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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319237/regional-differences-in-purkinje-cell-morphology-in-the-cerebellar-vermis-of-male-mice
#1
Hermina Nedelescu, Mohamed Abdelhack, Arwel T Pritchard
Regional differences in dendritic architecture can influence connectivity and dendritic signal integration, with possible consequences for neuronal computation. In the cerebellum, analyses of Purkinje cells (PCs), which are functionally critical as they provide the sole output of the cerebellar cortex, have suggested that the cerebellar cortex is not uniform in structure as traditionally assumed. However, the limitations of traditional staining methods and microscopy capabilities have presented difficulties in investigating possible local variations in PC morphology...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315634/mathematical-models-of-human-cerebellar-development-in-the-fetal-period
#2
Krzysztof Dudek, Marta Nowakowska-Kotas, Alicja Kędzia
The evaluation of cerebellar growth in the fetal period forms a part of a widely used examination to identify any features of abnormalities in early stages of human development. It is well known that the development of anatomical structures, including the cerebellum, does not always follow a linear model of growth. The aim of the study was to analyse a variety of mathematical models of human cerebellar development in fetal life to determine their adequacy. The study comprised 101 fetuses (48 males and 53 females) between the 15th and 28th weeks of fetal life...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304099/functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-reveals-differences-in-brain-activation-in-response-to-thermal-stimuli-in-diabetic-patients-with-and-without-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy
#3
Juan Li, Wanying Zhang, Xia Wang, Tangmi Yuan, Peiyao Liu, Tao Wang, Le Shen, Yuguang Huang, Naishi Li, Hui You, Tixian Xiao, Feng Feng, Chao Ma
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes affects both the peripheral and central nervous systems. The aim of this study was to explore the changes in brain activity in response to thermal stimuli in diabetic patients with and without diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). METHODS: A total of 36 right-handed volunteers were enrolled: eight patients with Type-2 diabetes mellitus and DPN, 13 patients with Type-2 diabetes mellitus lacking DPN (NDPN patients), and 15 healthy volunteers (HV)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285575/alteration-of-gray-matter-texture-features-over-the-whole-brain-in-medication-overuse-headache-using-a-3-dimentional-texture-analysis
#4
Zhiye Chen, Xiaoyan Chen, Zhiqiang Chen, Mengqi Liu, Huiguang He, Lin Ma, Shengyuan Yu
BACKGROUND: Imaging studies have provided valuable information in understanding the headache neuromechanism for medication-overuse headache (MOH), and the aim of this study is to investigate altered texture features of MR structural images over the whole brain in MOH using a 3-dimentional texture analysis. METHODS: Brain three-dimensional T1-weighted structural images were obtained from 44 MOH patients and 32 normal controls (NC). The imaging processing included two steps: gray matter (gray images) segment and a 3-dimensional texture features mapping...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275861/natural-killer-cells-control-tumor-growth-by-sensing-a-growth-factor
#5
Alexander D Barrow, Melissa A Edeling, Vladimir Trifonov, Jingqin Luo, Piyush Goyal, Benjamin Bohl, Jennifer K Bando, Albert H Kim, John Walker, Mary Andahazy, Mattia Bugatti, Laura Melocchi, William Vermi, Daved H Fremont, Sarah Cox, Marina Cella, Christian Schmedt, Marco Colonna
Many tumors produce platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-DD, which promotes cellular proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, stromal reaction, and angiogenesis through autocrine and paracrine PDGFRβ signaling. By screening a secretome library, we found that the human immunoreceptor NKp44, encoded by NCR2 and expressed on natural killer (NK) cells and innate lymphoid cells, recognizes PDGF-DD. PDGF-DD engagement of NKp44 triggered NK cell secretion of interferon gamma (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) that induced tumor cell growth arrest...
