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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923226/intraoperative-tumoral-bleeding-of-hypervascular-medulloblastoma-after-ventricular-drainage-a-case-report
#1
Han-Seung Ryu, Tae-Young Jung, Moon-Soo Han, Seul-Ki Kim, Kyung-Hwa Lee
We report a rare case of intraoperative tumoral bleeding of a hypervascular medulloblastoma. A 12-year-old girl presented with dizziness and nausea. Brain magnetic resonance (MR) images revealed an approximately 4.2-cm enhanced mass on the cerebellar vermis associated with mild perilesional edema and increased cerebral blood volume. Angiography showed tumoral staining and developed occipital and circular dural sinuses in the venous phase. A suboccipital craniotomy was performed. To relieve the intracranial pressure, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was drained via a lateral ventricular catheter in the occipital horn...
December 7, 2016: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921094/fetal-cerebellar-vermis-circumference-measured-by-2-dimensional-ultrasound-scan-reference-range-feasibility-and-reproducibility
#2
M Spinelli, C Sica, L D Meglio, D Bolla, L Raio, D Surbek
Purpose: To provide 2-dimensional ultrasonographic (2D-US) normograms of cerebellar vermis biometry, as well as to evaluate the feasibility and the reproducibility of these measurements in clinical practice. Materials and Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study of 328 normal singleton pregnancies between 18 and 33 weeks of gestation. Measurements of the fetal cerebellar vermis circumference (VC) in the mid-sagittal plane were performed by both a senior and a junior operator using 2D-US. VC as a function of gestational age (GA) was expressed by regression equations...
November 2016: Ultrasound International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919636/adrenomedullin-and-angiotensin-ii-signaling-pathways-involved-in-the-effects-on-cerebellar-antioxidant-enzymes-activity
#3
Figueira Leticia, Israel Anita
Human adrenomedullin (AM) is a 52-amino acid peptide involved in cardiovascular control. AM has two specific receptors formed by the calcitonin-receptor-like receptor (CRLR) and receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP) 2 or 3, known as AM1 and AM2 receptors, respectively. In addition, AM has appreciable affinity for the calcitonin gene-1 related peptide receptor (CGRP1), composed of CRLR/RAMP1. In brain, AM and their receptors are expressed in several localized areas, including the cerebellum. AM has been reported as an antioxidant...
December 2, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893847/a2a-adenosine-receptor-antagonism-reverts-the-blood-brain-barrier-dysfunction-induced-by-sleep-restriction
#4
Gabriela Hurtado-Alvarado, Emilio Domínguez-Salazar, Javier Velázquez-Moctezuma, Beatriz Gómez-González
Chronic sleep restriction induces blood-brain barrier disruption and increases pro-inflammatory mediators in rodents. Those inflammatory mediators may modulate the blood-brain barrier and constitute a link between sleep loss and blood-brain barrier physiology. We propose that adenosine action on its A2A receptor may be modulating the blood-brain barrier dynamics in sleep-restricted rats. We administrated a selective A2A adenosine receptor antagonist (SCH58261) in sleep-restricted rats at the 10th day of sleep restriction and evaluated the blood-brain barrier permeability to dextrans coupled to fluorescein (FITC-dextrans) and Evans blue...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885428/normative-biometry-of-the-fetal-brain-using-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#5
Vanessa Kyriakopoulou, Deniz Vatansever, Alice Davidson, Prachi Patkee, Samia Elkommos, Andrew Chew, Miriam Martinez-Biarge, Bibbi Hagberg, Mellisa Damodaram, Joanna Allsop, Matt Fox, Joseph V Hajnal, Mary A Rutherford
The fetal brain shows accelerated growth in the latter half of gestation, and these changes can be captured by 2D and 3D biometry measurements. The aim of this study was to quantify brain growth in normal fetuses using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and to produce reference biometry data and a freely available centile calculator ( https://www.developingbrain.co.uk/fetalcentiles/ ). A total of 127 MRI examinations (1.5 T) of fetuses with a normal brain appearance (21-38 gestational weeks) were included in this study...
