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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328116/brain-morphology-in-children-with-nevoid-basal-cell-carcinoma-syndrome
#1
Tadashi Shiohama, Katsunori Fujii, Toshiyuki Miyashita, Hiromi Mizuochi, Hideki Uchikawa, Naoki Shimojo
Brain morphology is tightly regulated by diverse signaling pathways. Hedgehog signaling is a candidate pathway considered responsible for regulating brain morphology. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), caused by a PTCH1 mutation in the hedgehog signaling pathway, occasionally exhibits macrocephaly and medulloblastoma. Although cerebellar enlargement occurs in ptch1 heterozygous-deficient mice, its impact on human brain development remains unknown. We investigated the brain morphological characteristics of children with NBCCS...
April 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320199/comparison-of-imaging-using-11-c-itmm-and-18-f-fdg-for-the-detection-of-cerebellar-ataxia
#2
Kenji Ishibashi, Yoshiharu Miura, Jun Toyohara, Kenji Ishii, Kiichi Ishiwata
Objective Newly developed methods for imaging type 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1) have the potential use for estimating cerebellar function. We aimed to compare mGluR1 imaging using N-[4-[6-(isopropylamino)pyrimidin-4-yl]-1,3-thiazol-2-yl]-4-(11)C-methoxy-N-methylbenzamide ((11)C-ITMM) with the existing marker, fluorine-18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) imaging, in the cerebellum. METHODS: Fourteen subjects consisting of 12 patients with cerebellar ataxia and two healthy subjects underwent (11)C-ITMM and (18)F-FDG positron emission tomography...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319687/effects-of-subclinical-depression-anxiety-and-somatization-on-brain-structure-in-healthy-subjects
#3
Bianca Besteher, Christian Gaser, Kerstin Langbein, Maren Dietzek, Heinrich Sauer, Igor Nenadić
BACKGROUND: Dimensional approaches in highly prevalent psychiatric disorders like depression or anxiety could lead to a better understanding of pathogenesis and advantages in early detection and prevention. In an effort to better understand associations of brain structural variation across the depression/anxiety spectra, we investigated minor subclinical symptoms in a non-clinical healthy population. METHODS: We studied 177 healthy subjects from the community, who underwent high-resolution T1-weighted 3T MRI and completed the symptom-checklist-90 (SCL-90-R)...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319124/different-subregional-metabolism-patterns-in-patients-with-cerebellar-ataxia-by-18f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography
#4
Minyoung Oh, Jae Seung Kim, Jungsu S Oh, Chong Sik Lee, Sun Ju Chung
We evaluated cerebellar subregional metabolic alterations in patients with cerebellar ataxia, a representative disease involving the spinocerebellum. We retrospectively analyzed 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) images in 44 patients with multiple system atrophy of the cerebellar type (MSA-C), 9 patients with spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) type 2, and 14 patients with SCA type 6 and compared with 15 patients with crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) and 89 normal controls. Cerebellar subregional metabolism was assessed using 13 cerebellar subregions (bilateral anterior lobes [ANT], superior/mid/inferior posterior lobes [SUPP/MIDP/INFP], dentate nucleus [DN], anterior vermis [ANTV], and superior/inferior posterior vermis [SUPV/INFV]) to determine FDG uptake ratios...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304238/remote-motor-system-metabolic-profile-and-surgery-outcome-in-cervical-spondylotic-myelopathy
#5
Sorin C Craciunas, Mircea R Gorgan, Bogdan Ianosi, Phil Lee, Joseph Burris, Carmen M Cirstea
OBJECTIVE In patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM), the motor system may undergo progressive functional/structural changes rostral to the lesion, and these changes may be associated with clinical disability. The extent to which these changes have a prognostic value in the clinical recovery after surgical treatment is not yet known. In this study, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to test 2 primary hypotheses. 1) Based on evidence of corticospinal and spinocerebellar, rubro-, or reticulospinal tract degeneration/dysfunction during chronic spinal cord compression, the authors hypothesized that the metabolic profile of the primary motor cortices (M1s) and cerebellum, respectively, would be altered in patients with CSM, and these alterations would be associated with the extent of the neurological disabilities...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303385/after-effects-of-cerebellar-continuous-theta-burst-stimulation-on-reflexive-saccades-and-smooth-pursuit-in-humans
#6
Silvia Colnaghi, P Colagiorgio, S Ramat, E D'Angelo, G Koch, M Versino
The use of cerebellar repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation has been attempted for perturbing reflexive and voluntary eye movements, but discrepancies are seen between the results of distinct studies possibly due to the different stimulation sites, intensities, and paradigms. We describe the after effects of 20 and 40 s continuous Theta Burst Stimulation (cTBS) as compared to sham stimulation, applied over the lateral cerebellar vermis and paravermis on Reflexive Saccades (RS) and Smooth Pursuit (SP) eye movements, recorded in the 30 min following stimulation...
