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aminopeptidase lepidoptera receptor bacillus thuringiensis

Tiantao Zhang, Brad S Coates, Yueqin Wang, Yidong Wang, Shuxiong Bai, Zhenying Wang, Kanglai He
The Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a highly destructive pest of cultivated maize throughout East Asia. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystalline protein (Cry) toxins cause mortality by a mechanism involving pore formation or signal transduction following toxin binding to receptors along the midgut lumen of susceptible insects, but this mechanism and mutations therein that lead to resistance are not fully understood. In the current study, quantitative comparisons were made among midgut expressed transcripts from O...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Anne Bretschneider, David G Heckel, Yannick Pauchet
Insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are highly active against Lepidoptera. However, field-evolved resistance to Bt toxins is on the rise. The 12-cadherin domain protein HevCaLP and the ABC transporter HevABCC2 are both genetically linked to Cry toxin resistance in Heliothis virescens. We investigated their interaction using stably expressing non-lytic clonal Sf9 cell lines expressing either protein or both together. Untransfected Sf9 cells are innately sensitive to Cry1Ca toxin, but not to Cry1A toxins; and quantitative PCR revealed negligible expression of genes involved in Cry1A toxicity such as cadherin, ABCC2, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aminopeptidase N (APN)...
September 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Ping Lin, Tingcai Cheng, Shengkai Jin, Liang Jiang, Chen Wang, Qingyou Xia
Aminopeptidases N (APNs), the receptors of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin in the lepidopteran midgut, are involved in the Bt pathogen infection mechanism. In the present work, we screened 102 APNs from SilkDB, ButterflyBase and MonarchBase; 16 APNs were identified from the silkworm (Bombyx mori) and 24 from the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus). Syntenic and phylogenetic tree analysis showed that APN genes have developed multi-family genes before evolutionary divergence of the Lepidoptera. The tissue-expression pattern shows some BmAPNs are specifically or highly expressed in the midgut...
February 10, 2014: Gene
Sek Yee Tan, Bonifacio F Cayabyab, Edwin P Alcantara, Fangneng Huang, Kanglai He, Kenneth W Nickerson, Blair D Siegfried
The European (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner) and Asian corn borers (Ostrinia furnacalis Guenée) are closely related and display similar sensitivity to Cry1 toxins. In this study, we compared the binding patterns of Cry1Ab and Cry1F toxins between both Ostrinia spp., as well as the expression of putative cadherin- and aminopeptidase-N (APN)-like protein receptors. Additionally, cDNA sequences of these putative toxin receptors from both Ostrinia species were compared. Ligand blots for both species indicated a similar binding pattern for Cry1Ab with the strongest immunoreactive band at 260 kDa in both species...
November 2013: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Cristina M Crava, Yolanda Bel, Agata K Jakubowska, Juan Ferré, Baltasar Escriche
Aminopeptidase N (APN) isoforms from Lepidoptera are known for their involvement in the mode of action of insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis. These enzymes belong to a protein family with at least eight different members that are expressed simultaneously in the midgut of lepidopteran larvae. Here, we focus on the characterization of the APNs from Ostrinia nubilalis (OnAPNs) to identify potential Cry receptors. We expressed OnAPNs in insect cells using a baculovirus system and analyzed their enzymatic activity by probing substrate specificity and inhibitor susceptibility...
October 2013: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Estefanía Contreras, Michael Schoppmeier, M Dolores Real, Carolina Rausell
Understanding how Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins interact with proteins in the midgut of susceptible coleopteran insects is crucial to fully explain the molecular bases of Bt specificity and insecticidal action. In this work, aminopeptidase N (TcAPN-I), E-cadherin (TcCad1), and sodium solute symporter (TcSSS) have been identified by ligand blot as putative Cry3Ba toxin-binding proteins in Tribolium castaneum (Tc) larvae. RNA interference knockdown of TcCad1 or TcSSS proteins resulted in decreased susceptibility to Cry3Ba toxin, demonstrating the Cry toxin receptor functionality for these proteins...
June 21, 2013: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Guillaume Tetreau, Krishnareddy Bayyareddy, Christopher M Jones, Renaud Stalinski, Muhammad A Riaz, Margot Paris, Jean-Philippe David, Michael J Adang, Laurence Després
BACKGROUND: Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) is a natural larval mosquito pathogen producing pore-forming toxins targeting the midgut of Diptera larvae. It is used worldwide for mosquito control. Resistance mechanisms of an Aedes aegypti laboratory strain selected for 30 generations with field-collected leaf litter containing Bti toxins were investigated in larval midguts at two levels: 1. gene transcription using DNA microarray and RT-qPCR and 2. differential expression of brush border membrane proteins using DIGE (Differential In Gel Electrophoresis)...
