Read by QxMD icon Read

Ciliary disease

Tatjana Taubitz, Laura-Pia Steinbrenner, Alexander V Tschulakow, Antje Biesemeier, Sylvie Julien-Schraermeyer, Ulrich Schraermeyer
PURPOSE: Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drugs are used to treat neovascular eye diseases. Some of these drugs contain Fc fragments (Fc), but it is unknown how their mode of action is influenced by Fc. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of Fc on rat eyes after intravitreal injection. METHODS: Eighteen Long-Evans rats were intravitreally injected with sterile, biotin-labeled rat Fc (9.1 μg in 5 μl PBS). For control, 5 μl PBS was injected in another nine rats...
October 17, 2016: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Marie-Noëlle Labour, Mathieu Riffault, Søren T Christensen, David A Hoey
The recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a crucial process in the development, maintenance and repair of tissues throughout the body. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1) is a potent chemokine essential for the recruitment of MSCs in bone, coupling the remodelling cycle. The primary cilium is a sensory organelle with important roles in bone and has been associated with cell migration and more recently TGFβ signalling. Dysregulation of TGFβ signalling or cilia has been linked to a number of skeletal pathologies...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Guoqiang Ma, Shuang Li, Yuhong Han, Shuangxi Li, Tao Yue, Bing Wang, Jin Jiang
Hedgehog (Hh) signaling plays a central role in development and diseases. Hh activates its signal transducer and GPCR-family protein Smoothened (Smo) by inducing Smo phosphorylation, but whether Smo is activated through other post-translational modifications remains unexplored. Here we show that sumoylation acts in parallel with phosphorylation to promote Smo cell-surface expression and Hh signaling. We find that Hh stimulates Smo sumoylation by dissociating it from a desumoylation enzyme Ulp1. Sumoylation of Smo in turn recruits a deubiquitinase UBPY/USP8 to antagonize Smo ubiquitination and degradation, leading to its cell-surface accumulation and elevated Hh pathway activity...
October 7, 2016: Developmental Cell
Je Yeong Ko
The primary cilium is a microtubule-based organelle that is considered to be a cellular antennae, because proteins related to multiple signaling pathways such as Wnt, PDGFRα, Hh, and mechanosignaling are localized to the membrane of the primary cilium. In the kidney, primary cilia extend from the cell membrane to the lumen of renal tubules to respond to fluidic stress. Recent studies have indicated that the disruption of ciliary proteins including polycystin-1 (PC1), polycystin-2 (PC2), and members of the intraflagellar transport (IFT) family induce the development of polycystic kidney disease (PKD), suggesting that the malformation or absence of primary cilia is a driving force of the onset of PKD...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
K Koss, C Tsui, L D Unsworth
(RADA)4 self-assembling peptides (SAPs) are promising for neural nanoscaffolds with on-demand drug delivery capabilities due to their automated synthesis, in-situ assembly, and potential for interaction with and release of biomolecules. Neuroinflammation cued on-demand drug release, due to up-regulated proteases, may well be vital in the treatment of several neurological diseases. In these conditions, releasing neurotrophic growth factors (NTFs) could potentially lead to neuroprotection and neurogenesis. As such, (RADA)4 was made with the high and low activity matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) cleaved sequences, GPQG+IASQ (CP1) and GPQG+PAGQ (CP2), the brain-derived NTF secretion stimulating peptide MVG (DP1) and the ciliary NTF analogue DGGL (DP2)...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Jie Li, Bifei Lan, Xiaoli Li, Shumao Sun, Ping Lu, Lingyun Cheng
Transscleral drug delivery may become a safe alternative to the intravitreal injection for chronic retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration or diabetic macular edema. However, the drug delivered onto the sclera subjects to vigorous clearance by episcleral and choroidal circulation; in addition, the penetration from episclera to retina needs to overcome counter-directional ocular fluid current driven by intraocular pressure (IOP) as well as unfavorable drug disposition exerted by drug transporters before the drug reach retina...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Francesco Volta, Jantje M Gerdes
One in 12 people worldwide suffers from diabetes and more than 90% of affected adult individuals are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Obesity adds to the personal risk to develop T2DM, and both metabolic diseases are rampantly increasing worldwide. Over recent years, primary cilia have moved into the focus of basic and clinical research, after several human diseases have been identified as ciliopathies (i.e., they are linked to ciliary dysfunction). A subset of ciliopathies presents with obesity and diabetes, either as core symptoms or major complications...
