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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333997/learning-better-by-repetition-or-variation-is-transfer-at-odds-with-task-specific-training
#1
Emmanuel Bonney, Lemke Dorothee Jelsma, Gillian D Ferguson, Bouwien C M Smits-Engelsman
OBJECTIVE: Transfer of motor skills is the ultimate goal of motor training in rehabilitation practice. In children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), very little is known about how skills are transferred from training situations to real life contexts. In this study we examined the influence of two types of practice on transfer of motor skills acquired in a virtual reality (VR) environment. METHOD: One hundred and eleven children with DCD and their typically developing (TD) peers, aged 6-10 years (M = 8...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333613/collaborative-management-of-neurocognitive-disorders-in-primary-care-explorations-of-an-attempt-at-culture-change
#2
Lewis Mehl-Madrona, Barbara Mainguy
INTRODUCTION: Minor neurocognitive disorder (MiND; previously mild cognitive impairment) is a transitional zone between normal cognitive function and early stages of major neurocognitive disorder (previously called dementia). Of people with MiND, 5% to 10% progress to major neurocognitive disorder. Simple interventions such as memory activities, balance exercises, and anti-inflammatory diets have been shown to improve cognitive ability. Also, education and support in group settings have proved beneficial for patients with MiND...
2017: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333316/convergent-balancing-selection-on-the-mu-opioid-receptor-in-primates
#3
Carolyn G Sweeney, Juliette M Rando, Helen N Panas, Gregory M Miller, Donna M Platt, Eric J Vallender
The mu opioid receptor is involved in many natural processes including stress response, pleasure, and pain. Mutations in the gene also have been associated with opiate and alcohol addictions as well as with responsivity to medication targeting these disorders. Two common and mutually exclusive polymorphisms have been identified in humans, A118G (N40D), found commonly in non-African populations, and C17T (V6A), found almost exclusively in African populations. While A118G has been studied extensively for associations and in functional assays, C17T is much less well understood...
March 15, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332200/immunoregulation-of-inflammatory-and-inhibitory-cytokines-by-vitamin-d3-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-ibd
#4
REVIEW
Hussaini Mohammed Alhassan, Abbas Mirshafiey, Homayoun Vahedi, Gholamreza Hemmasi, Ateke Moussavi Nasl Khameneh, Karim Parastouei, Ali Akbar Saboor-Yaraghi
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of idiopathic, chronic and relapsing inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, caused by an aberrant and exaggerated immunological response in the gut. Supplementation of Vitamin D3 in IBD patients exerts both direct and indirect regulatory roles on the naïve T-cells, thereby maintaining a balance between inflammatory and inhibitory cytokines. The direct actions of Vitamin D3 on naïve T-cells result in the proliferation of more regulatory T-cells and inhibitory cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, and IL-5...
March 22, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330961/reference-values-for-developing-responsive-functional-outcome-measures-across-the-lifespan
#5
Marnee J McKay, Jennifer N Baldwin, Paulo Ferreira, Milena Simic, Natalie Vanicek, Joshua Burns
OBJECTIVE: To generate a reference dataset of commonly performed functional outcome measures in 1,000 children and adults and investigate the influence of demographic, anthropometric, strength, and flexibility characteristics. METHODS: Twelve functional outcome measures were collected from 1,000 healthy individuals aged 3-101 years: 6-minute walk test, 30-second chair stand test, timed stairs test, long jump, vertical jump, choice stepping reaction time, balance (Star Excursion Balance Test, tandem stance eyes open and closed, single-leg stance eyes closed), and dexterity (9-hole peg test, Functional Dexterity Test)...
March 22, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328097/markers-of-iron-status-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#6
Adam E Gaweda
Anemia is one of the main comorbidities related to chronic kidney disease (CKD). Until the advent of erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA), endogenous erythropoietin deficiency has been thought to be the main culprit of anemia in CKD patients. The use of ESAs has shed new light on the physiology of CKD anemia, where iron homeostasis plays an increasingly important role. Disorders of iron homeostasis occurring in CKD turn the anemia management in those patients into a complex multifactorial therapeutic task, where ESA and Iron dose must be properly balanced to achieve the desired outcome without exposing the patients to the risk of serious adverse events...
March 22, 2017: Hemodialysis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327619/il-36%C3%AE-signaling-controls-the-induced-regulatory-t-cell-th9-cell-balance-via-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-and-stat-transcription-factors
#7
A Harusato, H Abo, V L Ngo, S W Yi, K Mitsutake, S Osuka, J E Kohlmeier, J D Li, A T Gewirtz, A Nusrat, T L Denning
Regulatory and effector T helper (Th) cells are abundant at mucosal surfaces, especially in the intestine, where they control the critical balance between tolerance and inflammation. However, the key factors that reciprocally dictate differentiation along these specific lineages remain incompletely understood. Here we report that the interleukin-1 (IL-1) family member IL-36γ signals through IL-36 receptor, myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88, and nuclear factor-κBp50 in CD4(+) T cells to potently inhibit Foxp3-expressing induced regulatory T cell (Treg) development, while concomitantly promoting the differentiation of Th9 cells via a IL-2-STAT5- (signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 5) and IL-4-STAT6-dependent pathway...
