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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629106/tannin-extraction-pretreatment-and-very-high-gravity-fermentation-of-acorn-starch-for-bioethanol-production
#1
Bin Chao, Ruiliang Liu, Xueling Zhang, Xu Zhang, Tianwei Tan
The bioethanol production from a novel non-grain feedstock, acorn starch, was studied in this work. The inhibition of tannin in strain growth was investigated, and the effect of tannin was negligible when the tannin concentration was lower than 1g/L in medium. Therefore, the extraction of tannin was performed using 40% (v/v) ethanol-water solution as the solvent for three times under the conditions of solid/liquid ratio 1:20, 60°C, 3h, by which more than 80% of tannin in acorn was extracted and the content of tannin in acorn decreased from 7...
June 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629045/chitosan-based-in-situ-forming-polyelectrolyte-complexes-a-potential-sustained-drug-delivery-polymeric-carrier-for-high-dose-drugs
#2
Niharika Lal, Juhi Dubey, Praveen Gaur, Navneet Verma, Anurag Verma
The present study investigated the feasibility of using combination of Cationic and anionic polymers as sustained release carrier for the delivery of high dose gastric acid soluble model drug Paracetamol. Various formulations were prepared using wet granulation technique. Briefly a cooled (4°C) neutral solution of chitosan (CH) was combined with cooled aqueous solution (4°C) of anionic polymer such as Gum Ghatti (GG) and Xanthan gum (XG). This polyelectrolyte solution was then used to granulate the model drug Paracetamol...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602991/polysaccharides-and-lignin-based-hydrogels-with-potential-pharmaceutical-use-as-a-drug-delivery-system-produced-by-a-reactive-extrusion-process
#3
Wissam Farhat, Richard Venditti, Nathalie Mignard, Mohamed Taha, Frederic Becquart, Ali Ayoub
Currently, there is very strong interest to replace synthetic polymers with biological macromolecules of natural source for applications that interact with humans or the environment. This research describes the development of drug delivery hydrogels from natural polymers, starch, lignin and hemicelluloses by means of reactive extrusion. The hydrogels show a strong swelling ability dependent on pH which may be used to control diffusion rates of water and small molecules in and out of the gel. Also the hydrogels degradation rates were studied in a physiological solution (pH 7...
June 8, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599038/albumin-for-prehospital-fluid-resuscitation-of-hemorrhagic-shock-in-tactical-combat-casualty-care
#4
Nicholas M Studer, Michael D April, F Bowling, Paul D Danielson, Andrew P Cap
Optimal fluid resuscitation on the battlefield in the absence of blood products remains unclear. Contemporary Combat medics are generally limited to hydroxyethyl starch or crystalloid solutions, both of which present significant drawbacks. Obtaining US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved freeze-dried plasma (FDP) is a top casualty care research priority for the US Military. Interest in this agent reflects a desire to simultaneously expand intravascular volume and address coagulopathy. The history of FDP dates to the Second World War, when American expeditionary forces used this agent frequently...
2017: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587965/preparation-and-characterization-of-dialdehyde-starch-by-one-step-acid-hydrolysis-and-oxidation
#5
Yingfeng Zuo, Wenjie Liu, Junhua Xiao, Xing Zhao, Ying Zhu, Yiqiang Wu
Dialdehyde starch was prepared by one-step synthesis of acid hydrolysis and oxidation, using corn starch as the raw material, sodium periodate (NaIO4) as the oxidant, and hydrochloric acid (HCl) as the acid solution. The prepared dialdehyde starch was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The results confirmed that oxidation occurred between the starch and NaIO4. The acid hydrolysis reaction reduced the molecular weight of starch and effectively improved the aldehyde group contents (92...