2012: BMC Genomics
Silvia Caccia, William J Moar, Jayadevi Chandrashekhar, Cris Oppert, Konasale J Anilkumar, Juan Luis Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Ferré
Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin was characterized in a population of Helicoverpa zea larvae previously shown not to have an alteration in toxin binding as the primary resistance mechanism to this toxin. Cry1Ac-selected larvae (AR1) were resistant to protoxins and toxins of Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and the corresponding modified proteins lacking helix α-1 (Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod). When comparing brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) prepared from susceptible (LC) and AR1 larval midguts, there were only negligible differences in overall Cry1Ac toxin binding, though AR1 had 18% reversible binding, in contrast to LC, in which all binding was irreversible...
August 2012: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Xin Zhang, Kasorn Tiewsiri, Wendy Kain, Lihua Huang, Ping Wang
Alteration of binding sites for Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins in insect midgut is the major mechanism of high-level resistance to Bt toxins in insects. The midgut cadherin is known to be a major binding protein for Bt Cry1A toxins and linkage of Bt-resistance to cadherin gene mutations has been identified in lepidopterans. The resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac evolved in greenhouse populations of Trichoplusia ni has been identified to be associated with the down-regulation of an aminopeptidase N (APN1) gene by a trans-regulatory mechanism and the resistance gene has been mapped to the locus of an ABC transporter (ABCC2) gene...
2012: PloS One
Brad S Coates, Douglas V Sumerford, Miriam D Lopez, Haichuan Wang, Lisa M Fraser, Jeremy A Kroemer, Terrence Spencer, Kyung S Kim, Craig A Abel, Richard L Hellmich, Blair D Siegfried
The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an introduced crop pest in North America that causes major damage to corn and reduces yield of food, feed, and biofuel materials. The Cry1F toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) expressed in transgenic hybrid corn is highly toxic to O. nubilalis larvae and effective in minimizing feeding damage. A laboratory colony of O. nubilalis was selected for high levels of Cry1F resistance (>12,000-fold compared to susceptible larvae) and is capable of survival on transgenic hybrid corn...
August 2011: Genetica
Santosh K Upadhyay, Pradhyumna K Singh
Cry1Ac δ-endotoxin produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is used as a bio-pesticide for the control of Helicoverpa armigera. Aminopeptidases N (APN) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) play critical roles in its action against H. armigera larvae. The binding of Cry1Ac with brush border membrane vesicle (BBMV) proteins was increased with the larval development although the sensitivity of larvae to δ-endotoxins decreased. There was higher expression of ALP than APN in early instar larvae with a ~10-fold higher affinity of Cry1Ac towards ALP than to APN...
October 2011: Biotechnology Letters
Yunlong Yang, Yu Cheng Zhu, James Ottea, Claudia Husseneder, B Rogers Leonard, Craig Abel, Fangneng Huang
Aminopeptidase N (APN) proteins located at the midgut epithelium of some lepidopteran species have been implicated as receptors for insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis. cDNAs of three APN isoforms, DsAPN1, DsAPN2, and DsAPN3, from Cry1Ab-susceptible (Cry1Ab-SS) and -resistant (Cry1Ab-RR) strains of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), were identified and sequenced using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and 5' rapid amplification of cDNA end (5' RACE)...
August 2010: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Purushottam R Lomate, Vandana K Hivrale
We report the partial purification to apparent homogeneity of a soluble aminopeptidase (EC from midgut of Helicoverpa armigera larvae, which preferentially degraded Leucine p-nitroanilide (LpNA). After midgut isolation, extraction and precipitation of soluble proteins with acetone, proteins were purified in two consecutive steps including gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatographies. Aminopeptidase activity was increased 8.95 fold after gel filtration chromatography. The purified enzyme appeared as single band with a molecular mass of approximately 112 kDa in SDS-PAGE, with a pH optimum of 7...
February 2010: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Gang Hua, Rui Zhang, Krishnareddy Bayyareddy, Michael J Adang
Alkaline phosphatases (ALPs, EC isolated from lepidopteran and dipteran species are identified as receptors for Cry1Ac and Cry11Aa toxins, respectively [Jurat-Fuentes, J. L., and Adang, M. J. (2004) Eur. J. Biochem. 7, 3127-3135; Fernandez, L. E., et al. (2006) Biochem. J. 396, 77-84]. In our study, an alkaline phosphatase cDNA (AgALP1) was cloned from the midgut of Anopheles gambiae larvae. The encoded 63 kDa protein has a predicted glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor omega-site ((526)Asp), an N-glycosylation site ((239)Asn-Leu-Thr), and an O-glycosylation site ((312)Ser)...
