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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322966/influence-of-different-molar-concentrations-of-acid-on-morphological-physicochemical-and-pasting-properties-of-pakistani-basmati-and-irri-rice-starches
#1
Abeera Moin, Tahira Mohsin Ali, Abid Hasnain
Starches extracted from two dominant varieties of rice, Basmati and Irri were subjected to acid hydrolysis by preparing starch slurry of 35% (w/v) in HCl solutions of concentrations 0.1M, 0.3M and 0.8M. The scanning electron micrographs showed that granular morphology of starches significantly changed after acid hydrolysis. Acid thinning improved the solubility of starches whereas decline was observed in swelling power and water retention capacity. Paste clarity of both acid treated Basmati and Irri rice starches reduced gradually upon cold storage...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289929/co-encapsulation-of-amyloglucosidase-with-starch-and-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-as-basis-for-a-long-lasting-co2-release
#2
Pascal Humbert, Marina Vemmer, Marco Giampà, Hanna Bednarz, Karsten Niehaus, Anant V Patel
CO2 is known as a major attractant for many arthropod pests which can be exploited for pest control within novel attract-and-kill strategies. This study reports on the development of a slow-release system for CO2 based on calcium alginate beads containing granular corn starch, amyloglucosidase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our aim was to evaluate the conditions which influence the CO2 release and to clarify the biochemical reactions taking place within the beads. The amyloglucosidase was immobilized with a high encapsulation efficiency of 87% in Ca-alginate beads supplemented with corn starch and S...
April 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272836/mapping-carbon-fate-during-bleaching-in-a-model-cnidarian-symbiosis-the-application-of-13-c-metabolomics
#3
Katie E Hillyer, Daniel A Dias, Adrian Lutz, Ute Roessner, Simon K Davy
Coral bleaching is a major threat to the persistence of coral reefs. Yet we lack detailed knowledge of the metabolic interactions that determine symbiosis function and bleaching-induced change. We mapped autotrophic carbon fate within the free metabolite pools of both partners of a model cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis (Aiptasia-Symbiodinium) during exposure to thermal stress via the stable isotope tracer ((13) C bicarbonate), coupled to GC-MS. Symbiont photodamage and pronounced bleaching coincided with substantial increases in the turnover of non(13) C-labelled pools in the dinoflagellate (lipid and starch store catabolism)...
March 8, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271674/comparison-of-six-different-cryoprotective-agents-used-for-deep-freezing-and-storage-of-cd34-cells-derived-from-cord-blood-and-peripheral-blood-stem-cell-concentrates
#4
Julian Strobel, Friederike Hohensee, Piotr Kuta, Reinhold Eckstein, Juergen Zingsem
BACKGROUND: For cryopreservation of stem cells, a cryoprotective agent is essential. Dimethyl sulfoxide is commonly used, but has deleterious effects on cell vitality in the warmth and for the recipients of stem cells. The aim of the study was to reduce DMSO and find one cryoprotective solution suitable for stem cells of different origin. Materials: Small volumes of both stem cell apheresis products and cord blood derived stem cells were frozen using six different cryoprotective solutions...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265700/starch-biorefinery-enzymes
#5
Albrecht Läufer
Nature uses enzymes to build and convert biomass; mankind uses the same enzymes and produces them on a large scale to make optimum use of biomass in biorefineries. Bacterial α-amylases and fungal glucoamylases have been the workhorses of starch biorefineries for many decades. Pullulanases were introduced in the 1980s. Proteases, cellulases, hemicellulases, and phytases have been on the market for a few years as process aids, improving yields, performance, and costs. Detailed studies of the complex chemical structures of biomass and of the physicochemical limitations of industrial biorefineries have led enzyme developers to produce novel tailor-made solutions for improving yield and profitability in the industry...
March 7, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251851/development-and-application-of-cyclodextrin-hydrolyzing-mutant-enzyme-which-hydrolyzes-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-cd-selectively
#6
Ye-Seul Koo, Dam-Seul Ko, Da-Woon Jeong, Jae-Hoon Shim
Cyclodextrins (CDs) are produced from starch by cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase), which has cyclization activity. Specifically, α-CD is an important biomolecule, as it is a molecular carrier and soluble dietary fiber used in the food industry. Upon inspection of the conserved regions of the glycoside hydrolase (GH) 13 family amylases, the amino acids K232 and H233 of CGTase were identified as playing an important role in enzyme reaction specificity. A novel CD hydrolyzing enzyme, cyclodextrin glycosyl transferase (CGTase)-alpha, was developed using site-directed mutagenesis at these positions...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222674/administration-of-hes-in-elderly-patients-undergoing-hip-arthroplasty-under-spinal-anesthesia-is-not-associated-with-an-increase-in-renal-injury
#7
Yuanyuan Zhang, Yonghao Yu, Junya Jia, Wenli Yu, Rubin Xu, Licheng Geng, Ying Wei
BACKGROUND: Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) is applied to achieve volume expansion during surgery; however, nephrotoxicity may be induced in patients with sepsis. Simultaneously, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and IL-18 have been illustrated as pivotal indicators to diagnose the acute kidney injury (AKI) early. This multi-center, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study aimed to investigate whether 6% HES 130/0.4 administration caused postoperative AKI, which can be revealed by urinary and plasma NGAL and IL-18 estimations in elderly patients with normal renal function undergoing hip arthroplasty under spinal anesthesia...
