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E V Beliaeva, L V Lapshina, E V Shaposhnikova, A A Molgachev
Dandy-Walker malformation is a rare disease of the central nervous system pathology (congenital malformations of the fossa cranii posterior). The key features of this syndrome are an enlargement of the fourth ventricle; complete absence of the cerebellar vermis, the posterior midline area of cerebellar cortex responsible for coordination of the axial musculature; and cyst formation near the internal base of the skull. Pregnant patients with Dandy-Walker malformation are at high risk and are managed by multidisciplinary teams including neurologists and obstetricians...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Yuan Feng, Yu-Chen Chen, Han Lv, Wenqing Xia, Cun-Nan Mao, Fan Bo, Huiyou Chen, Jin-Jing Xu, Xindao Yin
Purpose : Chronic subjective tinnitus may arise from aberrant functional coupling between the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex. To explore this hypothesis, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to illuminate the functional connectivity network of the cerebellar regions in chronic tinnitus patients and controls. Methods : Resting-state fMRI scans were obtained from 28 chronic tinnitus patients and 29 healthy controls (well matched for age, sex and education) in this study. Cerebellar-cerebral functional connectivity was characterized using a seed-based whole-brain correlation method...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Derek Kellar, Sharlene Newman, Franco Pestilli, Hu Cheng, Nicholas L Port
Objectives: Though sub-concussive impacts are common during contact sports, there is little consensus whether repeat blows affect brain function. Using a "lifetime exposure" rather than acute exposure approach, we examined oculomotor performance and brain activation among collegiate football players and two control groups. Our analysis examined whether there are group differences in eye movement behavioral performance and in brain activation during smooth pursuit. Methods: Data from 21 off-season Division I football "starters" were compared with a) 19 collegiate cross-country runners, and b) 11 non-athlete college students who were SES matched to the football player group (total N  = 51)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
I-Li Tan, Alexandre Wojcinski, Harikrishna Rallapalli, Zhimin Lao, Reeti M Sanghrajka, Daniel Stephen, Eugenia Volkova, Andrey Korshunov, Marc Remke, Michael D Taylor, Daniel H Turnbull, Alexandra L Joyner
The main cell of origin of the Sonic hedgehog (SHH) subgroup of medulloblastoma (MB) is granule cell precursors (GCPs), a SHH-dependent transient amplifying population in the developing cerebellum. SHH-MBs can be further subdivided based on molecular and clinical parameters, as well as location because SHH-MBs occur preferentially in the lateral cerebellum (hemispheres). Our analysis of adult patient data suggests that tumors with Smoothened ( SMO ) mutations form more specifically in the hemispheres than those with Patched 1 ( PTCH1 ) mutations...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Emanuele Giurisato, Qiuping Xu, Silvia Lonardi, Brian Telfer, Ilaria Russo, Adam Pearson, Katherine G Finegan, Wenbin Wang, Jinhua Wang, Nathanael S Gray, William Vermi, Zhengui Xia, Cathy Tournier
Owing to the prevalence of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in cancer and their unique influence upon disease progression and malignancy, macrophage-targeted interventions have attracted notable attention in cancer immunotherapy. However, tractable targets to reduce TAM activities remain very few and far between because the signaling mechanisms underpinning protumor macrophage phenotypes are largely unknown. Here, we have investigated the role of the extracellular-regulated protein kinase 5 (ERK5) as a determinant of macrophage polarity...
March 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Dan Zhao, Ailu Cai, Jun Zhang, Yan Wang, Bing Wang
OBJECTIVES: Fetal cerebellar vermis may be assessed by ultrasound (US) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and median-plane views are best for evaluation. The purpose of this study was to compare measurements of normal fetal vermis at 24-32 weeks of gestation obtained in median plane by transabdominal 2D-US, 3D-US, and MRI. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted, examining normal singleton fetuses between 24 and 32 weeks of gestation. Within a 24-h period, median-plane views of posterior fossa were generated using 2D-US, 3D-US, and MRI...
March 2018: European Journal of Radiology
J M C van Leeuwen, M Vink, G Fernández, E J Hermans, M Joëls, R S Kahn, C H Vinkers
Stress is a major risk factor for almost all psychiatric disorders, however, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain largely elusive. In healthy individuals, a successful stress response involves an adequate neuronal adaptation to a changing environment. This adaptive response may be dysfunctional in vulnerable individuals, potentially contributing to the development of psychopathology. In the current study, we investigated brain responses to emotional stimuli following stress in healthy controls and at-risk individuals...