October 5, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Stephen J Balevic, C Egla Rabinovich
Uveitis refers to the presence of intraocular inflammation, and as a strict definition compromises the iris and ciliary body anteriorly and the choroid posteriorly (the uvea). Untreated, uveitis can lead to visual loss or blindness. The etiology of uveitis can include both infectious and noninfectious (usually immune-mediated) causes, the latter of which are often mediated predominantly by Th1 CD4(+) T-cells that secrete proinflammatory cytokines. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a proinflammatory cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of uveitis, which at high concentrations can cause excess inflammation and tissue damage...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Dipankar Das, Panna Deka, Geeta Verma, Ganesh Chandra Kuri, Harsha Bhattacharjee, Gayatri Bharali, Divya Pandey, Akanksha Koul, Bidisha Das, Apurba Deka
Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4-related diseases) affects various tissues and organs of the human body. Orbital, adnexal, and scleral inflammations were already reported in the medical literature. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first case of intraocular IgG4-associated inflammatory mass in the ciliary body mimicking as a melanoma in a 23-year-old female from Northeast India. Characteristic histopathology, immunohistochemistry in the tissue, protein chemistry, and raised serum IgG4 were supportive for the diagnosis...
August 2016: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
Meriam Boubakri, Taro Chaya, Hiromi Hirata, Naoko Kajimura, Ryusuke Kuwahara, Akiko Ueno, Jarema Malicki, Takahisa Furukawa, Yoshihiro Omori
In the retina, aberrant opsin transport from cell bodies to outer segments leads to retinal degenerative diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa. Opsin transport is facilitated by the intraflagellar transport (IFT) system which mediates the bidirectional movement of proteins within cilia. In contrast to functions of the anterograde transport executed by IFT complex B (IFT-B), the precise functions of the retrograde transport mediated by IFT complex A (IFT-A) have not been well studied in photoreceptor cilia. Here, we analyzed developing zebrafish larvae carrying a null mutation in ift122 encoding a component of IFT-A...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Eleonora Dehlink, Claire Hogg, Siobhan B Carr, Andrew Bush
INTRODUCTION: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare, mostly autosomal-recessive disorder of motile cilia, characterized by chronic lung disease, rhinosinusitis, hearing impairment, and subfertility. PCD is still often missed or diagnosed late since symptoms overlap with common respiratory complaints, but should be considered if one or more of the cardinal clues are present. AREAS COVERED: We provide an overview on clinical presentations of PCD and clues for when to consider PCD, these include unexplained neonatal respiratory distress, persistent rhinitis from the first days of life, situs anomalies, or otorrhoea following tympanostomy tube insertion...
September 28, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Hidemasa Goto, Hironori Inaba, Masaki Inagaki
The primary cilium is a non-motile and microtubule-enriched protrusion ensheathed by plasma membrane. Primary cilia function as mechano/chemosensors and signaling hubs and their disorders predispose to a wide spectrum of human diseases. Most types of cells assemble their primary cilia in response to cellular quiescence, whereas they start to retract the primary cilia upon cell-cycle reentry. The retardation of ciliary resorption process has been shown to delay cell-cycle progression to the S or M phase after cell-cycle reentry...
September 26, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Matthew D Benson, Imran Jivraj, Karim F Damji, Carlos E Solarte
PURPOSE: To report a rare case of congenital glaucoma in a patient with CHARGE syndrome, present gonioscopic photographs, and explore mechanisms of disease that may account for this association. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We describe a 35-week-old girl with previously diagnosed CHARGE syndrome who presented with corneal edema, buphthalmos, and elevated intraocular pressure in the left eye. She was subsequently diagnosed with congenital glaucoma and started on topical and oral therapy...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Glaucoma
Srilatha Jasty, Subramanian Krishnakumar
Millions of people around the world suffer from retinal degenerative diseases at varying degrees of vision loss including, complete blindness that are caused by the damage to cells of the retina. The cell replacement therapy could be a promising tool in treating these conditions, since the stem/progenitor cells could be isolated form adult ciliary pigment epithelial cells and could be differentiated into retinal phenotypes in vitro and could be of great importance. The present study aims to identify the role of epigenetic regulators during cellular differentiation, which involves loss of pluripotency and gain of lineage and cell type-specific characteristics...