June 3, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578966/new-findings-on-green-sweet-pepper-capsicum-annum-pectins-rhamnogalacturonan-and-type-i-and-ii-arabinogalactans
#6
Georgia Erdmann do Nascimento, Marcello Iacomini, Lucimara M C Cordeiro
Polysaccharides were extracted from sweet pepper (Capsicum annum) with hot water and named ANW (9% yield). Starch was precipitated by freeze-thaw treatment, while pectic polysaccharides (8% yield) remained soluble and consisted of GalA (67.0%), Rha (1.6%), Ara (6.4%), Xyl (0.3%), Gal (6.7%) and Glc (4.4%). A highly methoxylated homogalacturonan (HG, degree of methylesterification of 85% and degree of acetylation of 5%), and type I and type II arabinogalactans (AG-I and AG-II) were observed in NMR analyses. These were fractionated with Fehling's solution to give HG (5...
September 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577480/a-novel-glycosylated-solution-from-dioscorea-zingiberensis-c-h-wright-significantly-improves-the-solvent-productivity-of-clostridium-beijerinckii
#7
Chuan Xiao, Wei Fan, Shengjie Du, Laizhuang Liu, Changli Wang, Mengzhen Guo, Liwei Zhang, Meng Zhang, Longjiang Yu
The economics of bio-solvent production are largely dependent on the cost of the fermentation substrate. Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H. Wright (DZW), the main raw material used to produce saponin, contains 13-18% starch which can be directly saccharified to a saccharification liquid of DZW starch (SLDS) that contains abundant nutrients. In this study, the water-soluble micromolecule compounds in SLDS were quantified through (1)H NMR. Using SLDS as the substrate to conduct ABE fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii, the fermentation cycle was shortened 24h, the maximum biomass and consumption rate of the glucose significantly increased, and the productivity of total solvents were increased by 0...
April 19, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570906/green-synthesis-of-biogenic-silver-nanoparticles-using-solanum-tuberosum-extract-and-their-interaction-with-human-serum-albumin-evidence-of-corona-formation-through-a-multi-spectroscopic-and-molecular-docking-analysis
#8
Mohd Sajid Ali, Mohammad Altaf, Hamad A Al-Lohedan
Biogenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been synthesized by using Solanum tuberosum (potato) extract (PE) as a reducing as well as stabilizing agent which is reasonably cheaper, non-toxic and easily available material. The green synthesis of silver nanoparticles has been carried out by very simple method and the nanoparticles were characterized by surface plasmon band as well as TEM measurements. The PE-AgNPs were highly dispersed in the solution and found to be spherical with around 10nm in size. Interaction of these nanoparticles was studied with plasma protein HSA by means of various spectroscopies, such as, UV-visible, fluorescence, DLS, CD and FTIR spectroscopies...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552729/effect-of-blueberry-agro-industrial-waste-addition-to-corn-starch-based-films-for-the-production-of-a-ph-indicator-film
#9
Cláudia Leites Luchese, Natalia Sperotto, Jordana Corralo Spada, Isabel Cristina Tessaro
Intelligent packaging is an emerging area of food technology that can provide better preservation and be of further convenience for consumers. It is recommended that biodegradable materials be used to develop low-impact designs for better packaging, which could benefit the environment by simply expanding their use to new areas. In this work, corn starch, glycerol and blueberry powder (with and without prior fruit bleaching) were used to produce films by casting. Blueberry powder, a co-product from juice processing, which is rich in anthocyanins, was added in the films to evaluate its potential as a colorimetric indicator, due to the ability of anthocyanin to change color when placed in an acidic or basic environment...
May 26, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551812/utilization-of-starch-enriched-brewery-rice-wine-waste-for-mixotrophic-cultivation-of-ettlia-sp-yc001-used-in-biodiesel-production
#10
Yeji Kam, Mina Sung, Hoon Cho, Chang-Min Kang, Jungmin Kim, Jong-In Han
Starch-enriched brewery waste (SBW), an unexplored feedstock, was investigated as a nutritious low-cost source for the mixotrophic cultivation of Ettlia sp. YC001 for biodiesel production. Stirring, autoclaving, and sonication were assessed for the SBW, in conjunction with pH. Stirring at 55 °C was found to be the best, in terms of the effectiveness of starch hydrolysis and yeast disintegration as well as cost. The treated solutions were found to support the mixotrophic growth of microalgae: 20 g/L of glucose medium resulted in the highest biomass production of 9...