March 16, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298967/magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-the-assessment-of-brain-involvement-in-alcoholic-and-nonalcoholic-wernicke-s-encephalopathy
#7
Gianvincenzo Sparacia, Andrea Anastasi, Claudia Speciale, Francesco Agnello, Aurelia Banco
AIM: To present the typical and atypical magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of alcoholic and non-alcoholic Wernicke's encephalopathy. METHODS: This study included 7 patients with Wernicke's encephalopathy (2 men, 5 women; mean age, 52.3 years) that underwent brain MR examination between January 2012 and March 2016 in a single institution. Three patients were alcoholics and 4 patients were non-alcoholics. MR protocol included a T2-weighted sequence, a fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence, a diffusion-weighted sequence (b = 0 and 1000 s/mm(2)), and a contrast-enhanced MR sequence...
February 28, 2017: World Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293179/disynaptic-subthalamic-input-to-the-posterior-cerebellum-in-rat
#8
Saad Jwair, Patrice Coulon, Tom J H Ruigrok
In the last decade, the interplay between basal ganglia and cerebellar functions has been increasingly advocated to explain their joint operation in both normal and pathological conditions. Yet, insight into the neuroanatomical basis of this interplay between both subcortical structures remains sparse and is mainly derived from work in primates. Here, in rodents, we have studied the existence of a potential disynaptic connection between the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the cerebellar cortex as has been demonstrated earlier for the primate...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288540/brainstem-vermis-and-brainstem-tentorium-angles-3d-ultrasound-study-of-the-intra-and-inter-observer-agreement
#9
Tamara Illescas, Pilar Martínez-Ten, Carmina Bermejo, María Estévez, Begoña Adiego
OBJECTIVE: The brainstem-vermis angle (BVA) and the brainstem-tentorium angle (BTA) have been proposed to quantify vermian and tentorial alterations associated to fetal posterior fossa malformations. Our objective is to evaluate the intra- and inter-observer agreement for the measurement of these angles during the prenatal ultrasound scan. METHODS: Fifteen 3D sets from fetuses with posterior fossa pathology were processed by multiplanar navigation. Four experts in prenatal ultrasound measured the BVA and the BTA on a mid-sagittal view of the fetal brain, following the criteria described by Volpe(1)...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283722/fanconi-anemia-correlating-central-nervous-system-malformations-and-genetic-complementation-groups
#10
Benjamin A Johnson-Tesch, Rakhee S Gawande, Lei Zhang, Margaret L MacMillan, David R Nascene
BACKGROUND: Congenital central nervous system abnormalities in children with Fanconi anemia are poorly characterized, especially with regard to specific genetic complementation groups. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the impact of genetic complementation groups on central nervous system anatomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Through chart review we identified 36 patients with Fanconi anemia with available brain MRIs at the University of Minnesota (average age, 11...
March 10, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263982/morphological-characterization-of-the-african-giant-rat-cricetomys-gambianus-waterhouse-brain-across-age-groups-gross-features-of-cortices
#11
M A Olude, O A Mustapha, J O Olopade
This experiment was designed to investigate the morphological characterization of the brain cortices of African giant rats, AGR (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse) across age groups as related to function. A total of 15 male AGR were used for this study comprising of 5 neonates, 5 juveniles and 5 adults. Brains were described as having typical rodent features; the falx cerebri, the dura modification of interest, was partly inserted between the lobes of the olfactory bulb and extended towards the corpus callosum...
March 6, 2017: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262849/morphological-characterization-of-the-african-giant-rat-cricetomys-gambianus-waterhouse-brain-across-age-groups-gross-features-of-cortices
#12
COMPARATIVE STUDY
M A Olude, O A Mustapha, J K Olopade
This experiment was designed to investigate the morphological characterization of the brain cortices of African giant rats, AGR (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse) across age groups as related to function. A total of 15 male AGR were used for this study comprising of 5 neonates, 5 juveniles and 5 adults. Brains were described as having typical rodent features; the falx cerebri, the dura modification of interest, was partly inserted between the lobes of the olfactory bulb and extended towards the corpus callosum...