September 15, 2016: Brain Research
Søren T Christensen, Stine K Morthorst, Johanne B Mogensen, Lotte B Pedersen
Since the beginning of the millennium, research in primary cilia has revolutionized our way of understanding how cells integrate and organize diverse signaling pathways during vertebrate development and in tissue homeostasis. Primary cilia are unique sensory organelles that detect changes in their extracellular environment and integrate and transmit signaling information to the cell to regulate various cellular, developmental, and physiological processes. Many different signaling pathways have now been shown to rely on primary cilia to function properly, and mutations that lead to ciliary dysfunction are at the root of a pleiotropic group of diseases and syndromic disorders called ciliopathies...
September 16, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Francesca Boaretto, Deborah Snijders, Cecilia Salvoro, Ambra Spalletta, Maria Luisa Mostacciuolo, Mirella Collura, Salvatore Cazzato, Donatella Girosi, Michela Silvestri, Giovanni Arturo Rossi, Angelo Barbato, Giovanni Vazza
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare genetic disorder that alters mucociliary clearance, with consequent chronic disease of upper and lower airways. Diagnosis of PCD is challenging, and genetic testing is hampered by the high heterogeneity of the disease, because autosomal recessive causative mutations were found in 34 different genes. In this study, we clinically and molecularly characterized a cohort of 51 Italian patients with clinical signs of PCD. A custom next-generation sequencing panel that enables the affordable and simultaneous screening of 24 PCD genes was developed for genetic analysis...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
Krishna R Murthy, Manjunath Dammalli, Sneha M Pinto, Kalpana Babu Murthy, Raja Sekhar Nirujogi, Anil K Madugundu, Gourav Dey, Yashwanth Subbannayya, Uttam Kumar Mishra, Bipin Nair, Harsha Gowda, T S Keshava Prasad
The annual economic burden of visual disorders in the United States was estimated at $139 billion. Ophthalmology is therefore one of the salient application fields of postgenomics biotechnologies such as proteomics in the pursuit of global precision medicine. Interestingly, the protein composition of the human iris tissue still remains largely unexplored. In this context, the uveal tract constitutes the vascular middle coat of the eye and is formed by the choroid, ciliary body, and iris. The iris forms the anterior most part of the uvea...
September 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Qing Fu, Mingchu Xu, Xue Chen, Xunlun Sheng, Zhisheng Yuan, Yani Liu, Huajin Li, Zixi Sun, Huiping Li, Lizhu Yang, Keqing Wang, Fangxia Zhang, Yumei Li, Chen Zhao, Ruifang Sui, Rui Chen
BACKGROUND: Usher syndrome is a genetically heterogeneous disorder featured by combined visual impairment and hearing loss. Despite a dozen of genes involved in Usher syndrome having been identified, the genetic basis remains unknown in 20-30% of patients. In this study, we aimed to identify the novel disease-causing gene of a distinct subtype of Usher syndrome. METHODS: Ophthalmic examinations and hearing tests were performed on patients with Usher syndrome in two consanguineous families...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Medical Genetics
Robert J Lee, Alan D Workman, Ryan M Carey, Bei Chen, Phillip L Rosen, Laurel Doghramji, Nithin D Adappa, James N Palmer, David W Kennedy, Noam A Cohen
Aflatoxins are mycotoxins secreted by Aspergillus flavus, which can colonize the respiratory tract and cause fungal rhinosinusitis or bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. A. flavus is the second leading cause of invasive aspergillosis worldwide. Because many respiratory pathogens secrete toxins to impair mucociliary immunity, we examined the effects of acute exposure to aflatoxins on airway cell physiology. Using air-liquid interface cultures of primary human sinonasal and bronchial cells, we imaged ciliary beat frequency (CBF), intracellular calcium, and nitric oxide (NO)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Samson O Obado, Michael P Rout
Nuclear pore proteins at the base of cilia were thought to regulate transport into cilia. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Del Viso et al. (2016) challenge this view, showing instead that pore proteins localize to ciliary basal bodies and that their perturbation leads to congenital heart disease.
September 12, 2016: Developmental Cell
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"