February 26, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
F H S Michelle Welman, Albertine E Smit, Joost L M Jongen, Dick Tibboel, Jos N van der Geest, Jan C Holstege
Many fMRI studies have shown activity in the cerebellum after peripheral nociceptive stimulation. We investigated whether the areas in the cerebellum that were activated after nociceptive thumb stimulation were separate from those after nociceptive toe stimulation. In an additional experiment, we investigated the same for the anticipation of a nociceptive stimulation on the thumb or toe. For his purpose, we used fMRI after an electrical stimulation of the thumb and toe in 19 adult healthy volunteers. Following nociceptive stimulation, different areas were activated by stimulation on the thumb (lobule VI ipsilaterally and Crus II mainly contralaterally) and toe (lobules VIII-IX and IV-V bilaterally and lobule VI contralaterally), i...
February 26, 2018: Cerebellum
Hupenyu Allan Mupambwa, Pearson Nyari Stephano Mnkeni
Vermicomposting is a bio-oxidative process that involves the action of mainly epigeic earthworm species and different micro-organisms to accelerate the biodegradation and stabilization of organic materials. There has been a growing realization that the process of vermicomposting can be used to greatly improve the fertilizer value of different organic materials, thus, creating an opportunity for their enhanced use as organic fertilizers in agriculture. The link between earthworms and micro-organisms creates a window of opportunity to optimize the vermi-degradation process for effective waste biodegradation, stabilization, and nutrient mineralization...
February 26, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Zoltán Tóth, András Mihály, Adrienne Mátyás, Beáta Krisztin-Péva
The aim of the present study was to examine the role of ionotropic glutamate receptors in the cerebellum during generalized seizures. Epileptic neuronal activation was evaluated through the immunohistochemical detection of c-fos protein in the cerebellar cortex. Generalized seizures were precipitated by the intraperitoneal injection of 4-aminopyridine. The animals were pretreated with the NMDA receptor antagonists MK-801 (2 mg/kg), amantadine (50 mg/kg), and the AMPA receptor antagonist GYKI 52466 hydrochloride (50 mg/kg)...
February 22, 2018: Acta Histochemica
Mitsuhiro Hashimoto, Akihiro Yamanaka, Shigeki Kato, Manabu Tanifuji, Kazuto Kobayashi, Hiroyuki Yaginuma
Cerebellar malformations cause changes to the sleep-wake cycle, resulting in sleep disturbance. However, it is unclear how the cerebellum contributes to the sleep-wake cycle. To examine the neural connections between the cerebellum and the nuclei involved in the sleep-wake cycle, we investigated the axonal projections of Purkinje cells in the mouse posterior vermis by using an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector (serotype rh10) as an anterograde tracer. When an AAV vector expressing humanized renilla green fluorescent protein was injected into the cerebellar lobule IX, hrGFP and synaptophysin double-positive axonal terminals were observed in the region of medial parabrachial nucleus (MPB)...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Shahad Bawazeer, Maha Alshalan, Aziza Alkhaldi, Nasser AlAtwi, Mohammed AlBalwi, Abdulrahman Alswaid, Majid Alfadhel
Tetrasomy 18p syndrome (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man 614290) is a very rare chromosomal disorder that is caused by the presence of isochromosome 18p, which is a supernumerary marker composed of two copies of the p arm of chromosome 18. Most tetrasomy 18p cases are de novo cases; however, familial cases have also been reported. It is characterized mainly by developmental delays, cognitive impairment, hypotonia, typical dysmorphic features, and other anomalies. Herein, we report de novo tetrasomy 18p in a 9-month-old boy with dysmorphic features, microcephaly, growth delay, hypotonia, and cerebellar and renal malformations...
2018: Application of Clinical Genetics
Louise Kollander Jakobsen, Jacob Madsen, Maria Terase F Simonsen, Søren Kjærgaard
A six-month-old boy fell over, and a crochet hook penetrated his skin underneath his left eye. The hook was removed, and an emergency physician found a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 6-7. A CT scan showed no cerebral or ophthalmic injury. However, the patient was persistently apathic with head- and gaze direction towards the left and a facial nerve palsy. An MRI showed a linear intracerebral lesion stretching through pons into the cerebellar vermis. The patient had neuropaediatric rehabilitation and recovered fully within months...