December 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250697/two-girl-patients-with-medulloblastoma-case-reports
#6
Laura Daniela Marinău, Cristina Elena Singer, Cristian Meşină, Elena Carmen Niculescu, Ileana Puiu, Ileana Octavia Petrescu, Cristiana Geormăneanu, Augustina Cornelia Enculescu, Daniela Elise Tache, Ştefana Oana Purcaru, Simona Răciulă, Cosmina Lucia Damian
In childhood, the most common type of brain tumors is medulloblastoma, a highly malignant primary brain tumor that is found in the cerebellum or posterior fossa. The tumor mass increases and generates obstructive hydrocephalus. Risk factors (that might be involved in some cases) include the genetic syndrome such as type 1 neurofibromatosis, exposure to ionizing radiation and Epstein-Barr virus. Medulloblastoma is associated with recessively inherited Turcot disease and with conditions as ataxia-telangiectasia syndrome in several cases...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250689/anatomic-variants-in-dandy-walker-complex
#7
Maria Claudia Jurcă, Kinga Kozma, CodruŢa Diana Petcheşi, Marius Bembea, Ovidiu Laurean Pop, Gabriela MuŢiu, Mihaela Cristiana Coroi, Alexandru Daniel Jurcă, Luciana Dobjanschi
Dandy-Walker complex (DWC) is a malformative association of the central nervous system. DWC includes four different types: Dandy-Walker malformation (vermis agenesis or hypoplasia, cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle and a large posterior fossa); Dandy-Walker variant (vermis hypoplasia, cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle, normal posterior fossa); mega cysterna magna (large posterior fossa, normal vermis and fourth ventricle) and posterior fossa arachnoid cyst. We present and discuss four cases with different morphological and clinical forms of the Dandy-Walker complex...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223776/impact-of-edaphic-factors-and-nutrient-management-on-the-hepatoprotective-efficiency-of-carlinoside-purified-from-pigeon-pea-leaves-an-evaluation-of-ugt1a1-activity-in-hepatitis-induced-organelles
#8
Subhasish Das, K Charan Teja, Sandip Mukherjee, Soma Seal, Rajesh Kumar Sah, Buddhadeb Duary, Ki-Hyun Kim, Satya Sundar Bhattacharya
Carlinoside is a unique compound well-known for its excellent curative potential in hepatitis. There is a substantial research gap regarding the medicinal use of carlinoside, as its concentrations are greatly variable (depending on locality). We cultivated Cajanus cajan using vermicompost as a major organic amendment at two locations (Sonitpur and Birbhum) with different soil types, but identical climate conditions. Sonitpur soils were richer in soil organic C (SOC), enzyme activation, and N/P content than Birbhum...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209547/an-acquired-form-of-dandy-walker-malformation-with-enveloping-hemosiderin-deposits
#9
Tadashi Shiohama, Ryo Ando, Katsunori Fujii, Hiroki Mukai, Yuki Naruke, Katsuo Sugita, Eiji Kato, Naoki Shimojo
Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) is a posterior fossa anomaly characterized by hypoplasia and upward rotation of the cerebellar vermis and cystic dilation of the fourth ventricle. The cyst of DWM rarely extends posteriorly to almost completely fill the entire posterior fossa, which mimics primary cerebellar agenesis, a cerebellar porencephalic cyst, and an arachnoid cyst due to the lack of clarity of the thin cystic wall. A 10-month-old female born at 23 weeks' gestation with cerebellar hemorrhage in the neonatal period was admitted to our hospital with dysphagia and side-to-side head bobbing...
2017: Case Reports in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208045/joubert-s-syndrome-and-related-disorders-and-home-based-peritoneal-dialysis-in-east-africa-a-case-report
#10
Grace M Musiime, Doris M W Kinuthia, Donald P Oyatsi, Wangui Manguyu
BACKGROUND: Joubert's syndrome is a rare condition affecting an estimated 1:80,000-1:100,000 individuals. There is underdevelopment of the cerebellar vermis resulting in a characteristic molar tooth sign on cross sectional axial magnetic resonance imaging. It can occur in association with multi-organ involvement; in such cases it is classified as Joubert's syndrome and related disorders. To date, there are no cases of Joubert's syndrome and related disorders from sub-Saharan Africa described in the literature...