November 24, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866083/neuroanatomical-differences-in-fast-and-slow-rat-strains-with-differential-vulnerability-to-kindling-and-behavioral-comorbidities
#6
Pragati Sharma, Stefanie Dedeurwaerdere, Michael A D Vandenberg, Ke Fang, Leigh A Johnston, Sandy R Shultz, Terence J O'Brien, Krista L Gilby
OBJECTIVE: The neurobiological factors underlying a predisposition towards developing epilepsy and its common behavioral comorbidities are poorly understood. FAST rats are a strain that has been selectively bred for enhanced vulnerability to kindling, while the SLOW strain has been bred to be resistant to kindling. FAST rats also exhibit behavioral traits reminiscent of those observed in neurodevelopmental disorders (autism spectrum disorder (ASD)/attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)) commonly comorbid with epilepsy...
November 17, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862279/pet-and-mri-detection-of-early-and-progressive-neurodegeneration-in-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-36
#7
Pablo Aguiar, Julio Pardo, Manuel Arias, Beatriz Quintáns, Montse Fernández-Prieto, Rocío Martínez-Regueiro, José-Manuel Pumar, Jesús Silva-Rodríguez, Álvaro Ruibal, María-Jesús Sobrido, Julia Cortés
BACKGROUND: The spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) form a clinically, genetically, and pathological heterogeneous group of autosomal-dominant degenerative diseases. In particular, SCA36 is characterized by a late-onset, slowly progressive cerebellar syndrome typically associated with sensorineural hearing loss. This study was aimed at analyzing the neurodegenerative process underlying SCA36 through fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and MRI scans. METHODS: Twenty SCA36 patients underwent a study consisting of FDG-PET and MRI scans...
November 10, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843009/cerebellar-microstructural-organization-is-altered-by-complications-of-premature-birth-a-case-control-study
#8
Marie Brossard-Racine, Andrea Poretti, Jonathan Murnick, Marine Bouyssi-Kobar, Robert McCarter, Adre J du Plessis, Catherine Limperopoulos
OBJECTIVES: To compare regional cerebellar microstructure, as measured by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), between preterm infants at term-equivalent age and healthy term-born control neonates, and to explore associations between DTI findings and clinical risk factors. STUDY DESIGN: In this case-control study, DTI studies were performed in 73 premature infants born ≤32 weeks and ≤1500 g birth weight and 73 full-term-born controls from healthy pregnancies. Using a region of interest approach, fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were extracted in 7 cerebellar regions including the anterior vermis, the right/left superior cerebellar peduncles, the middle cerebellar peduncle, and the dentate nuclei...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842522/what-is-the-impact-of-child-abuse-on-gray-matter-abnormalities-in-individuals-with-major-depressive-disorder-a-case-control-study
#9
Sung Jun Ahn, Sunghyon Kyeong, Sang Hyun Suh, Jae-Jin Kim, Tae-Sub Chung, Jeong-Ho Seok
BACKGROUND: Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) present heterogeneous clinical symptoms, and childhood abuse is associated with deepening of psychopathology. The aim of this study was to identify structural brain abnormalities in MDD and to assess further differences in gray matter density (GMD) associated with childhood abuse in MDD. METHODS: Differences in regional GMD between 34 MDD patients and 26 healthy controls were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging and optimized voxel-based morphometry...
November 14, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834868/steric-clash-in-the-set-domain-of-histone-methyltransferase-nsd1-as-a-cause-of-sotos-syndrome-and-its-genetic-heterogeneity-in-a-brazilian-cohort
#10
Kyungsoo Ha, Priya Anand, Jennifer A Lee, Julie R Jones, Chong Ae Kim, Debora Romeo Bertola, Jonathan D J Labonne, Lawrence C Layman, Wolfgang Wenzel, Hyung-Goo Kim
Most histone methyltransferases (HMTase) harbor a predicted Su(var)3-9, Enhancer-of-zeste, Trithorax (SET) domain, which transfers a methyl group to a lysine residue in their substrates. Mutations of the SET domains were reported to cause intellectual disability syndromes such as Sotos, Weaver, or Kabuki syndromes. Sotos syndrome is an overgrowth syndrome with intellectual disability caused by haploinsufficiency of the nuclear receptor binding SET domain protein 1 (NSD1) gene, an HMTase at 5q35.2-35.3. Here, we analyzed NSD1 in 34 Brazilian Sotos patients and identified three novel and eight known mutations...