May 27, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545967/preparation-and-characterization-of-non-crystalline-granular-starch-and-corresponding-carboxymethyl-starch
#11
Bao Zhang, Xiaomin Li, Qiutao Xie, Han Tao, Wu Wang, Han-Qing Chen
Native corn starch slurried in 50% ethanol solution was treated at 60°C, 70°C, 80°C, and 85°C, respectively. The resultant starches were investigated by polarized microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The Maltese cross of ethanol-heating treated starch gradually weaken with increasing temperature and completely disappeared at 85°C. SEM data indicated the treated granular exhibited a rougher surface with more pores and grooves than native starch granular, but the shape of the treated starch was still intact...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532282/synthesis-of-ph-responsive-n-acetyl-cysteine-modified-starch-derivatives-for-oral-delivery
#12
Kwanghyok Jong, Benzhi Ju, Shufen Zhang
In this study, a novel type of pH-responsive polymer PyHES-NAC (2-hydroxy-3-(2-propynyloxy) propyl hydroxyethyl starch (PyHES)) - (N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC)) was synthesized. First, PyHES was prepared via hydrophobic modification of hydroxyl groups in hydroxyethyl starch (HES) with propynylglycidyl ether (PGE), and then pH-responsive carboxylic acid group was connected to propynyl group via thiol-yne click reaction with NAC. Aqueous PyHES-NAC solutions exhibited a good transference between hydrophobic (or self-assembly) and hydrophilic static along with the change of pH value and protective properties of drugs under acidic conditions...
May 27, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524800/swelling-mechanism-of-urea-cross-linked-starch-lignin-films-in-water
#13
Ariyanti Sarwono, Zakaria Man, M Azmi Bustam, Duvvuri Subbarao, Alamin Idris, Nawshad Muhammad, Amir Sada Khan, Zahoor Ullah
Coating fertilizer particles with thin films is a possibility to control fertilizer release rates. It is observed that novel urea cross-linked starch-lignin composite thin films, prepared by solution casting, swell on coming into contact with water due to the increase in volume by water uptake by diffusion. The effect of lignin content, varied from 0% to 20% in steps of 5% at three different temperatures (25°C, 35°C and 45°C), on swelling of the film was investigated. By gravimetric analysis, the equilibrium water uptake and diffusion coefficient decrease with lignin content, indicating that the addition of lignin increases the hydrophobicity of the films...
June 7, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521417/introduction-of-plasmids-into-gastric-cancer-cells-by-endoscopic-ultrasound
#14
Minoru Tomizawa, Fuminobu Shinozaki, Yasufumi Motoyoshi, Takao Sugiyama, Shigenori Yamamoto, Naoki Ishige
Short hairpin RNA of frizzled-2 (shRNA-Fz2) suppresses the cell proliferation of gastric cancer cells. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is considered a suitable method for the introduction of therapeutic plasmids into cells, since the device enables the access and real-time monitoring of gastric cancer tissues. In the present study, plasmids were introduced into cells by sonoporation, as evidenced by the production of H2O2. The production of H2O2 was measured by absorbance of a potassium-starch solution irradiated with EUS...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516356/morphology-ultrastructure-and-element-uptake-in-calophyllum-brasiliense-cambess-calophyllaceae-j-agardh-seedlings-under-cadmium-exposure
#15
Alezania Silva Pereira, Priscila Andressa Cortez, Alex-Alan Furtado de Almeida, Majeti Narashima Vara Prasad, Marcel Giovanni Costa França, Maura da Cunha, Raildo Mota de Jesus, Pedro Antônio Oliveira Mangabeira
Cadmium (Cd) is a metal known for its genotoxicity and cytotoxicity, much concerned for its potential environmental and human health impacts. This study evaluates the toxic effect of Cd in Calophyllum brasiliense plants. The plants were cultivated for 30 days in full nutrient solution in order to adapt, and for 15 days in nutrient solution without Cd or with 4, 8, 16, and 32 μmol Cd L(-1). Anatomical analysis of the leaf showed no significant effects of Cd on epidermal thickness in abaxial and adaxial sides, palisade, and spongy parenchyma...