February 21, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194315/screening-of-faba-bean-vicia-faba-l-accessions-to-acidity-and-aluminium-stresses
#8
Kiflemariam Y Belachew, Frederick L Stoddard
BACKGROUND: Faba bean is an important starch-based protein crop produced worldwide. Soil acidity and aluminium toxicity are major abiotic stresses affecting its production, so in regions where soil acidity is a problem, there is a gap between the potential and actual productivity of the crop. Hence, we set out to evaluate acidity and aluminium tolerance in a range of faba bean germplasm using solution culture and pot experiments. METHODS: A set of 30 accessions was collected from regions where acidity and aluminium are or are not problems...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187046/effect-of-hydroxyethyl-starch-priming-on-the-systemic-inflammatory-response-and-lung-edema-following-cardiopulmonary-bypass-in-a-rat-model
#9
Yutaka Fujii, Takayuki Tanabe, Tsubasa Yamashiro, Mikiyasu Shirai, Yoshiaki Takewa, Eisuke Tatsumi
Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) preserves patients' lives during open heart surgery by providing sufficient oxygen delivery and blood supply to vital organs. However, previous studies have suggested that the interaction of hemodilution and vascular hyperpermeability induces tissue edema and an inflammatory response during CPB. In this study, we hypothesized that suppression of the systemic inflammatory response and tissue edema during CPB by a plasma substitute (hydroxyethyl starch: HES).Rats (450-500 g) were divided into a SHAM group (n=5), a Ringer's acetate CPB group (n=7), and an HES CPB group (n=7)...
February 7, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185386/endodontic-irrigation-protocols-effects-on-bonding-of-adhesive-systems-to-coronal-enamel-and-dentin
#10
Marcos Paulo Marchiori Carvalho, Victor Hugo Carvalho Morari, Alexandre Henrique Susin, Rachel De Oliveira Rocha, Luiz Felipe Valandro, Fabio Zovico Maxnuck Soares
OBJECTIVE:  To evaluate the influence of endodontic irrigation protocols on bond strength of total-etch and self-etch adhesive systems to coronal enamel and dentin. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  A total of 66 coronal slices from 11 permanent molars were assigned to six groups (n = 11): endodontic irrigation protocols (5% sodium hypochlorite + 17% EDTA; 2% chlorhexidine gel + saline solution + 17% EDTA or no solution - control) and adhesive systems (Adper Single Bond 2 or Clearfil SE Bond)...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167105/influence-of-chitosan-concentration-on-mechanical-and-barrier-properties-of-corn-starch-chitosan-films
#11
Lili Ren, Xiaoxia Yan, Jiang Zhou, Jin Tong, Xingguang Su
The active packaging films based on corn starch and chitosan were prepared through mixing the starch solution and the chitosan solution (1:1) by casting. The aim of this work was to characterize and analyze the effects of the chitosan concentrations (0, 21, 41, 61 and 81wt% of starch) on physicochemical, mechanical and water vapor barrier properties as well as morphological characteristics of the corn starch/chitosan (CS/CH) films. Starch molecules and chitosan could interact through hydrogen bonding as confirmed from the shift of the main peaks to higher wavenumbers in FTIR and the reduction of crystallinity in XRD...
February 3, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152071/the-effect-of-structural-properties-on-rheological-behaviour-of-starches-in-binary-dimethyl-sulfoxide-water-solutions
#12
Anna Ptaszek, Paweł Ptaszek, Marek Dziubiński, N Mirosław Grzesik, Marta Liszka-Skoczylas
This research study analysed the rheological properties of potato amylose and potato amylopectin in binary solutions of the following water and dimethyl sulfoxide concentrations: 90% DMSO (1), 80% DMSO (2) and 50% DMSO (3), with preparation methodology involving the dissolution at the temperature of 98°C. The studies of dynamic light scattering on the biopolymer coils and the determination of main relaxation times of the solutions were carried out. For the amylose solutions, the fast relaxation phenomena are predominant...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151440/equilibrium-and-kinetics-study-on-removal-of-arsenate-ions-from-aqueous-solution-by-ctab-tio2-and-starch-ctab-tio2-nanoparticles-a-comparative-study
#13
Pankaj Gogoi, Debasish Dutta, Tarun Kr Maji
We present a comparative study on the efficacy of TiO2 nanoparticles for arsenate ion removal after modification with CTAB (N-cetyl-N,N,N-trimethyl ammonium bromide) followed by coating with starch biopolymer. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), thermogravimetry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The removal efficiency was studied as a function of contact time, material dose and initial As(V) concentration...