November 9, 2016: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827801/shape-of-the-feline-cerebellum-and-occipital-bone-related-to-breed-on-mri-of-200-cats
#11
Xander Huizing, Andy Sparkes, Ruth Dennis
OBJECTIVES: The MRI features of the feline cerebellum and occipital bone have not previously been described in the literature. The aims of this study were three-fold. Firstly, to document variations in cerebellar shape on MRI in neurologically normal cats to support our hypothesis that crowding of the contents of the caudal fossa or herniation of the cerebellar vermis through the foramen magnum occurs frequently as an anatomical variant. Secondly, to document variations in the morphology of the occipital bone...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822765/syringomyelia-caused-by-an-arachnoid-web-in-a-patient-with-shunted-dandy-walker-malformation
#12
Hee Chang Lee, Jung Won Choi, Ji Yeoun Lee, Ji Hoon Phi, Seung-Ki Kim, Byung-Kyu Cho, Kyu-Chang Wang
INTRODUCTION: Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) is a congenital brain anomaly characterized by dysgenesis of the cerebellar vermis and the presence of a posterior fossa cyst. The association of syringomyelia with DWM is extremely rare. CASE REPORT: A 10-year-old patient who was diagnosed with DWM in infancy presented with progressive scoliosis and fecal incontinence. He had been treated with cystoventriculoperitoneal shunting with a Y-connection during infancy, which was followed by a revision 6 years later...
November 7, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820843/involvement-of-glud2-in-fear-conditioned-bradycardia-in-mice
#13
Hiroko Kotajima-Murakami, Sakae Narumi, Michisuke Yuzaki, Dai Yanagihara
Lesions in the cerebellar vermis abolish acquisition of fear-conditioned bradycardia in animals and human patients. The δ2 glutamate receptor (GluD2) is predominantly expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells. The mouse mutant ho15J carries a spontaneous mutation in GluD2 and these mice show a primary deficiency in parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses, multiple innervations of Purkinje cells by climbing fibers, and impairment of long-term depression. In the present study, we used ho15J mice to investigate the role of the cerebellum in fear-conditioned bradycardia...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808568/gray-matter-abnormalities-in-opioid-dependent-patients-a-neuroimaging-meta-analysis
#14
Scott C Wollman, Omar M Alhassoon, Matthew G Hall, Mark J Stern, Eric J Connors, Christine L Kimmel, Kenneth E Allen, Rick A Stephan, Joaquim Radua
BACKGROUND: Prior research utilizing whole-brain neuroimaging techniques has identified structural differences in gray matter in opioid-dependent individuals. However, the results have been inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: The current study meta-analytically examines the neuroimaging findings of studies published before 2016 comparing opioid-dependent individuals to drug-naïve controls. METHOD: Exhaustive search of five databases yielded 12 studies that met inclusion criteria...
November 3, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807542/could-mean-platelet-volume-be-a-reliable-indicator-for-acute-mesenteric-ischemia-diagnosis-a-case-control-study
#15
Vermi Degerli, Isil Ergin, Fulya Yilmaz Duran, Mehmet Akif Ustuner, Ozgur Duran
Objective. Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is a disease, usually seen in elderly people and accompanied by comorbid diseases. Mean platelet volume (MPV), the significant indicator of platelet activation and function, is associated with AMI. In this study, we considered that we can use MPV as a reliable indicator in the diagnosis of AMI. Methods. This study was conducted among AMI patients with two control groups. Age, gender, MPV, platelet count, concomitant diseases, abdominal computed tomography, and patient outcomes were recorded for evaluation...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797090/altered-cerebellar-activity-in-visceral-pain-related-fear-conditioning-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#16
J Claassen, F Labrenz, T M Ernst, A Icenhour, J Langhorst, M Forsting, D Timmann, S Elsenbruch
There is evidence to support a role of the cerebellum in emotional learning processes, which are demonstrably altered in patients with chronic pain. We tested if cerebellar activation is altered during visceral pain-related fear conditioning and extinction in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Cerebellar blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) data from N = 17 IBS patients and N = 21 healthy controls, collected as part of a previous fMRI study, was reanalyzed utilizing an advanced normalizing method of the cerebellum...
