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Autoimmune blood disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780793/an-exponential-regression-model-reveals-the-continuous-development-of-b-cell-subpopulations-used-as-reference-values-in-children
#1
Christoph Königs, Stephan Schultze-Strasser, Andrea Quaiser, Konrad Bochennek, Dirk Schwabe, Thomas E Klingebiel, Ulrike Koehl, Claudia Cappel, Udo Rolle, Peter Bader, Melanie Bremm, Sabine Huenecke, Shahrzad Bakhtiar
B lymphocytes are key players in humoral immunity, expressing diverse surface immunoglobulin receptors directed against specific antigenic epitopes. The development and profile of distinct subpopulations have gained awareness in the setting of primary immunodeficiency disorders, primary or secondary autoimmunity and as therapeutic targets of specific antibodies in various diseases. The major B cell subpopulations in peripheral blood include naïve (CD19+ or CD20+ IgD+ CD27- ), non-switched memory (CD19+ or CD20+ IgD+ CD27+ ) and switched memory B cells (CD19+ or CD20+ IgD- CD27+ )...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773681/decreased-expression-of-circulating-aire-and-increased-tfh-tfr-cells-in-myasthenia-gravis-patients
#2
Sijia Zhao, Jiaqi Ding, Shengyuan Wang, Chuan Li, Peng Guo, Min Zhang, Zhuyi Li
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a rare prototypical autoimmune disorder caused by antibodies (Ab) against postsynaptic membrane proteins. Most reports have investigated the role of Autoimmune regulator gene (Aire) in thymic tissue in machianism of MG initiation. So far, the expression of Aire in human peripheral blood cells(we call it circulating Aire expression in the following passage) has not been reported. Herein, we explore the expression of Aire in peripharal blood, circulating T follicular helper (cTfh) and T follicular regulatory (cTfr) cells in MG patients...
May 17, 2018: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773357/acute-transverse-myelitis-following-an-opsoclonus-myoclonus-syndrome-an-unusual-presentation
#3
Thomas Simon, Emmanuel Cheuret, Léa Fiedler, Catherine Mengelle, Eloïse Baudou, Kumaran Deiva
Opso-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a very rare and severe condition. Ataxia, opsoclonus, myoclonus and/or behavioral and sleeping disturbances define that autoimmune disorder syndrome which is paraneoplastic or triggered by an infection. Here, we report a 3 year-old immunocompetent boy who developed an atypical OMS which was later complicated by an acute transverse myelitis. Screening for neuroblastoma was negative and extensive infectious screening revealed an active HHV-6 infection confirmed by blood and cerebrospinal fluid PCR...
May 8, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771386/immunotherapy-in-cns-cancers-the-role-of-immune-cell-trafficking
#4
Nivedita M Ratnam, Mark R Gilbert, Amber J Giles
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly malignant CNS tumor with very poor survival despite intervention with conventional therapeutic strategies. Although the CNS is separated from the immune system by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB), emerging evidence of immune surveillance and the selective infiltration of GBMs by immune suppressive cells indicates that there is breakdown or compromise of these physical barriers. This in turn offers hope that immunotherapy can be applied to specifically target and reduce tumor burden...
May 15, 2018: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770221/risperidone-induced-type-2-diabetes-presenting-with-diabetic-ketoacidosis
#5
Clarissa Ern Hui Fang, Mohammed Faraz Rafey, Aine Cunningham, Sean F Dinneen, Francis M Finucane
A 28-year-old male presented with 2 days of vomiting and abdominal pain, preceded by 2 weeks of thirst, polyuria and polydipsia. He had recently started risperidone for obsessive-compulsive disorder. He reported a high dietary sugar intake and had a strong family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). On admission, he was tachycardic, tachypnoeic and drowsy with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of 10/15. We noted axillary acanthosis nigricans and obesity (BMI 33.2 kg/m2 ). Dipstick urinalysis showed ketonuria and glycosuria...
2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767269/-igg4-associated-cholangitis-clinical-presentation-of-an-overlooked-disease-entity
#6
REVIEW
T Herta, J Verheij, U Beuers
IgG4-associated cholangitis (IAC) is the hepatobiliary manifestation of immunoglobulin G4-related disease, which is an immune-mediated fibroinflammatory systemic disorder characterised by often elevated IgG4 serum levels and typical histopathological findings in affected tissues. IAC is frequently (>90%) accompanied by autoimmune pancreatitis type 1 (AIP), which is the pancreatic manifestation of immunoglobulin G4-related disease. In 80-85% of the cases patients with IAC are male, above 50 years of age and present with jaundice and weight loss...
