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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524800/swelling-mechanism-of-urea-crosslinked-starch-lignin-films-in-water
#1
Ariyanti Sarwono, Zakaria Man, M Azmi Bustam, Duvvuri Subbarao, Alamin Idris, Nawshad Muhammad, Amir Sada Khan, Zahoor Ullah
Coating fertilizer particles with thin films is a possibility to control the fertilizer release rates. It is observed that novel urea crosslinked starch-lignin composite thin films, prepared by solution casting, swell on coming into contact with water due to increase in volume by water uptake diffusion. The effect of lignin content, varied from 0% to 20% in steps of 5% and three different temperatures (25°C, 35°C and 45°C) on swelling of the film was investigated. By gravimetric analysis, the equilibrium water uptake and diffusion coefficient decrease with lignin content indicating that the addition of lignin increases the hydrophobicity of the films...
May 19, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521417/introduction-of-plasmids-into-gastric-cancer-cells-by-endoscopic-ultrasound
#2
Minoru Tomizawa, Fuminobu Shinozaki, Yasufumi Motoyoshi, Takao Sugiyama, Shigenori Yamamoto, Naoki Ishige
Short hairpin RNA of frizzled-2 (shRNA-Fz2) suppresses the cell proliferation of gastric cancer cells. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is considered a suitable method for the introduction of therapeutic plasmids into cells, since the device enables the access and real-time monitoring of gastric cancer tissues. In the present study, plasmids were introduced into cells by sonoporation, as evidenced by the production of H2O2. The production of H2O2 was measured by absorbance of a potassium-starch solution irradiated with EUS...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516356/morphology-ultrastructure-and-element-uptake-in-calophyllum-brasiliense-cambess-calophyllaceae-j-agardh-seedlings-under-cadmium-exposure
#3
Alezania Silva Pereira, Priscila Andressa Cortez, Alex-Alan Furtado de Almeida, Majeti Narashima Vara Prasad, Marcel Giovanni Costa França, Maura da Cunha, Raildo Mota de Jesus, Pedro Antônio Oliveira Mangabeira
Cadmium (Cd) is a metal known for its genotoxicity and cytotoxicity, much concerned for its potential environmental and human health impacts. This study evaluates the toxic effect of Cd in Calophyllum brasiliense plants. The plants were cultivated for 30 days in full nutrient solution in order to adapt, and for 15 days in nutrient solution without Cd or with 4, 8, 16, and 32 μmol Cd L(-1). Anatomical analysis of the leaf showed no significant effects of Cd on epidermal thickness in abaxial and adaxial sides, palisade, and spongy parenchyma...
May 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513980/solid-state-carbon-dots-with-red-fluorescence-and-efficient-construction-of-dual-fluorescence-morphologies
#4
Jiangling He, Youling He, Yonghao Chen, Bingfu Lei, Jianle Zhuang, Yong Xiao, Yeru Liang, Mingtao Zheng, Haoran Zhang, Yingliang Liu
Stable solid-state red fluorescence from organosilane-functionalized carbon dots (CDs) with sizes around 3 nm is reported for the first time. Meanwhile, a novel method is also first reported for the efficient construction of dual-fluorescence morphologies. The quantum yield of these solid-state CDs and their aqueous solution is 9.60 and 50.7%, respectively. The fluorescence lifetime is 4.82 ns for solid-state CDs, and 15.57 ns for their aqueous solution. These CDs are detailedly studied how they can exhibit obvious photoluminescence overcoming the self-quenching in solid state...
May 17, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507943/effect-of-solubilizers-on-the-androgenic-activity-of-basella-alba-l-basellaceae-in-adult-male-rats
#5
Edouard Akono Nantia, Faustin Pascal Tsagué Manfo, Nathalie Sara E Beboy, Paul Fewou Moundipa
Purpose: Solubilizers play an important role in dissolution of pharmacological ingredients and should properly dissolve the active principle(s) while preserving its activities. This study investigated the effect of starch, gelatin, methylcellulose and polyvinylpyrrolidone 10000 in the preservation of the androgenic activity of the methanol extract Basella alba (MEBa). Methods: Different groups of male albino rats were orally given the MEBa (1 mg/kg) dissolved into either 1% gelatin (1% gel), %1 methylcellulose (1% MC) and 1% polyvinylpyrrolidone 10000 (1% PVP 10000) or 2% starch solution (2% SS) for 30 days...