March 22, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325096/effects-of-elastic-therapeutic-taping-on-motor-function-in-children-with-motor-impairments-a-systematic-review
#8
Andréa Baraldi Cunha, Carolina Daniel de Lima-Alvarez, Ana Carolinne Portela Rocha, Eloisa Tudella
BACKGROUND: The elastic therapeutic taping has been considered a promising resource for disabled children. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the evidence of the effects of elastic therapeutic taping on motor function in children with motor impairments. METHOD: Three independent evaluators conducted searches in electronic databases (MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, LILACS, BIREME/BVS, Science Direct, SciELO, and PEDro). Clinical studies design, published until 2016, involving elastic therapeutic taping and children aged 0-12 years with motor impairments were included...
March 22, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325081/lipid-deposition-in-kidney-diseases-interplay-among-redox-lipid-mediators-and-renal-impairment
#9
Hua Su, Cheng Wan, Chun-Tao Lei, Chun-Yun Zhang, Chen Ye, Hui Tang, Yue Qiu, Chun Zhang
Lipids encompass a large variety of molecules representing a highly efficient energy resource and forming structural components of membranes or signaling molecules that regulate diverse cellular events underlying not only physiological homeostatic processes but also undesirable pathogenic outcomes. The relationship between lipid disturbances and renal diseases has been studied for several decades, and it is well-recognized that when the balance of renal lipid uptake, synthesis, oxidation and outflow is disrupted, lipids will undergo oxidation, be sequestrated as lipid droplets, generate toxic metabolites and cause nephrotoxicity in diverse renal diseases...
March 22, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324240/neurocognitive-profiles-in-msud-school-age-patients
#10
Juliette Bouchereau, Julie Leduc-Leballeur, Samia Pichard, Apolline Imbard, Jean-François Benoist, Marie-Thérèse Abi Warde, Jean-Baptiste Arnoux, Valérie Barbier, Anaïs Brassier, Pierre Broué, Aline Cano, Brigitte Chabrol, Gilles Damon, Claire Gay, Isabelle Guillain, Florence Habarou, Delphine Lamireau, Chris Ottolenghi, Laetitia Paermentier, Frédérique Sabourdy, Guy Touati, Hélène Ogier de Baulny, Pascale de Lonlay, Manuel Schiff
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), an inborn error of amino acids catabolism is characterized by accumulation of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine, valine and their corresponding alpha-ketoacids. Impact on the cognitive development has been reported historically, with developmental delays of varying degree. Currently, earlier diagnosis and improved management allow a better neurodevelopment, without requirement of special education. However, specific impairments can be observed, and so far, results of detailed neurocognitive assessments are not available...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324239/mtdna-maintenance-defects-syndromes-and-genes
#11
Carlo Viscomi, Massimo Zeviani
A large group of mitochondrial disorders, ranging from early-onset pediatric encephalopathic syndromes to late-onset myopathy with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEOs), are inherited as Mendelian disorders characterized by disturbed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance. These errors of nuclear-mitochondrial intergenomic signaling may lead to mtDNA depletion, accumulation of mtDNA multiple deletions, or both, in critical tissues. The genes involved encode proteins belonging to at least three pathways: mtDNA replication and maintenance, nucleotide supply and balance, and mitochondrial dynamics and quality control...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323039/pomc-and-npy-mrna-expression-during-development-is-increased-in-rat-offspring-brain-from-mothers-fed-with-a-high-fat-diet
#12
Marianne Orlandini Klein, Harry MacKay, Alexander Edwards, Su-Bin Park, Ana Carolina Inhasz Kiss, Luciano Freitas Felicio, Alfonso Abizaid
Developmental programming is influenced by perinatal nutrition and it has long-lasting impacts on adult metabolism in the offspring. In particular, maternal high fat diet has been associated with increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders during adulthood in the descendants. These effects may be due to the effects of the high fat diet on the development of the systems that regulate food intake and energy balance in the offspring hypothalamus. The arcuate nucleus (ARC) may be a particularly sensitive region to it as this nucleus contains the POMC and AgRP/NPY neurons that integrate the melanocortin system...