October 20, 2009: Biochemistry
Chitvan Khajuria, Yu Cheng Zhu, Ming-Shun Chen, Lawrent L Buschman, Randall A Higgins, Jianxiu Yao, Andre Lb Crespo, Blair D Siegfried, Subbaratnam Muthukrishnan, Kun Yan Zhu
BACKGROUND: Lepidoptera represents more than 160,000 insect species which include some of the most devastating pests of crops, forests, and stored products. However, the genomic information on lepidopteran insects is very limited. Only a few studies have focused on developing expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries from the guts of lepidopteran larvae. Knowledge of the genes that are expressed in the insect gut are crucial for understanding basic physiology of food digestion, their interactions with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins, and for discovering new targets for novel toxins for use in pest management...
2009: BMC Genomics
Simon W Baxter, Jian-Zhou Zhao, Anthony M Shelton, Heiko Vogel, David G Heckel
A major mechanism of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins in Lepidoptera is a reduction of toxin binding to sites in the midgut membrane. Genetic studies of three different species have shown that mutations in a candidate Bt receptor, a 12-cadherin-domain protein, confer Cry1A toxin resistance. Despite a similar resistance profile in a fourth lepidopteran species, Plutella xylostella, we have previously shown that the cadherin orthologue maps to a different linkage group (LG8) than Cry1Ac resistance (LG22)...
February 2008: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
M Sales Ibiza-Palacios, Juan Ferré, Satoshi Higurashi, Kazuhisa Miyamoto, Ryoichi Sato, Baltasar Escriche
Binding analyses with denatured epithelial membrane proteins from Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) demonstrated at least two kinds of proteins, APNs (aminopeptidases N) and cadherin-like proteins, as possible receptors for the Cry1A class of Bt toxins. Two alternative models have been proposed, both based on initial toxin binding to a cadherin-like protein, but one involving APN and the other not. We have used two Bombyx mori strains (J65 and Kin), which are highly susceptible to Cry1Ab, to study the role of these two types of receptors on Cry1Ab toxin binding and cytotoxicity by means of the inhibitory effect of antibodies...
January 1, 2008: Biochemical Journal
Swaminathan Sivakumar, Raman Rajagopal, G Raja Venkatesh, Anand Srivastava, Raj K Bhatnagar
Aminopeptidase-N (APN) and cadherin proteins located at the midgut epithelium of Helicoverpa armigera have been implicated as receptors for the Cry1A subfamily of insecticidal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis. Ligand blot analysis with heterologously expressed and purified H. armigera Bt receptor with three closely related Cry1A proteins tentatively identified HaAPN1 as an interacting ligand. However, to date there is no direct evidence of APN being a functional receptor to Cry1Ac in H. armigera. Sf21 insect cells expressing HaAPN1 displayed aberrant cell morphology upon overlaying with Cry1Ac protein...
March 9, 2007: Journal of Biological Chemistry
S S Ingle, N Trivedi, R Prasad, J Kuruvilla, K K Rao, H S Chhatpar
Brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) were prepared from the 2nd instar larvae of Helicoverpa armigera. Binding of the activated Cry1Ac of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin was shown by immunoblot. A 120-kDa protein was identified as a receptor for the Cry1Ac type delta-endotoxin. The aminopeptidase-N activity of BBMVs was measured as the hydrolysis of L-leucine p-nitroanilide. The specific activity was 35 units/mg protein. The BBMV preparation also showed low level of alkaline phosphatase activity. Zn++ chelating agents 2,2'-dipyridyl and 1,10-phenanthroline inhibited aminopeptidase activity at 10 mM concentration, indicating the presence of zinc-dependent aminopeptidase in the brush border of H...
October 2001: Current Microbiology
M K Lee, J L Jenkins, T H You, A Curtiss, J J Son, M J Adang, D H Dean
The functional role of the alpha8 loop residues in domain II of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin was examined. Alanine substitution mutations were introduced in the residues from 275 to 293. Among the mutant toxins, substitutions at R281 and R289 affected toxicity to Manduca sexta and Lymantria dispar. Loss of toxicity by these mutant toxins was well correlated with reductions in binding affinity for brush border membrane vesicles and the purified receptor, aminopeptidase N (APN), from both insects. These data suggest that the two arginine residues in the alpha8 loop region are important in toxicity and APN binding in L...
May 25, 2001: FEBS Letters
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