on body weight but also on diet. In the present study, we investigated if the bacterial endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)]-induced acute phase response is aggravated in rats on a 1-week free-choice high-fat high-sugar (fcHFHS) diet and explained by diet-induced hypothalamic inflammation. Male Wistar rats were on an fcHFHS diet or chow for 1 week and afterwards intraperitoneally injected with LPS or saline...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760053/size-tagged-preferred-ends-in-maternal-plasma-dna-shed-light-on-the-production-mechanism-and-show-utility-in-noninvasive-prenatal-testing
#15
Kun Sun, Peiyong Jiang, Ada I C Wong, Yvonne K Y Cheng, Suk Hang Cheng, Haiqiang Zhang, K C Allen Chan, Tak Y Leung, Rossa W K Chiu, Y M Dennis Lo
Cell-free DNA in human plasma is nonrandomly fragmented and reflects genomewide nucleosomal organization. Previous studies had demonstrated tissue-specific preferred end sites in plasma DNA of pregnant women. In this study, we performed integrative analysis of preferred end sites with the size characteristics of plasma DNA fragments. We mined the preferred end sites in short and long plasma DNA molecules separately and found that these "size-tagged" ends showed improved accuracy in fetal DNA fraction estimation and enhanced noninvasive fetal trisomy 21 testing...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752609/optical-properties-of-al-doped-zno-films-in-the-infrared-region-and-their-absorption-applications
#16
Hua Zheng, Rong-Jun Zhang, Da-Hai Li, Xin Chen, Song-You Wang, Yu-Xiang Zheng, Meng-Jiao Li, Zhi-Gao Hu, Ning Dai, Liang-Yao Chen
The optical properties of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films were calculated rapidly and accurately by point-by-point analysis from spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) data. It was demonstrated that there were two different physical mechanisms, i.e., the interfacial effect and crystallinity, for the thickness-dependent permittivity in the visible and infrared regions. In addition, there was a blue shift for the effective plasma frequency of AZO when the thickness increased, and the effective plasma frequency did not exist for AZO ultrathin films (< 25 nm) in the infrared region, which demonstrated that AZO ultrathin films could not be used as a negative index metamaterial...
May 12, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748512/protective-effect-of-highly-polymeric-a-type-proanthocyanidins-from-seed-shells-of-japanese-horse-chestnut-aesculus-turbinata-blume-against-light-induced-oxidative-damage-in-rat-retina
#17
Tomoe Ishihara, Sachiko Kaidzu, Hideto Kimura, Yasurou Koyama, Yotaro Matsuoka, Akihiro Ohira
Retinal tissue is exposed to oxidative stress caused by visible light. Light-damaged rat used in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) studies clarified that antioxidants decrease retinal light damage. Albino rats were exposed to 5000 Lux light for 12 h with oral administration of the polyphenolic compounds fraction (PF) from the seed shells of Japanese horse chestnut (30 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 300 mg/kg body weight: BW). To evaluate the protective effects against light damage, electroretinograms (ERGs), the outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness, the antioxidant activity of plasma, oxidized retinal lipids, and the detection of apoptosis were examined...
May 10, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747637/genome-wide-association-study-identifies-two-loci-influencing-plasma-neurofilament-light-levels
#18
Jie-Qiong Li, Xiang-Zhen Yuan, Hai-Yan Li, Xi-Peng Cao, Jin-Tai Yu, Lan Tan, Wei-An Chen
BACKGROUND: Plasma neurofilament light (NFL) is a promising biomarker for Alzheimer disease (AD), which increases in the early stage of AD and is associated with the progression of AD. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of plasma NFL in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative 1 (ADNI-1) cohort to identify novel variants associated with AD. METHODS: This study included 179 cognitively healthy controls (HC), 176 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 172 patients with AD...
May 10, 2018: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739879/chemical-synapses-without-synaptic-vesicles-purinergic-neurotransmission-through-a-calhm1-channel-mitochondrial-signaling-complex
#19
Roman A Romanov, Robert S Lasher, Brigit High, Logan E Savidge, Adam Lawson, Olga A Rogachevskaja, Haitian Zhao, Vadim V Rogachevsky, Marina F Bystrova, Gleb D Churbanov, Igor Adameyko, Tibor Harkany, Ruibiao Yang, Grahame J Kidd, Philippe Marambaud, John C Kinnamon, Stanislav S Kolesnikov, Thomas E Finger
Conventional chemical synapses in the nervous system involve a presynaptic accumulation of neurotransmitter-containing vesicles, which fuse with the plasma membrane to release neurotransmitters that activate postsynaptic receptors. In taste buds, type II receptor cells do not have conventional synaptic features but nonetheless show regulated release of their afferent neurotransmitter, ATP, through a large-pore, voltage-gated channel, CALHM1. Immunohistochemistry revealed that CALHM1 was localized to points of contact between the receptor cells and sensory nerve fibers...
May 8, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739870/pregnancy-associated-plasma-protein-aa-pappaa-regulates-photoreceptor-synaptic-development-to-mediate-visually-guided-behavior
#20
Andrew H Miller, Hollis B Howe, Bryan M Krause, Scott A Friedle, Matthew I Banks, Brian D Perkins, Marc A Wolman
To guide behavior, sensory systems detect the onset and offset of stimuli and process these distinct inputs via parallel pathways. In the retina, this strategy is implemented by splitting neural signals for light onset and offset via synapses connecting photoreceptors to ON and OFF bipolar cells, respectively. It remains poorly understood which molecular cues establish the architecture of this synaptic configuration to split light onset and offset signals. A mutant with reduced synapses between photoreceptors and one bipolar cell type, but not the other, could reveal a critical cue...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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