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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715436/midline-and-off-midline-infratentorial-supracerebellar-approaches-to-the-pineal-gland
#1
Satoshi Matsuo, Serhat Baydin, Abuzer Güngör, Koichi Miki, Noritaka Komune, Ryota Kurogi, Koji Iihara, Albert L Rhoton
OBJECTIVE A common approach to lesions of the pineal region is along the midline below the torcula. However, reports of how shifting the approach off midline affects the surgical exposure and relationships between the tributaries of the vein of Galen are limited. The purpose of this study is to examine the microsurgical and endoscopic anatomy of the pineal region as seen through the supracerebellar infratentorial approaches, including midline, paramedian, lateral, and far-lateral routes. METHODS The quadrigeminal cisterns of 8 formalin-fixed adult cadaveric heads were dissected and examined with the aid of a surgical microscope and straight endoscope...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703661/quantitative-evaluation-of-the-fetal-cerebellar-vermis-using-the-median-view-on-two-dimensional-ultrasound
#2
Cenk Gezer, Atalay Ekin, Naciye Sinem Gezer, Ulas Solmaz, Mehmet Ozeren
BACKGROUND: Evaluation of the cerebellum and vermis is one of the integral parts of the fetal cranial anomaly screening. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to create a nomogram for fetal vermis measurements between 17 and 30 gestational weeks. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This prospective study was conducted on 171 volunteer pregnant women between March 2013 and December 2014. Measurements of the fetal cerebellar vermis diameters in the sagittal plane were performed by two-dimensional transabdominal ultrasonography...
April 2016: Iranian Journal of Radiology: a Quarterly Journal Published By the Iranian Radiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516241/intravoxel-incoherent-motion-in-normal-pituitary-gland-initial-study-with-turbo-spin-echo-diffusion-weighted-imaging
#3
K Kamimura, M Nakajo, Y Fukukura, T Iwanaga, T Saito, M Sasaki, T Fujisaki, A Takemura, T Okuaki, T Yoshiura
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: DWI with conventional single-shot EPI of the pituitary gland is hampered by strong susceptibility artifacts. Our purpose was to evaluate the feasibility of intravoxel incoherent motion assessment by using DWI based on TSE of the normal anterior pituitary lobe. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The intravoxel incoherent motion parameters, including the true diffusion coefficient (D), the perfusion fraction (f), and the pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*), were obtained with TSE-DWI in 5 brain regions (the pons, the WM and GM of the vermis, and the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum) in 8 healthy volunteers, and their agreement with those obtained with EPI-DWI was evaluated by using the intraclass correlation coefficient...
August 11, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473762/nosological-delineation-of-congenital-ocular-motor-apraxia-type-cogan-an-observational-study
#4
Sarah Wente, Simone Schröder, Johannes Buckard, Hans-Martin Büttel, Florian von Deimling, Wilfried Diener, Martin Häussler, Susanne Hübschle, Silvia Kinder, Gerhard Kurlemann, Christoph Kretzschmar, Michael Lingen, Wiebke Maroske, Dirk Mundt, Iciar Sánchez-Albisua, Jürgen Seeger, Sandra P Toelle, Eugen Boltshauser, Knut Brockmann
BACKGROUND: The nosological assignment of congenital ocular motor apraxia type Cogan (COMA) is still controversial. While regarded as a distinct entity by some authorities including the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man catalog of genetic disorders, others consider COMA merely a clinical symptom. METHODS: We performed a retrospective multicenter data collection study with re-evaluation of clinical and neuroimaging data of 21 previously unreported patients (8 female, 13 male, ages ranging from 2 to 24 years) diagnosed as having COMA...
2016: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27437334/obsessive-compulsive-symptoms-in-an-adolescent-appearing-after-cerebellar-vermian-mass-resection
#5
Harshal Sathe, Sagar Karia, Avinash De Sousa, Nilesh Shah
Obsessive compulsive symptoms have been reported in frontal lobe tumours and basal ganglia lesions. We report herewith a case of an adolescent who had a vermian cystic mass for which he underwent excision surgery. Three months postsurgery family members noticed that he started with repeated hand washing and abnormal walking pattern. Also, he developed bedwetting in sleep at night. He was given clinical diagnosis of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Nocturnal enuresis following a cerebellar mass removal which improved with fluoxetine and impiramine respectively...