May 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513980/solid-state-carbon-dots-with-red-fluorescence-and-efficient-construction-of-dual-fluorescence-morphologies
#16
Jiangling He, Youling He, Yonghao Chen, Bingfu Lei, Jianle Zhuang, Yong Xiao, Yeru Liang, Mingtao Zheng, Haoran Zhang, Yingliang Liu
Stable solid-state red fluorescence from organosilane-functionalized carbon dots (CDs) with sizes around 3 nm is reported for the first time. Meanwhile, a novel method is also first reported for the efficient construction of dual-fluorescence morphologies. The quantum yield of these solid-state CDs and their aqueous solution is 9.60 and 50.7%, respectively. The fluorescence lifetime is 4.82 ns for solid-state CDs, and 15.57 ns for their aqueous solution. These CDs are detailedly studied how they can exhibit obvious photoluminescence overcoming the self-quenching in solid state...
May 17, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507943/effect-of-solubilizers-on-the-androgenic-activity-of-basella-alba-l-basellaceae-in-adult-male-rats
#17
Edouard Akono Nantia, Faustin Pascal Tsagué Manfo, Nathalie Sara E Beboy, Paul Fewou Moundipa
Purpose: Solubilizers play an important role in dissolution of pharmacological ingredients and should properly dissolve the active principle(s) while preserving its activities. This study investigated the effect of starch, gelatin, methylcellulose and polyvinylpyrrolidone 10000 in the preservation of the androgenic activity of the methanol extract Basella alba (MEBa). Methods: Different groups of male albino rats were orally given the MEBa (1 mg/kg) dissolved into either 1% gelatin (1% gel), %1 methylcellulose (1% MC) and 1% polyvinylpyrrolidone 10000 (1% PVP 10000) or 2% starch solution (2% SS) for 30 days...
April 2017: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504180/the-glycogen-of-galdieria-sulphuraria-as-alternative-to-starch-for-the-production-of-slowly-digestible-and-resistant-glucose-polymers
#18
Marta Martinez-Garcia, Akrivi Kormpa, Marc J E C van der Maarel
Highly branched glucose polymers produced from starch are applied in various products, such as peritoneal dialysis solutions and sports drinks. Due to its insoluble, granular nature, the use of native starch as substrate requires an energy consuming pre-treatment to achieve solubilization at the expense of process costs. Glycogen, like starch, is also a natural glucose polymer that shows more favorable features, since it is readily soluble in cold water and more accessible by enzymes. The extremophilic red microalga Galdieria sulphuraria accumulates large amounts of a small, highly branched glycogen that could represent a good alternative to starch as substrate for the production of highly branched glucose polymers...
August 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504150/characteristics-of-unique-hbr-hydrolyzed-cellulose-nanocrystals-from-freshwater-green-algae-cladophora-rupestris-and-its-reinforcement-in-starch-based-film
#19
Melvir R Sucaldito, Drexel H Camacho
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are promising materials that are readily extracted from plants and other cellulose-containing organisms. In this study, CNCs were isolated from freshwater green algae (Cladophora rupestris) thriving in a volcanic lake, using hydrobromic acid (HBr) hydrolysis. Morphological and structural studies revealed highly crystalline CNCs (94.0% crystallinity index) with preferred orientation to [100] lattice plane as shown by XRD measurements and have an average diameter of 20.0 (±4.4)nm as shown by TEM...
August 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504141/starch-mwcnt-vitamin-c-nanocomposites-electrical-thermal-properties-and-their-utilization-for-removal-of-methyl-orange
#20
Shadpour Mallakpour, Shima Rashidimoghadam
In the present study, the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)s is modified by ascorbic acid (AA) (vitaminC) for their dispersion improvement in the starch matrix. Then, the starch-based nanocomposites (NCs) containing 3, 6 and 9wt% of AS modified MWCNTs (AA-MWCNT)s were fabricated via ultrasonication method. Characterization of the prepared NCs was accomplished by different techniques. The optimum MWCNT content for the generation of fine electrical conductivity was found to be about 3wt%, indicating better dispersion of AA-MWCNT with low amount of AA-MWCNT...
August 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
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