December 6, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207302/lactic-acid-fermentation-of-human-excreta-for-agricultural-application
#11
REVIEW
Nadejda Andreev, Mariska Ronteltap, Boris Boincean, Piet N L Lens
Studies show that source separated human excreta have a fertilizing potential with benefits to plant growth and crop yield similar or exceeding that of mineral fertilizers. The main challenges in fertilizing with excreta are pathogens, and an increased risk of eutrophication of water bodies in case of runoff. This review shows that lactic acid fermentation of excreta reduces the amount of pathogens, minimizes the nutrient loss and inhibits the production of malodorous compounds, thus increasing its agricultural value...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204305/ethanol-induced-white-matter-atrophy-is-associated-with-impaired-expression-of-aspartyl-asparaginyl-%C3%AE-hydroxylase-asph-and-notch-signaling-in-an-experimental-rat-model
#12
Ming Tong, Howard Gonzalez-Navarrete, Tyler Kirchberg, Billy Gotama, Emine B Yalcin, Jared Kay, Suzanne M de la Monte
Alcohol-induced white matter (WM) degeneration is linked to cognitive-motor deficits and impairs insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and Notch networks regulating oligodendrocyte function. Ethanol downregulates Aspartyl-Asparaginyl-β-Hydroxylase (ASPH) which drives Notch. These experiments determined if alcohol-related WM degeneration was linked to inhibition of ASPH and Notch. Adult Long Evans rats were fed for 3, 6 or 8 weeks with liquid diets containing 26% ethanol (caloric) and in the last two weeks prior to each endpoint they were binged with 2 g/kg ethanol, 3×/week...
2017: Journal of Drug and Alcohol Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204199/clinicopathological-study-of-pediatric-posterior-fossa-tumors
#13
Kadali Satya Vara Prasad, D Ravi, Vijay Pallikonda, Bhavana Venkata Satya Raman
Context: Brain tumor is one of the most devastating forms of human illness, especially when occurring in the posterior fossa and involving the brainstem. Tumors in the posterior fossa are considered some of the most critical brain lesions. This is primarily due to the limited space within the posterior fossa, as well as the potential involvement of the vital brainstem nuclei. Aims: The aim of this study is to analyze the incidence, clinical features, surgical outcome, complications, and prognosis in a series of 37 pediatric patients with posterior fossa tumors who underwent surgery between September 2012 and January 2015 from the Department of Neurosurgery, King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam (both prospective and retrospective study)...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196973/a-novel-homozygous-mutation-in-sptbn2-leads-to-spinocerebellar-ataxia-in-a-consanguineous-family-report-of-a-new-infantile-onset-case-and-brief-review-of-the-literature
#14
Mohammad A Al-Muhaizea, Faten AlMutairi, Rawan Almass, Safinaz AlHarthi, Mazhor S Aldosary, Maysoon Alsagob, Ali AlOdaib, Dilek Colak, Namik Kaya
The objective of this study was the identification of likely genes and mutations associated with an autosomal recessive (AR) rare spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) phenotype in two patients with infantile onset, from a consanguineous family. Using genome-wide SNP screening, autozygosity mapping, targeted Sanger sequencing and nextgen sequencing, family segregation analysis, and comprehensive neuropanel, we discovered a novel mutation in SPTBN2. Next, we utilized multiple sequence alignment of amino acids from various species as well as crystal structures provided by protein data bank (PDB# 1WYQ and 1WJM) to model the mutation site and its effect on β-III-spectrin...
December 1, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171036/prenatal-diagnosis-of-posterior-fossa-anomalies-additional-value-of-chromosomal-microarray-analysis-in-fetuses-with-cerebellar-hypoplasia
#15
Zhiyong Zou, Linhuan Huang, Shaobin Lin, Zhiming He, Hui Zhu, Yi Zhang, Qun Fang, Yanmin Luo
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the relationship between copy number variations (CNVs) detected by high-resolution chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) and the type of prenatal posterior fossa anomalies (PFAs), especially cerebellar hypoplasia (CH). METHODS: This study involved 77 pregnancies with PFAs who underwent CMA. RESULTS: Chromosomal aberrations including pathogenic CNVs and variants of unknown significance (VOUS) were detected in 31.2% (24/77) of all cases by CMA and in 18...