April 2017: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504180/the-glycogen-of-galdieria-sulphuraria-as-alternative-to-starch-for-the-production-of-slowly-digestible-and-resistant-glucose-polymers
#6
Marta Martinez-Garcia, Akrivi Kormpa, Marc J E C van der Maarel
Highly branched glucose polymers produced from starch are applied in various products, such as peritoneal dialysis solutions and sports drinks. Due to its insoluble, granular nature, the use of native starch as substrate requires an energy consuming pre-treatment to achieve solubilization at the expense of process costs. Glycogen, like starch, is also a natural glucose polymer that shows more favorable features, since it is readily soluble in cold water and more accessible by enzymes. The extremophilic red microalga Galdieria sulphuraria accumulates large amounts of a small, highly branched glycogen that could represent a good alternative to starch as substrate for the production of highly branched glucose polymers...
August 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504150/characteristics-of-unique-hbr-hydrolyzed-cellulose-nanocrystals-from-freshwater-green-algae-cladophora-rupestris-and-its-reinforcement-in-starch-based-film
#7
Melvir R Sucaldito, Drexel H Camacho
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are promising materials that are readily extracted from plants and other cellulose-containing organisms. In this study, CNCs were isolated from freshwater green algae (Cladophora rupestris) thriving in a volcanic lake, using hydrobromic acid (HBr) hydrolysis. Morphological and structural studies revealed highly crystalline CNCs (94.0% crystallinity index) with preferred orientation to [100] lattice plane as shown by XRD measurements and have an average diameter of 20.0 (±4.4)nm as shown by TEM...
August 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504141/starch-mwcnt-vitamin-c-nanocomposites-electrical-thermal-properties-and-their-utilization-for-removal-of-methyl-orange
#8
Shadpour Mallakpour, Shima Rashidimoghadam
In the present study, the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)s is modified by ascorbic acid (AA) (vitaminC) for their dispersion improvement in the starch matrix. Then, the starch-based nanocomposites (NCs) containing 3, 6 and 9wt% of AS modified MWCNTs (AA-MWCNT)s were fabricated via ultrasonication method. Characterization of the prepared NCs was accomplished by different techniques. The optimum MWCNT content for the generation of fine electrical conductivity was found to be about 3wt%, indicating better dispersion of AA-MWCNT with low amount of AA-MWCNT...
August 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504134/morphology-transport-characteristics-and-viscoelastic-polymer-chain-confinement-in-nanocomposites-based-on-thermoplastic-potato-starch-and-cellulose-nanofibers-from-pineapple-leaf
#9
Preetha Balakrishnan, M S Sreekala, Matjaž Kunaver, Miroslav Huskić, Sabu Thomas
Eco-friendly "green" nano composites were fabricated from potato starch and cellulose nanofibers from pineapple leaf. Nanocomposites of starch/cellulose nanofibers were prepared by solution mixing followed by casting. The investigation of the viscoelastic properties confirms starch macromolecular chain confinement around the nano scale cellulose surface, superior dispersion and very good interaction between thermoplastic starch and cellulose nanofibers. The degree of chain confinement was quantified. The chain confinement was associated with the immobilization of the starch macromolecular chains in the network formed by the nano-scale cellulose fibers as a result of hydrogen boding interactions...