May 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27416922/anomalous-vascularization-in-a-wnt-medulloblastoma-a-case-report
#6
Angela Di Giannatale, Andrea Carai, Antonella Cacchione, Antonio Marrazzo, Vito Andrea Dell'Anna, Giovanna Stefania Colafati, Francesca Diomedi-Camassei, Evelina Miele, Agnese Po, Elisabetta Ferretti, Franco Locatelli, Angela Mastronuzzi
BACKGROUND: Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. To date only few cases of medulloblastoma with hemorrhages have been reported in the literature. Although some studies speculate on the pathogenesis of this anomalous increased vascularization in medulloblastoma, the specific mechanism is still far from clearly understood. A correlation between molecular medulloblastoma subgroups and hemorrhagic features has not been reported, although recent preliminary studies described that WNT-subtype tumors display increased vascularization and hemorrhaging...
July 15, 2016: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27386360/metastatic-cerebellar-tumor-of-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-mimicking-cerebellar-hemangioblastoma
#7
Makoto Ideguchi, Takafumi Nishizaki, Norio Ikeda, Shigeki Nakano, Tomomi Okamura, Natsumi Fujii, Tokuhiro Kimura, Eiji Ikeda
INTRODUCTION: Well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma generally (PTC) have a favorable prognosis. This metastasis is rare in the central nervous system. Brain metastasis has a relatively poor prognosis. We present a rare case of cerebellar metastasis, one that mimics a solid type cerebellar hemangioblastoma and because of which it was very hard to reach accurate preoperative diagnosis. Accurate diagnosis was challenging because of the similar imaging and histopathological findings for these two tumors...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27192980/a-morphometric-study-of-the-atlas-occipitalization-and-coexisted-congenital-anomalies-of-the-vertebrae-and-posterior-cranial-fossa-with-neurological-importance
#8
Konstantinos Natsis, Christos Lyrtzis, Trifon Totlis, Nikolaos Anastasopoulos, Maria Piagkou
PURPOSE: Our study highlights the morphometry of the partial and complete atlas occipitalization (AOZ), its coexistence with fusions of the 2nd and 3rd cervical vertebrae and morphological and morphometric abnormalities of the posterior cranial fossa that are of paramount neurological importance. METHODS: One hundred and eighty adult dry skulls, the atlas and axis vertebrae were examined. RESULTS: Four skulls (2.2 %) showed AOZ. Two of them (1...
May 18, 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27154451/medulloblastoma-with-suprasellar-solitary-massive-metastasis-case-report
#9
Hiroaki Nagashima, Tatsuya Nagashima, Atsufumi Kawamura, Kazuki Yamamoto, Makiko Yoshida, Daiichiro Hasegawa, Yoshiyuki Kosaka, Eiji Kohmura
It is extremely rare for metastasised medulloblastoma to form a large tumour in the suprasellar region. We present a case of medulloblastoma with large suprasellar metastasis at initial presentation. A 3-year and 5-month-old boy presented with a 1-month history of vomiting and loss of appetite, and body weight. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 20 mm × 20 mm mass in the suprasellar region and a 30 mm × 30 mm mass in the fourth cerebral ventricle. We performed endoscopic biopsy of the suprasellar tumour, and subsequently totally removed the vermian tumour through a suboccipital craniotomy...
2016: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27114661/primary-intra-fourth-ventricular-meningioma-report-two-cases
#10
Nishanth Sadashiva, Shilpa Rao, Dwarakanath Srinivas, Dhaval Shukla
Meningioma's occurring intraventricular region are rare and these occurring in the fourth ventricle is even rare. Because of the rarity, it is not usually considered as a differential diagnosis in any age group. Clinical features and Imaging is not characteristic, and most of them are thought to be some different tumor. Here, we discuss two cases harboring a primary fourth ventricular meningioma Grade II, which was surgically excised successfully. Total excision was achieved in both cases and as the tumor was firm to soft and vermian splitting was not required...