October 28, 2016: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793438/time-course-of-the-effect-of-status-epilepticus-induced-in-the-developing-rat-on-%C3%AE-amino-butyric-acid-and-glutamate-cerebellar-concentration
#17
D Hernández-Martínez, L Rocha, J Martínez-Quiroz, C Morgado-Valle, J Manzo, M L López-Meraz
INTRODUCTION: Status epilepticus (SE) is an epileptic condition that can cause cerebellar atrophy and loss of Purkinje cells in both humans and research animals. Cerebellum is a region rich in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate, and some studies have shown that their concentrations may be altered after convulsions. However, there are no studies showing the effect of seizures on different cerebellar regions in developing rats. Time course of the effect of status epilepticus induced in the developing rat on γ-amino butyric acid and glutamate cerebellar concentration...
October 25, 2016: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789541/posterior-lobules-of-the-cerebellum-and-information-processing-speed-at-various-stages-of-multiple-sclerosis
#18
Amandine Moroso, Aurélie Ruet, Delphine Lamargue-Hamel, Fanny Munsch, Mathilde Deloire, Pierrick Coupé, Jean-Christophe Ouallet, Vincent Planche, Nicolas Moscufo, Dominik S Meier, Thomas Tourdias, Charles R G Guttmann, Vincent Dousset, Bruno Brochet
BACKGROUND: Cerebellar damage has been implicated in information processing speed (IPS) impairment associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) that might result from functional disconnection in the frontocerebellar loop. Structural alterations in individual posterior lobules, in which cognitive functioning seems preponderant, are still unknown. Our aim was to investigate the impact of grey matter (GM) volume alterations in lobules VI to VIIIb on IPS in persons with clinically isolated syndrome (PwCIS), MS (PwMS) and healthy subjects (HS)...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772780/non-alcoholic-korsakoff-syndrome-in-psychiatric-patients-with-a-history-of-undiagnosed-wernicke-s-encephalopathy
#19
Georgios Nikolakaros, Tuula Ilonen, Timo Kurki, Janina Paju, Sokratis G Papageorgiou, Risto Vataja
Wernicke's encephalopathy is often undiagnosed, particularly in non-alcoholics. There are very few reports of non-alcoholic patients diagnosed with Korsakoff syndrome in the absence of a prior diagnosis of Wernicke's encephalopathy and no studies of diffusion tensor imaging in non-alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome. We report on three non-alcoholic psychiatric patients (all women) with long-term non-progressive memory impairment that developed after malnutrition accompanied by at least one of the three Wernicke's encephalopathy manifestations: ocular abnormalities, ataxia or unsteadiness, and an altered mental state or mild memory impairment...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769281/novel-homozygous-rars2-mutation-in-two-siblings-without-pontocerebellar-hypoplasia-further-expansion-of-the-phenotypic-spectrum
#20
S Lühl, H Bode, W Schlötzer, M Bartsakoulia, R Horvath, A Abicht, M Stenzel, J Kirschner, S C Grünert
BACKGROUND: Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 6 (PCH6) is a mitochondrial disease caused by mutations in the RARS2 gene. RARS2 encodes mitochondrial arginyl transfer RNA synthetase, an enzyme involved in mitochondrial protein translation. A total of 27 patients from 14 families have been reported so far. Characteristic clinical features comprise neonatal lactic acidosis, severe encephalopathy, intractable seizures, feeding problems and profound developmental delay. Most patients show typical neuroradiologic abnormalities including cerebellar hypoplasia and progressive pontocerebellar atrophy...
October 21, 2016: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
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