August 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499089/nanoencapsulation-of-aloe-vera-in-synthetic-and-naturally-occurring-polymers-by-electro-hydrodynamic-processing-of-interest-in-food-technology-and-bioactive-packaging
#10
Sergio Torres-Giner, Sabina Wilkanowicz, Beatriz Meléndez-Rodríguez, Jose M Lagaron
This work originally reports on the use of electro-hydrodynamic processing (EHDP) to encapsulate Aloe vera (AV) (Aloe barbadensis Miller) using both synthetic polymers, i.e. polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH), and naturally occurring polymers, i.e. barley starch (BS), whey protein concentrate (WPC) and maltodextrin. The AV leaf juice was used as the water-based solvent for EHDP and the resultant biopolymer solution properties were evaluated to determine their effect on the process. Morphological analysis revealed that, at the optimal processing conditions, synthetic polymers mainly produced fiber-like structures while naturally occurring polymers generated capsules...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498856/patterns-of-intravenous-fluid-resuscitation-use-in-adult-intensive-care-patients-between-2007-and-2014-an-international-cross-sectional-study
#11
Naomi E Hammond, Colman Taylor, Simon Finfer, Flavia R Machado, YouZhong An, Laurent Billot, Frank Bloos, Fernando Bozza, Alexandre Biasi Cavalcanti, Maryam Correa, Bin Du, Peter B Hjortrup, Yang Li, Lauralyn McIntryre, Manoj Saxena, Frédérique Schortgen, Nicola R Watts, John Myburgh
BACKGROUND: In 2007, the Saline versus Albumin Fluid Evaluation-Translation of Research Into Practice Study (SAFE-TRIPS) reported that 0.9% sodium chloride (saline) and hydroxyethyl starch (HES) were the most commonly used resuscitation fluids in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Evidence has emerged since 2007 that these fluids are associated with adverse patient-centred outcomes. Based on the published evidence since 2007, we sought to determine the current type of fluid resuscitation used in clinical practice and the predictors of fluid choice and determine whether these have changed between 2007 and 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497841/effect-of-fluid-resuscitation-with-balanced-solutions-on-platelets-in-vitro-simulation-of-20-volume-substitution
#12
Łukasz J Krzych, Piotr F Czempik
BACKGROUND: Fluid resuscitation in massive bleeding may cause coagulation disorders by dilution of platelets and clotting factors or by the definite influence on theirfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of balanced crystalloid and colloid solutions on platelets (PLT) in vitro using complex assessment of coagulation. METHODS: The study group was comprised of 32 American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status class I male volunteers, aged 21-35 (29 ± 4) years, weighting 59-103 (81...
May 12, 2017: Cardiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484814/contemporary-approaches-to-perioperative-iv-fluid-therapy
#13
REVIEW
Paul S Myles, Sam Andrews, Jonathan Nicholson, Dileep N Lobo, Monty Mythen
BACKGROUND: Intravenous fluid therapy is required for most surgical patients, but inappropriate regimens are commonly prescribed. The aim of this narrative review was to provide evidence-based guidance on appropriate perioperative fluid management. METHOD: We did a systematic literature search of the literature to identify relevant studies and meta-analyses to develop recommendations. RESULTS: Of 275 retrieved articles, we identified 25 articles to inform this review...
May 8, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481865/effect-of-hemodilution-in-vitro-with-hydroxyethyl-starch-on-hemostasis
#14
Shanliang Jin, Guifang Yu, Ruijiao Hou, Boxiong Shen, Hong Jiang
BACKGROUND Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) solutions are used for volume expansion during surgery. We aimed to investigate how 6%HES 130/0.4 affects hemostasis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Blood samples were collected from 12 healthy adult volunteers, diluting with 6%HES 130/0.4 (HES group) or Ringer lactate solution (RL control group). The hemodilution ratio (HR) of citrated blood volume to plasma substitute volume was 10: 0 (undiluted), 10: 2, 10: 4, and 10: 6. Clotting factors activity was measured. Thrombin generation was monitored...
May 8, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457463/effect-of-reprocessing-cycles-on-the-degradation-of-pp-pbat-thermoplastic-starch-blends
#15
Thainá A Oliveira, Rosimery R Oliveira, Renata Barbosa, Joyce B Azevedo, Tatianny S Alves
The solid waste management problems caused by the accumulation of plastics require measures to mitigate the environmental damage, and mechanical recycling of plastics is among the possible solutions. In this context, the present study aimed to evaluate the effects of mechanical recycling on the properties of a polypropylene/poly(butylene adipate co-terephthalate)-thermoplastic starch blend (PP/PBAT-Thermoplastic starch blend) when it was subjected to seven reprocessing cycles by a single-screw extruder. The observations by infrared spectroscopy indicated that the chemical structures of the blend and the polypropylene matrix did not present significant changes with the reprocessing cycles...