May 16, 2018: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766725/-the-prevalence-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-patients-with-autoimmune-thyroiditis-in-hypothyroid-stadium
#7
Štefan Sotak, Ivica Lazúrová, Marek Felšöci, Božena Nováková, Hedviga Wagnerová
INTRODUCTION: Autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2T) are the two most common endocrinological diseases worldwide. The relationship between T1DM and autoimmune thyreopathies is known and described, but the relationship between thyreopathies and diabetes type 2 is not clarified sufficiently through that studies manifest increasingly the connection between them. OBJECTIVE: Investigate the prevalence of DM2T in patients with AIT in hypothyroid stadium and compare with common population and investigate a possible association between thyroid and glucose metabolism parameters...
2018: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740948/astrocytes-an-active-player-in-aicardi-gouti%C3%A3-res-syndrome
#8
Sunetra Sase, Asako Takanohashi, Adeline Vanderver, Akshata Almad
Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) is an early-onset, autoimmune and genetically heterogeneous disorder with severe neurologic injury. Molecular studies have established that autosomal recessive mutations in one of the following genes are causative: TREX1, RNASEH2A, RNASEH2B, RNASEH2C, SAMHD1, ADAR1 and IFIH1/MDA5. The phenotypic presentation and pathophysiology of AGS is associated with over-production of the cytokine Interferon-alpha (IFN-α) and its downstream signaling, characterized as type I interferonopathy...
May 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740711/new-avenues-for-nanoparticle-related-therapies
#9
Michael Zhao, Mingyao Liu
Development of nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems has been attempted for the treatment of cancer over the past decade. The enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect is the major mechanism to passively deliver nanodrugs to tumor tissue. However, a recent systematic review demonstrated limited success of these studies, with the clearance of nanoparticles by the mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS) being a major hurdle. Herein, we propose that nanotechnologists should reconsider their research focuses, aiming for therapeutic targets other than cancer...
May 8, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737302/drug-effect-of-atorvastatin-on-middle-cerebral-atherosclerotic-stenosis-and-high-resolution-nmr-diagnosis
#10
Xingchi Chen, Sainan Wang, Lulu Lin, Yu Li, Hui Zhang
Atherosclerosis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory reaction with the pathological changes in the lipid deposition of arterial intima. The disorder of blood lipid metabolism is the main factor of the occurrence and development of AS, and the inflammatory reaction and autoimmune reaction also run through the development of AS. In this study, we compared the efficacy and safety of atorvastatin, simvastatin, pravastatin and rosuvastatin in the treatment of AS. At the same time, we used high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess the changes in plaque area in the middle cerebral artery and the patch area before and after drug treatment...
May 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735498/diffuse-alveolar-haemorrhage-and-libman-sacks-endocarditis-a-rare-presentation-of-antiphospholipid-syndrome
#11
Brianna Bielski, Nikhil H Shah, Donevan Westerveld, Carolyn Stalvey
A 26-year-old woman with a history of idiopathic thrombocytopaenic purpura and a 1-year history of blood-streaked sputum presented after a severe episode of haemoptysis with dyspnoea. Chest imaging revealed diffuse ground glass and bronchovascular nodules. Bronchoscopy revealed bilateral diffuse alveolar haemorrhage (DAH). Sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage studies were negative for infectious aetiologies. A transthoracic echocardiogram revealed Libman-Sacks endocarditis with severe mitral regurgitation and physical examination revealed retinal artery occlusion and Osler's nodes...
May 7, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735469/drug-effect-of-atorvastatin-on-middle-cerebral-atherosclerotic-stenosis-and-high-resolution-nmr-diagnosis
#12
Xingchi Chen, Sainan Wang, Lulu Lin, Yu Li, Hui Zhang
Atherosclerosis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory reaction with the pathological changes in the lipid deposition of arterial intima. The disorder of blood lipid metabolism is the main factor of the occurrence and development of AS, and the inflammatory reaction and autoimmune reaction also run through the development of AS. In this study, we compared the efficacy and safety of atorvastatin, simvastatin, pravastatin and rosuvastatin in the treatment of AS. At the same time, we used high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess the changes in plaque area in the middle cerebral artery and the patch area before and after drug treatment...
May 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719821/the-physiopathological-role-of-the-exchangers-belonging-to-the-slc37-family
#13
REVIEW
Anna Rita Cappello, Rosita Curcio, Rosamaria Lappano, Marcello Maggiolini, Vincenza Dolce
The human SLC37 gene family includes four proteins SLC37A1-4, localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. They have been grouped into the SLC37 family due to their sequence homology to the bacterial organophosphate/phosphate (Pi) antiporter. SLC37A1-3 are the less characterized isoforms. SLC37A1 and SLC37A2 are Pi-linked glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) antiporters, catalyzing both homologous (Pi/Pi) and heterologous (G6P/Pi) exchanges, whereas SLC37A3 transport properties remain to be clarified. Furthermore, SLC37A1 is highly homologous to the bacterial glycerol 3-phosphate permeases, so it is supposed to transport also glycerol-3-phosphate...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669665/diagnosis-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-chronic-spontaneous-urticaria
#14
Allen P Kaplan
BACKGROUND: Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria (CSU) is an endogenous disorder that is strongly associated with autoimmunity, particularly with immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody to the alpha subunit of the IgE receptor seen in 35-40% of patients. Basophils and cutaneous mast cells can be activated and lead to a late-phase-like perivascular infiltration about small venules and hive formation. METHODS: Review of current literature. RESULTS: Antibody to thyroid antigens are seen in 25% of patients; a small fraction of these may be clinically hypothyroid (Hashimoto's Thyroiditis)...