February 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149246/acute-kidney-injury-in-critically-burned-patients-resuscitated-with-a-protocol-that-includes-low-doses-of-hydroxyethyl-starch
#14
M Sánchez-Sánchez, A Garcia-de-Lorenzo, L Cachafeiro, E Herrero, M J Asensio, A Agrifoglio, E Flores, B Estebanez, P Extremera, C Iglesias, J R Martinez
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important complication in burn patients. Recently, it has been recommended that hydroxyethyl starch (HES) be avoided in burn patients because it increases the incidence of AKI. Our purpose was to study incidence of AKI in critically ill burn patients resuscitated with Ringer's solution and supplements of HES. We conducted an observational study of 165 patients admitted to the critical care burn unit (with 30 ± 15% TBSA burned). The main outcome measures were incidence of AKI, contributions of colloids and crystalloids, various severity scores, comorbidities, complications and mortality...
September 30, 2016: Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123990/formulation-and-development-of-plasma-volume-expander-using-natural-and-modified-starch-from-solanum-tuberosum
#15
Nilima A Thombre, Ajit V Vishwakarma, Trupti S Jadhav, Sanjay J Kshirsagar
BACKGROUND: To formulation and development of plasma volume expander (PVE) by using natural and modified starch from Solanum tuberosum. The function of blood circulation is to provide the needs of the body tissues and to maintain an appropriate environment in all tissue fluids of the body for the optimal survival and functions of the cells. Rapid restoration of the blood volume is necessary to decrease reduction in the amount of the blood. The PVEs are isotonic colloidal solutions, act by increasing the osmotic pressure of the intravascular compartment, which leads to the influx of the interstitial fluids through the capillary pore which, in turn, leads to the increase in the volume of the blood...
October 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122364/cariogenic-potential-of-sucrose-associated-with-maltodextrin-on-dental-enamel
#16
Gabriela Rezende, Rodrigo A Arthur, Debora Grando, Lina N Hashizume
Maltodextrin is a hydrolysate of cornstarch and has been widely used in the food industry associated with sucrose. The addition of starch can increase the cariogenic potential of sucrose; however, there are sparse data regarding the cariogenicity of sucrose associated with maltodextrin. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test in situ if maltodextrin could increase the cariogenic potential of sucrose. This was an in situ, randomized, crossover, split-mouth, and double-blind study. Volunteers wore palatal appliances containing bovine enamel blocks for 2 periods of 14 days...
2017: Caries Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116573/viscosity-reducing-bulky-salt-excipients-prevent-gelation-of-protein-but-not-carbohydrate-solutions
#17
Awanish Kumar, Alexander M Klibanov
The problem of gelation of concentrated protein solutions, which poses challenges for both downstream protein processing and liquid formulations of pharmaceutical proteins, is addressed herein by employing previously discovered viscosity-lowering bulky salts. Procainamide-HCl and the salt of camphor-10-sulfonic acid with L-arginine (CSA-Arg) greatly retard gelation upon heating and subsequent cooling of the model proteins gelatin and casein in water: Whereas in the absence of additives the proteins form aqueous gels within several hours at room temperature, procainamide-HCl for both proteins and also CSA-Arg for casein prevent gel formation for months under the same conditions...
January 23, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115976/photosynthate-accumulation-in-solar-powered-sea-slugs-starving-slugs-survive-due-to-accumulated-starch-reserves
#18
Elise M J Laetz, Victoria C Moris, Leif Moritz, André N Haubrich, Heike Wägele
BACKGROUND: Solar-powered sea slugs are famed for their ability to survive starvation due to incorporated algal chloroplasts. It is well established that algal-derived carbon can be traced in numerous slug-derived compounds, showing that slugs utilize the photosynthates produced by incorporated plastids. Recently, a new hypothesis suggests that the photosynthates produced are not continuously made available to the slug. Instead, at least some of the plastid's photosynthetic products are stored in the plastid itself and only later become available to the slug...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115759/preparation-and-properties-of-propylene-oxide-and-octenylsuccinic-anhydride-modified-potato-starches
#19
Ramunė Rutkaitė, Renata Baranauskienė, Laura Pečiulytė, Milda Pukalskienė, Petras Rimantas Venskutonis
Starch was dually chemically modified for developing food-grade ingredients of lower digestibility and their properties were compared to those of single modified and native starches. Hydroxypropylation with propylene oxide (HP) followed by esterification with octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA) of potato starch (P-native) produced derivatives with lower digestibility than esterification solely with OSA. The dextrose equivalent, maltose and glucose contents, which were used as the main indicators for in vitro digestion, were lower for modified starches...
December 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115103/adsorptive-removal-of-fluoride-from-drinking-water-using-porous-starch-loaded-with-common-metal-ions
#20
Lingyun Xu, Guijie Chen, Chuanyi Peng, Huanhuan Qiao, Fei Ke, Ruyan Hou, Daxiang Li, Huimei Cai, Xiaochun Wan
In this study, porous corn starch was loaded with Zr, Al, Fe or La to produce the composites PS-Zr, PS-Al, PS-Fe and PS-La. Fluoride adsorption from water was tested at different biosorbent dosages, contact times, solution pH values and initial fluoride concentrations. The biosorbents were characterized by microscopy and spectroscopy. PS-Zr was shown superior defluoridation capacity over a pH range of 3.0-9.0. The adsorption process could be described by the Langmuir isotherm model and the Lagergren pseudo-second-order kinetic model...
March 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
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