November 23, 2017: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170652/characteristic-eye-movements-in-ataxia-telangiectasia-like-disorder-an-explanatory-hypothesis
#16
Pamela Federighi, Stefano Ramat, Francesca Rosini, Elena Pretegiani, Antonio Federico, Alessandra Rufa
Objective: To investigate cerebellar dysfunctions and quantitatively characterize specific oculomotor changes in ataxia-telangiectasia-like disorder (ATLD), a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the MRE11 gene. Additionally, to further elucidate the pathophysiology of cerebellar damage in the ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) spectrum disorders. Methods: Saccade dynamics, metrics, and visual fixation deficits were investigated in two Italian adult siblings with genetically confirmed ATLD...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168327/distinct-cerebellar-foliation-anomalies-in-a-chd7-haploinsufficient-mouse-model-of-charge-syndrome
#17
Danielle E Whittaker, Sahrunizam Kasah, Alex P A Donovan, Jacob Ellegood, Kimberley L H Riegman, Holger A Volk, Imelda McGonnell, Jason P Lerch, M Albert Basson
Mutations in the gene encoding the ATP dependent chromatin-remodeling factor, CHD7 are the major cause of CHARGE (Coloboma, Heart defects, Atresia of the choanae, Retarded growth and development, Genital-urinary anomalies, and Ear defects) syndrome. Neurodevelopmental defects and a range of neurological signs have been identified in individuals with CHARGE syndrome, including developmental delay, lack of coordination, intellectual disability, and autistic traits. We previously identified cerebellar vermis hypoplasia and abnormal cerebellar foliation in individuals with CHARGE syndrome...
November 23, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166884/gray-matter-morphological-anomalies-in-the-cerebellar-vermis-in-first-episode-schizophrenia-patients-with-cognitive-deficits
#18
Jingjuan Wang, Li Zhou, Chunlei Cui, Zhening Liu, Jie Lu
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are a core feature of early schizophrenia. However, the pathological foundations underlying cognitive deficits are still unknown. The present study examined the association between gray matter density and cognitive deficits in first-episode schizophrenia. METHOD: Structural magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was performed in 34 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 21 healthy controls. Patients were divided into two subgroups according to working memory task performance...
November 22, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156853/the-importance-of-routine-bedside-biliary-ultrasonography-in-the-management-of-patients-admitted-to-the-emergency-department-with-isolated-acute-epigastric-pain
#19
Vermi Değerli, Tanzer Korkmaz, Hülya Mollamehmetoğlu, Cem Ertan
Background/aim: The aim of our study was to emphasize the importance of routine bedside biliary ultrasonography (USG) for the differential diagnosis of biliary tract disorders in patients admitted with acute isolated epigastric pain. Materials and methods: Adult patients who were admitted to the emergency department with acute isolated epigastric pain were included in the study. Emergency residents (ERs) were asked whether they planned to perform biliary USG during the initial evaluation and following diagnosis/treatment (secondary evaluation) of these patients...
August 23, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141275/roles-of-the-declive-folium-and-tuber-cerebellar-vermian-lobules-in-sportspeople
#20
In Sung Park, Nam Joon Lee, Im Joo Rhyu
The cerebellum plays vital roles in balance control and motor learning, including in saccadic adaptation and coordination. It consists of the vermis and two hemispheres and is anatomically separated into ten lobules that are designated as I-X. Although neuroimaging and clinical studies suggest that functions are compartmentalized within the cerebellum, the function of each cerebellar lobule is not fully understood. Electrophysiological and lesion studies in animals as well as neuroimaging and lesion studies in humans have revealed that vermian lobules VI and VII (declive, folium, and tuber) are critical for controlling postural balance, saccadic eye movements, and coordination...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurology
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