May 1, 2018: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652311/-inflammatory-factors-and-immunophenotypes-in-adjustment-disorders
#15
T P Klyushnik, V B Nikitina, L V Androsova, T P Vetlugina, S A Zozulya, M M Aksenov, N A Bokhan
AIM: To identify inflammatory and autoimmune markers (enzymatic activity of leukocyte elastase (LE), functional α1-proteinase inhibitor (α1-PI), the level of autoantibodies to neurospecific antigens S100b and myelin basic protein (MBP)) as well as phagocytic activity of blood neutrophils of patients with disorders of adaptation, to determine certain immunophenotypes and analyze their possible relationships with disease characteristics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 40 patients with adaptation disorders, mostly women...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651574/nocturnal-blood-pressure-dipping-is-similar-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients-as-compared-to-a-normal-population
#16
O Turgay Yildirim, E Gonullu, F Aydin, E Aksit, A Huseyinoglu Aydin, E Dagtekin
OBJECTIVE: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune inflammatory disorder which further doubles the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Some studies suggest that in RA patients, the prevalence of hypertension increases due to prednisolone use, clinical status, genetic factors, and physical inactivity. On the other hand, dipper and non-dipper status in RA patients compared to non-RA subjects has not been investigated to our knowledge. Purpose of the study is to investigate whether non-dipper status is more deteriorated in RA patients...
April 12, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648618/inflammation-in-schizophrenia-pathogenetic-aspects-and-therapeutic-considerations
#17
Norbert Müller
This paper discusses the current evidence from animal and human studies for a central role of inflammation in schizophrenia. In animal models, pre- or perinatal elicitation of the immune response may increase immune reactivity throughout life, and similar findings have been described in humans. Levels of pro-inflammatory markers, such as cytokines, have been found to be increased in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with schizophrenia. Numerous epidemiological and clinical studies have provided evidence that various infectious agents are risk factors for schizophrenia and other psychoses...
April 10, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643853/gender-bias-in-human-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-problem-of-steroid-receptor-action
#18
Virginia Rider, Nabih I Abdou, Bruce F Kimler, Nanyan Lu, Susan Brown, Brooke L Fridley
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease resulting from abnormal interactions between T and B cells. The acquisition of SLE is linked to genetic susceptibility, and diverse environmental agents can trigger disease onset in genetically susceptible individuals. However, the strongest risk factor for developing SLE is being female (9:1 female to male ratio). The female sex steroid, estradiol, working through its receptors, contributes to the gender bias in SLE although the mechanisms remain enigmatic...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623823/low-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-levels-are-independently-associated-with-autoimmune-thyroiditis-in-a-cohort-of-apparently-healthy-overweight-and-obese-subjects
#19
Giovanni De Pergola, Vincenzo Triggiani, Nicola Bartolomeo, Vito Angelo Giagulli, Michele Anelli, Michele Masiello, Vittoria Candita, Dario De Bellis, Franco Silvestris
BACKGROUND: Low vitamin D levels have been associated with autoimmune disorders and, then, with the Hashimoto's autoimmune thyroiditis (AT), the most common autoimmune disease. Obesity is characterized by lower vitamin D levels and higher risk to develop autoimmune diseases. The aim of the study was to examine the possibility of an association between AT and decreased 25(OH) vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels in a cohort of otherwise healthy overweight and obese subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred sixty one overweight subjects (mean age: 40...
April 6, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623227/fulminant-diabetes-in-a-patient-with-advanced-melanoma-on-nivolumab
#20
Nora Chokr, Hafsa Farooq, Elizabeth Guadalupe
Background: Anti-PD-1 agents were approved for advanced melanoma after the landmark trial Checkmate-037. Anti-PD-1 agents can breach immunologic tolerance. Fulminant diabetes is an immune endocrinopathy that results from a violent immune attack leading to complete destruction of pancreatic beta cells in genetically predisposed people. We present a rare case of fulminant diabetes precipitated by anti-PD-1 immunotherapy. Case: A 61-year-old male with advanced melanoma presented with a three-day history of nausea, vomiting, and malaise...
2018: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
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