April 2016: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27086739/mr-imaging-of-the-fetal-cerebellar-vermis-biometric-predictors-of-adverse-neurologic-outcome
#11
Yin Xi, Emily Brown, April Bailey, Diane M Twickler
PURPOSE: To provide normal biometry of the cerebellar vermis using fetal MR and determine threshold values associated with abnormal neurologic outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cerebellar vermis biometry was applied in prospective, cross-sectional evaluation of fetal brains. Vermis length and inferior vermian distance were obtained in mid-sagittal planes using T2-weighted, single-shot sequences with 1.5 Tesla MR. Measurements were compared with reference nomograms from a retrospective review of fetal brains with normal intracranial anatomy...
April 18, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27062519/prevalence-of-prenatal-brain-abnormalities-in-fetuses-with-congenital-heart-disease-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
A Khalil, S Bennet, B Thilaganathan, D Paladini, P Griffiths, J S Carvalho
OBJECTIVES: Studies have shown an association between congenital heart defects (CHDs) and postnatal brain abnormalities and neurodevelopmental delay. Recent evidence suggests that some of these brain abnormalities are present before birth. The primary aim of this study was to perform a systematic review to quantify the prevalence of prenatal brain abnormalities in fetuses with CHDs. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library were searched electronically. Reference lists within each article were hand-searched for additional reports...
September 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27032974/development-of-the-fetal-vermis-new-biometry-reference-data-and-comparison-of-3-diagnostic-modalities-3d-ultrasound-2d-ultrasound-and-mr-imaging
#13
E Katorza, E Bertucci, S Perlman, S Taschini, R Ber, Y Gilboa, V Mazza, R Achiron
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Normal biometry of the fetal posterior fossa rules out most major anomalies of the cerebellum and vermis. Our aim was to provide new reference data of the fetal vermis in 4 biometric parameters by using 3 imaging modalities, 2D ultrasound, 3D ultrasound, and MR imaging, and to assess the relation among these modalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted between June 2011 and June 2013. Three different imaging modalities were used to measure vermis biometry: 2D ultrasound, 3D ultrasound, and MR imaging...
July 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26770877/white-matter-plasticity-in-the-cerebellum-of-elite-basketball-athletes
#14
In Sung Park, Ye Na Lee, Soonwook Kwon, Nam Joon Lee, Im Joo Rhyu
Recent neuroimaging studies indicate that learning a novel motor skill induces plastic changes in the brain structures of both gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) that are associated with a specific practice. We previously reported an increased volume of vermian lobules VI-VII (declive, folium, and tuber) in elite basketball athletes who require coordination for dribbling and shooting a ball, which awakened the central role of the cerebellum in motor coordination. However, the precise factor contributing to the increased volume was not determined...
December 2015: Anatomy & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26732542/sonographic-detection-of-central-nervous-system-defects-in-the-first-trimester-of-pregnancy
#15
REVIEW
A C Engels, L Joyeux, C Brantner, B De Keersmaecker, L De Catte, D Baud, J Deprest, T Van Mieghem
The fetal central nervous system can already be examined in the first trimester of pregnancy. Acrania, alobar holoprosencephaly, cephaloceles, and spina bifida can confidently be diagnosed at that stage and should actively be looked for in every fetus undergoing first-trimester ultrasound. For some other conditions, such as vermian anomalies and agenesis of the corpus callosum, markers have been identified, but the diagnosis can only be confirmed in the second trimester of gestation. For these conditions, data on sensitivity and more importantly specificity and false positives are lacking, and one should therefore be aware not to falsely reassure or scare expecting parents based on first-trimester findings...