July 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441628/potassium-deficiency-affects-the-carbon-nitrogen-balance-in-cotton-leaves
#16
Wei Hu, Taylor D Coomer, Dimitra A Loka, Derrick M Oosterhuis, Zhiguo Zhou
Potassium (K) plays important roles in the metabolism of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N), but studies of K deficiency affecting C-N balance are lacking. This study explored the influence of K deficiency on C-N interaction in cotton leaves by conducting a field experiment with cotton cultivar DP0912 under two K rates (K0: 0 kg K2O ha(-1) and K67: 67 kg K2O ha(-1)) and a controlled environment experiment with K-deficient solution (K1: 0 mM K(+)) and K-sufficient solution (K2: 6 mM K(+)). The results showed that leaf K content, leaf number, leaf area, boll number, reproductive dry weight and total dry weight were significant lower under K deficiency (K0 or K1)...
April 6, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439440/a-comparison-of-the-effects-of-20-mannitol-and-3-nacl-on-coagulation-parameters-in-vitro-using-rotem-a-prospective-randomized-crossover-study
#17
Achmet Ali, Bilge Şencan, Pulat Akın Sabancı, Demet Altun, Aylin Tetik, Lerzan Recep Doğan, İbrahim Özkan Akıncı
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to compare the effect of 20% mannitol and 3% NaCl on blood coagulation in vitro using rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM). METHODS: Twenty-millilitre blood samples were obtained from 15 volunteers. In each group, 2 mL blood samples were collected into both polypropylene tubes and EDTA tubes for ROTEM and hemogram analysis. After sampling, blood samples were diluted with test solutions. Group C (control): Only blood, Group M (mannitol): 7% vol 20% mannitol concentration in the blood, Group hypertonic saline (HS): 7% vol 3% hypertonic saline (NaCl) in the blood, Group M/H (mannitol and hydroxyethyl starch solutions [HES]): 6% vol 20% mannitol concentration and 8% vol HES in the blood and Group HS/H (hypertonic saline and HES): 6% vol 3% hypertonic saline concentration and 8% vol HES in the blood...
April 2017: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431348/evaluation-of-structural-effects-on-the-flocculation-performance-of-a-co-graft-starch-based-flocculant
#18
Zhouzhou Liu, Hua Wei, Aimin Li, Hu Yang
The molecular structure of a material substantially determines its final application performance. In this work, a series of starch-based flocculants with different charge densities and average graft chain lengths were prepared by the co-graft polymerization of acrylamide and [(2-methacryloyloxyethyl) trimethyl ammonium chloride] (St-g-PAM-co-PDMC). The flocculation performance of St-g-PAM-co-PDMC was studied systematically at neutral pH using kaolin suspension and sodium humate (NaHA) aqueous solution as synthetic wastewaters...
July 1, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429992/effect-of-replacing-maize-grain-and-soybean-meal-with-a-xylose-treated-wheat-grain-on-feed-intake-and-performance-of-dairy-cows
#19
Jens Benninghoff, Gregor Hamann, Herbert Steingaß, Franz-Josef Romberg, Karl Landfried, Karl-Heinz Südekum
This study evaluated wheat grain which was treated with xylose in aqueous Ca-Mg lignosulphonate solution at elevated temperatures (WeiPass®) in order to reduce ruminal degradation of starch and crude protein. The two tested isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets contained on dry matter (DM) basis either 16% maize grain and 6.4% soybean meal (Diet CON) or 17.8% xylose-treated wheat and 4.6% soybean meal (Diet Wheat). Thirty-six German Holstein dairy cows were assigned to one of the two groups according to parity, body weight after calving, and milk yield during the previous lactation...
June 2017: Archives of Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417910/effects-of-three-commercially-available-sports-drinks-on-substrate-metabolism-and-subsequent-endurance-performance-in-a-postprandial-state
#20
Lu Qin, Qi-Rong Wang, Zi-Long Fang, Ting Wang, Ai-Qi Yu, Yu-Jie Zhou, Yi Zheng, Mu-Qing Yi
Purpose: To examine the effects of commercially available sports beverages with various components on substrate metabolism and subsequent performance. Methods: Two studies were conducted in a double-blinded, counterbalanced manner. Study I was designed to determine the glycemic index, while study II determined the utilization of substrates and subsequent exercise performance. Ten healthy male participants (age 21.70 ± 2.41 years, height 176.60 ± 5.23 cm, weight 66.58 ± 5.38 kg, V̇O2max 48.1 ± 8.4 mL/kg/min) participated in both study I and study II...
April 12, 2017: Nutrients
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