February 12, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Daniela Aschieri, Diego Penela, Valentina Pelizzoni, Federico Guerra, Anna Chiara Vermi, Luca Rossi, Lucia Torretta, Giulia Losi, Giovanni Quinto Villani, Alessandro Capucci
OBJECTIVE: Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is a rare but tragic event during amateur sports activities. Our aim is to analyse whether availability of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) in amateur sports centres could impact on SCA survival. METHODS: This is an observational study. During an 18-year period, data regarding exercise-related SCA in sports centres were prospectively collected. Survival rates and time to response were compared between centres with an AED already available and centres where an AED was not already present...
February 20, 2018: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
Michela Lupo, Giusy Olivito, Libera Siciliano, Marcella Masciullo, Marco Bozzali, Marco Molinari, Maria Leggio
Cerebellar dysfunction plays a critical role in neurodevelopmental disorders with long-term behavioral and neuropsychiatric symptoms. A 43-year-old woman with a cerebellum arteriovenous malformation and history of behavioral dysregulation since childhood is described. After the rupture of the cerebellar malformation in adulthood, her behavior morphed into specific psychiatric symptoms and cognitive deficits occurred. The neuropsychological assessment evidenced impaired performance in attention, visuospatial, memory, and language domains...
February 19, 2018: Cerebellum
Parveen Bhardwaj, Minoo Sharma, Karan Ahluwalia
Joubert syndrome (JS) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder characterized by hypotonia, cerebellar vermis hypoplasia, ocular abnormalities (e.g., pigmentary retinopathy, oculomotor apraxia, and nystagmus), renal cysts, and hepatic fibrosis. Respiratory abnormalities, as apnea and hyperpnea, may be present, as well as mental retardation. Since the clinical findings of JS are quite heterogeneous, determination of radiological findings is essential.
January 2018: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
S Hossein Fatemi, Dean F Wong, James R Brašić, Hiroto Kuwabara, Anil Mathur, Timothy D Folsom, Suma Jacob, George M Realmuto, José V Pardo, Susanne Lee
Background: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is first manifested during early childhood. Postmortem experiments have identified significantly elevated expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) in cerebellar vermis and prefrontal cortex of individuals with autism. Methods: In the current study we employed the mGluR5 tracer [18 F]-3-fluoro-5-[(pyridin-3-yl)ethynyl]benzonitrile ([18 F]-FPEB) to quantify mGluR5 binding in vivo in adults with autism vs...
2018: Cerebellum & Ataxias
Sakiko Itaya, Zen Kobayashi, Kokoro Ozaki, Nozomu Sato, Yoshiyuki Numasawa, Kinya Ishikawa, Takanori Yokota, Hiroshi Matsuda, Shuzo Shintani
A 58-year-old man consulted our hospital due to a 2-year history of dysarthria and a 1-month history of blepharospasm. In addition to the ataxic dysarthria and blepharospasm, a neurological examination demonstrated slight ataxia of the trunk and lower limbs. Brain MRI demonstrated atrophy of the upper portion of the cerebellar vermis. Gene analysis established a diagnosis of spinocerebellar ataxia type 31 (SCA31). SPECT with the three-dimensional stereotaxic ROI template (3DSRT) software program demonstrated hyperperfusion in the lenticular nucleus and thalamus...
February 9, 2018: Internal Medicine
Xiaofei Du, Christopher Manuel Gomez
Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) type 6 is an autosomal dominant disease affecting cerebellar degeneration. Clinically, it is characterized by pure cerebellar dysfunction, slowly progressive unsteadiness of gait and stance, slurred speech, and abnormal eye movements with late onset. Pathological findings of SCA6 include a diffuse loss of Purkinje cells, predominantly in the cerebellar vermis. Genetically, SCA6 is caused by expansion of a trinucleotide CAG repeat in the last exon of longest isoform CACNA1A gene on chromosome 19p13...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
James A Balogun, Nurudeen A Adeleke, Ayodeji O Salami, Timothy O Odebode
INTRODUCTION: Epidermoid tumors are rare benign slow growing congenital tumours, most frequently located in the cerebellopontine angle of the intracranial cavity. They usually assume large sizes before patients become symptomatic. Though amenable to surgery, their adherence to neurovascular structures poses a surgical challenge that results in subtotal resection thus increasing the risk of recurrence. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report two adult patients whose imaging studies revealed epidermoid tumors located in the cerebellar vermis; an uncommon site for such tumors...
January 30, 2018: World Neurosurgery
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