March 6, 2017: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261086/crossed-cerebellar-atrophy-of-the-lateral-cerebellar-nucleus-in-an-endothelin-1-induced-rodent-model-of-ischemic-stroke
#13
Hugh H Chan, Jessica L Cooperrider, Hyun-Joo Park, Connor A Wathen, John T Gale, Kenneth B Baker, Andre G Machado
Crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) is a functional deficit of the cerebellar hemisphere resulting from loss of afferent input consequent to a lesion of the contralateral cerebral hemisphere. It is manifested as a reduction of metabolism and blood flow and, depending on severity and duration, it can result in atrophy, a phenomenon known as crossed cerebellar atrophy (CCA). While CCA has been well-demonstrated in humans, it remains poorly characterized in animal models of stroke. In this study we evaluated the effects of cerebral cortical ischemia on contralateral cerebellar anatomy using an established rodent model of chronic stroke...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248867/structural-and-functional-brain-changes-in-early-and-mid-stage-primary-open-angle-glaucoma-using-voxel-based-morphometry-and-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#14
Ming-Ming Jiang, Qing Zhou, Xiao-Yong Liu, Chang-Zheng Shi, Jian Chen, Xiang-He Huang
To investigate structural and functional brain changes in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) by using voxel-based morphometry based on diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated Lie algebra (VBM-DARTEL) and blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI), respectively.Thirteen patients diagnosed with POAG and 13 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in the study. For each participant, high-resolution structural brain imaging and blood flow imaging were acquired on a 3...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229931/modulation-of-the-sensorimotor-system-by-sustained-manual-pressure-stimulation
#15
Pavel Hok, Jaroslav Opavský, Miroslav Kutín, Zbyněk Tüdös, Petr Kaňovský, Petr Hluštík
In Vojta physiotherapy, also known as reflex locomotion therapy, prolonged peripheral pressure stimulation induces complex generalized involuntary motor responses and modifies subsequent behavior, but its neurobiological basis remains unknown. We hypothesized that the stimulation would induce sensorimotor activation changes in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during sequential finger opposition. Thirty healthy volunteers (mean age 24.2) underwent two randomized fMRI sessions involving manual pressure stimulation applied either at the right lateral heel according to Vojta, or at the right lateral ankle (control site)...
February 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210520/synchronous-aberrant-cerebellar-and-opercular-development-in-fetuses-and-neonates-with-congenital-heart-disease-correlation-with-early-communicative-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-initial-experience
#16
A Wong, T Chavez, S O'Neil, J Votava-Smith, D Miller, S delCastillo, A Panigrahy, L Paquette
Patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) demonstrate multidomain cognitive delays. Cingulo-opercular and cerebellar brain networks are critical to language functions. This is a description of our initial experience aiming to identify an anatomic correlate for CHD patients with expressive language delays. Fetal CHD patients, prospectively enrolled, underwent serial fetal (1.5T), postnatal pre- and postoperative (3T) MRI. Non-CHD patients were enrolled retrospectively from the same epoch. Comparable fetal and neonatal T2 contrast was used for manual linear cross-sectional measurement...
January 2017: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202853/structures-showing-negative-correlations-of-signal-intensity-with-postnatal-age-on-t1-weighted-imaging-of-the-brain-of-newborns-and-infants
#17
Saeka Hori, Toshiaki Taoka, Tomoko Ochi, Toshiteru Miyasaka, Masahiko Sakamoto, Katsutoshi Takayama, Takeshi Wada, Kaoru Myochin, Yukihiro Takahashi, Kimihiko Kichikawa
PURPOSE: Although the neonatal and infantile brain typically shows sequential T1 shortening according to gestational age as a result of myelination, several structures do not follow this rule. We evaluated the relationship between the signal intensity of various structures in the neonatal and infantile brain on T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) and either postnatal or gestational age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined magnetic resonance images from 120 newborns and infants without any abnormalities in the central nervous system...
February 16, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196488/application-of-fluorescein-sodium-in-the-resection-of-vermis-pilocytic-astrocytomas
#18
Ji Zhang, Fuad Al-Nahari, Zi-Feng Wang, Fu-Hua Lin, Yi-Yin Zhao, Shi-Yin Xiao, Jian-Min Liu, Chao Ke, Zheng-He Chen, Yu Jiang, Men Yang, Ke Sai, Jian Wang, Yong-Gao Mou
BACKGROUND: Pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are slow growing neoplasms and usually located at the cerebellum. There has been certainty regarding the truthful benefit of surgical resection for patients with PA. Gross total resection (GTR) of PAs, especially those being situated in deep regions, remains a surgical challenge. Generally, they are considered as benign and usually develop in young patients. PAs, belonging to WHO I can be cured by radical resection. The patients with PA have excellent prognosis if complete resection can be conducted...
February 14, 2017: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192784/extra-axial-cerebellopontine-angle-medulloblastoma-in-an-infant
#19
Mukesh Kumar Bhaskar, Manish Jaiswal, Bal Krishna Ojha, Sunil Kumar Singh, Anil Chandra, Mukta Meel, Mohd Faheem
Medulloblastoma is a common tumor of the posterior fossa, representing 20-25% of all pediatric neoplasms. It commonly occurs in the midline (cerebellar vermis) and rarely at the cerebellopontine angle. Most of them are intra-axial, and an extra-axial location of this tumor is very rare. Extra-axial cerebellopontine angle medulloblastoma is extremely uncommon and has never been reported in an infant. We report an extra-axial cerebellopontine angle medulloblastoma in a 1-year-old child.
2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183840/imaging-characteristics-of-pediatric-diffuse-midline-gliomas-with-histone-h3-k27m-mutation
#20
M S Aboian, D A Solomon, E Felton, M C Mabray, J E Villanueva-Meyer, S Mueller, S Cha
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System includes "diffuse midline glioma with histone H3 K27M mutation" as a new diagnostic entity. We describe the MR imaging characteristics of this new tumor entity in pediatric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed imaging features of pediatric patients with midline gliomas with or without the histone H3 K27 mutation. We evaluated the imaging features of these tumors on the basis of location, enhancement pattern, and necrosis...
February 9, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
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