March 2016: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26608601/expanding-the-spectrum-of-human-ganglionic-eminence-region-anomalies-on-fetal-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#16
Andrea Righini, Claudia Cesaretti, Giorgio Conte, Cecilia Parazzini, Carolina Frassoni, Gaetano Bulfamante, Laura Avagliano, Francesca Inverardi, Giana Izzo, Mariangela Rustico
INTRODUCTION: Ganglionic eminence (GE) is a transient fetal brain structure that harvests a significant amount of precursors of cortical GABA-ergic interneurons. Prenatal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of GE anomalies (i.e., cavitations) have already been reported associated with severe micro-lissencephaly. The purpose of this report was to illustrate the MR imaging features of GE anomalies in conditions other than severe micro-lissencephalies. METHODS: Among all the fetuses submitted to prenatal MR imaging at our center from 2005 to 2014, we collected eight cases with GE anomalies and only limited associated brain anomalies...
March 2016: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26599961/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-malformations-of-midbrain-hindbrain
#17
REVIEW
Ahmed Abdel Khalek Abdel Razek, Mauricio Castillo
We aim to review the magnetic resonance imaging appearance of malformations of midbrain and hindbrain. These can be classified as predominantly cerebellar malformations, combined cerebellar and brain stem malformations, and predominantly brain stem malformations. The diagnostic criteria for the majority of these morphological malformations are based on neuroimaging findings. The predominantly cerebellar malformations include predominantly vermian hypoplasia seen in Dandy-Walker malformation and rhombencephalosynapsis, global cerebellar hypoplasia reported in lissencephaly and microlissencephaly, and unilateral cerebellar hypoplasia seen in PHACES, vanishing cerebellum, and cerebellar cleft...
January 2016: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26507178/-acquired-dandy-walker-malformation-and-cerebellar-hemorrhage-usefulness-of-serial-mri
#18
Anna Pichiecchio, Alice Decio, Carol Di Perri, Cecilia Parazzini, Andrea Rossi, Sabrina Signorini
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Neuroimaging plays a fundamental role in the diagnosis of Dandy Walker malformation (DWM), a posterior fossa anomaly that is usually associated with genetic abnormalities, but may rarely be ascribed to acquired causes. Here, we report the clinical history and neuroimaging studies of a child with a complex cardiac malformation, developmental delay, and oculomotor anomalies whose neuroimaging findings were consistent with an acquired form of DWM. METHODS/RESULTS: Fetal MRI at gestational weeks 27 and 31 showed cerebellar and vermis hypoplasia and fourth ventricle enlargement, together with hemosiderin deposits on the cerebellar hemispheric surface, but without significant vermian rotation...
January 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26464408/are-mothers-always-right-when-acute-meningitis-is-something-more
#19
Catarina Gomes, Patrícia Romão, Jose Miguens, Ana Mouzinho
A 22-month-old girl with a history of a congenital occipital cutaneous cyst was brought to the paediatric emergency department for lethargy and occipital headache. She had been discharged 5 days before for acute meningitis without bacterial isolates. At physical observation, she presented with irritability and neck hyperextension, with negative meningeal signs. CT scan revealed a vermian cyst and hydrocephalus. She was submitted to neurosurgery with removal of an infected midline dermoid cyst with a fistulous track to the skin...
2015: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26448595/dandy-walker-malformation-is-the-tail-sign-the-key-sign
#20
Silvia Bernardo, Valeria Vinci, Matteo Saldari, Francesca Servadei, Evelina Silvestri, Antonella Giancotti, Camilla Aliberti, Maria Grazia Porpora, Fabio Triulzi, Giuseppe Rizzo, Carlo Catalano, Lucia Manganaro
OBJECTIVE: The study aims to demonstrate the value of the 'tail sign' in the assessment of Dandy-Walker malformation. METHODS: A total of 31 fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), performed before 24 weeks of gestation after second-line ultrasound examination between May 2013 and September 2014, were examined retrospectively. All MRI examinations were performed using a 1.5 Tesla magnet without maternal sedation. RESULTS: Magnetic resonance imaging diagnosed 15/31 cases of Dandy-Walker malformation, 6/31 of vermian partial caudal agenesis, 2/31 of vermian hypoplasia, 4/31 of vermian malrotation, 2/31 of Walker-Warburg syndrome, 1/31 of Blake pouch cyst and 1/31 of rhombencephalosynapsis...
December 2015: Prenatal Diagnosis
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