March 18, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322275/oxidative-stress-driven-parvalbumin-interneuron-impairment-as-a-common-mechanism-in-models-of-schizophrenia
#13
P Steullet, J-H Cabungcal, J Coyle, M Didriksen, K Gill, A A Grace, T K Hensch, A-S LaMantia, L Lindemann, T M Maynard, U Meyer, H Morishita, P O'Donnell, M Puhl, M Cuenod, K Q Do
Parvalbumin inhibitory interneurons (PVIs) are crucial for maintaining proper excitatory/inhibitory balance and high-frequency neuronal synchronization. Their activity supports critical developmental trajectories, sensory and cognitive processing, and social behavior. Despite heterogeneity in the etiology across schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder, PVI circuits are altered in these psychiatric disorders. Identifying mechanism(s) underlying PVI deficits is essential to establish treatments targeting in particular cognition...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322157/diabetes-related-neurological-implications-and-pharmacogenomics
#14
Rojas Carranza Camilo Andrés, Bustos Cruz Rosa Helena, Pino Pinzón Carmen Juliana, Ariza Marquez Yeimy Viviana, Gómez Bello Rosa Margarita, Cañadas Garre Marisa
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most commonly occurring cause of neuropathy around the world and is beginning to grow in countries where there is a risk of obesity. DM Type II, (T2DM) is a common age-related disease and is a major health concern, particularly in developed countries in Europe where the population is aging. T2DM is a chronic disease which is characterised by hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, together with the body's inability to use glucose as energy. Such metabolic disorder produces a chronic inflammatory state, as well as changes in lipid metabolism leading to hypertriglyceridemia, thereby producing chronic deterioration of the organs and premature morbidity and mortality...
March 17, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320273/impact-of-changes-in-neurotrophic-supplementation-on-development-of-alzheimer-s-disease-like-pathology-in-oxys-rats
#15
E A Rudnitskaya, N G Kolosova, N A Stefanova
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of age-related dementia. The development of neurodegeneration in AD is closely related to alterations in neurotrophic supplementation of the brain, which may be caused either by disorder of neurotrophin metabolism or by modification of its availability due to changes in the microenvironment of neurons. The underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In this work, we used senescence-accelerated OXYS rats as a unique model of the sporadic form of AD to examine the relationship of development of AD signs and changes in neurotrophic supplementation of the cortex...
March 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320271/interplay-between-brain-bdnf-and-glutamatergic-systems-a-brief-state-of-the-evidence-and-association-with-the-pathogenesis-of-depression
#16
REVIEW
N V Gulyaeva
The excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate system and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) system are principally involved in phenomena of cellular and synaptic plasticity. These systems are interacting, and disclosing mechanisms of such interactions is critically important for understanding the machinery of neuroplasticity and its modulation in normal and pathological situations. The short state of evidence in this review addresses experimentally confirmed connections of these mechanisms and their potential relation to the pathogenesis of depression...
March 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317218/rodent-models-of-genetic-and-chromosomal-variations-in-psychiatric-disorders
#17
Jun Nomura, Geetha Kannan, Toru Takumi
Elucidating the molecular basis of complex human psychiatric disorders is challenging due to the multitude of factors that underpin these disorders. Genetic and chromosomal changes are two factors that have been suggested to be involved in psychiatric disorders. Indeed, numerous risk loci have been identified in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), schizophrenia, and related psychiatric disorders. Here, we introduce genetic animal models that disturb excitatory-inhibitory (E/I) balance in the brain and animal models mirroring human chromosomal abnormalities, both of which may be implicated in ASD pathophysiology...
March 20, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315304/sphingosine-1-phosphate-a-double-edged-sword-in-the-brain
#18
REVIEW
Indulekha Karunakaran, Gerhild van Echten-Deckert
The physiological functions of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and its pathological roles in various diseases are increasingly being elucidated. Particularly, a growing body of literature has implicated S1P in the pathogenesis of brain related disorders. With the deciphering of more intricate aspects of S1P signalling, there is also a need to reconsider the notion of S1P only as a determinant of cell survival and proliferation. Further the concept of 'S1P-ceramide' balance as the controlling switch of cellular fate and functions needs to be refined...
March 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315266/sigma-1-receptors-fine-tune-the-neuronal-networks
#19
Shang-Yi Anne Tsai, Tsung-Ping Su
The endoplasmic reticular (ER) protein sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) has been implicated in CNS disorders including but not limited to neurodegenerative diseases, depression , amnesia, and substance abuse. Sig-1Rs are particularly enriched in the specific domain where ER membranes make contacts with the mitochondria (MAM). Within that specific domain, Sig-1Rs play significant roles governing calcium signaling and reactive oxygen species homeostasis to maintain proper neuronal functions. Studies showed that the Sig-1R is pivotal to regulate neuroplasticity and neural survival via multiple aspects of mechanism...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314964/increased-intake-of-energy-dense-diet-and-negative-energy-balance-in-a-mouse-model-of-chronic-psychosocial-defeat
#20
Roberto Coccurello, Adele Romano, Giacomo Giacovazzo, Bianca Tempesta, Marco Fiore, Anna Maria Giudetti, Ilaria Marrocco, Fabio Altieri, Anna Moles, Silvana Gaetani
PURPOSE: Chronic exposure to stress may represent a risk factor for developing metabolic and eating disorders, mostly driven by the overconsumption of easily accessible energy-dense palatable food, although the mechanisms involved remain still unclear. In this study, we used an ethologically oriented murine model of chronic stress caused by chronic psychosocial defeat (CPD) to investigate the effects of unrestricted access to a palatable high fat diet (HFD) on food intake, body weight, energy homeostasis, and expression of different brain neuropeptides...
March 17, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
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