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Autoimmune blood disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731851/the-frequency-of-occurrence-of-fish-shaped-red-blood-cells-in-different-haematologic-disorders
#1
Christoph Robier, Carolin Körber, Franz Quehenberger, Manfred Neubauer, Albert Wölfler
BACKGROUND: Red blood cells (RBC) resembling the silhouette of a fish are rarely observed in peripheral blood (PB) smears. In this study, we determined the frequency of occurrence of fish-shaped RBC in different haematologic diseases. METHODS: We examined PB smears of patients with iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) (n=23), β-thalassaemia minor (BTM) (n=30), sickle cell disease (SCD) (n=7), autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA) (n=13), microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia (MAHA) (n=11), hereditary sphaerocytosis (HS) (n=4), hereditary elliptocytosis (HE) (n=3), vitamin B12 and folate deficiency (n=15), anaemia in liver disease (LD) (n=17), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (n=15), acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) (n=29), chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) (n=18), primary myelofibrosis (PMF) (n=12), chronic myelo-monocytic leukaemia (CMML) (n=15) and 21 healthy controls by light microscopy for the occurrence of fish-shaped erythrocytes...
July 21, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726667/clinical-and-genetic-peculiarities-of-vascular-manifestations-of-antiphospholipid-syndrome-case-report
#2
D Vasylyev, L Chernobay, O Vasylieva, M Oliinyk, M Vashuk
Pathogenetic mechanisms of the development of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) are considered in the article, which is the basis for the development of clinical manifestations and laboratory markers of APS. The modern literature data are analyzed, according to which the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies is a hypercoagulable background, and the formation of thrombi occurs under the influence of other allowing procoagulation factors. The classification of the main types of hereditary thrombophilia is given, which is the primary disorder, against the background of which an autoimmune thrombosis APS develops...
June 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717429/circulating-concentrations-of-interleukin-il-17-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-evaluation-of-the-effects-of-gender-treatment-disease-patterns-and-il-23-receptor-gene-polymorphisms
#3
Seyed Ali Ghaffari, Maryam Nemati, Hossain Hajghani, Hossainali Ebrahimi, Abdolkarim Sheikhi, Abdollah Jafarzadeh
Background: Interleukin (IL)-17/IL-23 axis performs a prominent role in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune disorders. This study aimed to investigate the concentrations of IL-17 in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and its relationship with gender, medication, disease forms and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in IL-23R gene, including rs11209026 and rs1004819. Methods: The blood specimens were obtained from 135 healthy individuals and 135 MS patients. The patients exhibited relapsing-remitting (RRMS; n = 65), primary progressive (PPMS; n = 19), secondary progressive (SPMS; n = 35) or progressive relapsing (PRMS; n = 14) MS...
January 5, 2017: Iranian Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710878/6-mercaptopurine-modifies-cerebrospinal-fluid-t-cell-abnormalities-in-pediatric-opsoclonus-myoclonus-as-steroid-sparer
#4
Michael R Pranzatelli, Elizabeth D Tate, Tyler J Allison
The purpose was to evaluate the capacity of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP), a known immunosuppressant, to normalize cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lymphocyte frequencies in opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) and function as a steroid sparer. CSF and blood lymphocytes were immunophenotyped in 11 children with OMS (without CSF B cell expansion), using a comprehensive panel of cell surface adhesion, activation, and maturation markers by flow cytometry, and referenced to 18 pediatric controls. Drug metabolites, lymphocyte counts, and liver function tests were used clinically to monitoring therapeutic range and toxicity...
July 15, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702747/management-of-supine-hypertension-complicating-neurogenic-orthostatic-hypotension
#5
Jacquie Baker, Kurt Kimpinski
Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (NOH) can be present in a number of disorders, including synucleinopathies, autoimmune disorders, and various genetic disorders. All are characterized by defective norepinephrine release from sympathetic terminals upon standing, resulting in impaired vasoconstriction. NOH is defined as a drop in systolic blood pressure ≥20 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥10 mmHg, or both, within 3 minutes of standing or head up-tilt at a minimum of 60°. However, approximately 50% of patients have associated supine hypertension, which greatly complicates treatment...
July 12, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701182/do-we-really-need-to-differentiate-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-insulin-producing-cells-for-attenuation-of-the-autoimmune-responses-in-type-1-diabetes-immunoprophylactic-effects-of-precursors-to-insulin-producing-cells
#6
Anshu Sharma, Rajni Rani
BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a multifactorial autoimmune disorder where pancreatic beta cells are lost before the clinical manifestations of the disease. Administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or MSCs differentiated into insulin-producing cells (IPCs) have yielded limited success when used therapeutically. We have evaluated the immunoprophylactic potentials of precursors to insulin-producing cells (pIPCs) and IPCs in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice to ask a basic question: do we need to differentiate MSCs into IPCs or will pIPCs suffice to attenuate autoimmune responses in T1D? METHODS: Bone marrow-derived MSCs from Balb/c mice were characterized following the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) guidelines...
July 12, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691461/oral-manifestations-of-selective-iga-deficiency-review-and-case-report
#7
L Azzi, F Croveri, R Vinci, V Maurino, A Boggio, D Mantegazza, D Farronato, A Tagliabue, J Silvestre-Rangil, L Tettamanti
Immunoglobulin A deficiency is the most common primary immunodeficiency defined as decreased serum level of IgA (less than 7 mg/dl) in the presence of normal levels of other immunoglobulin isotypes. Most individuals with IgA deficiency are asymptomatic and identified coincidentally. However, some patients may present with recurrent infections, allergic disorders and autoimmune manifestations, such as diabetes mellitus, Graves disease and celiac disease. The international literature has not produced any kind of review yet about intra-oral manifestations of selective IgA-deficiency...
April 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686601/maternal-and-neonatal-vitamin-d-status-genotype-and-childhood-celiac-disease
#8
Karl Mårild, German Tapia, Margareta Haugen, Sandra R Dahl, Arieh S Cohen, Marika Lundqvist, Benedicte A Lie, Lars C Stene, Ketil Størdal
BACKGROUND: Low concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D during pregnancy may be associated with offspring autoimmune disorders. Little is known about environmental triggers except gluten for celiac disease, a common immune-mediated disorder where seasonality of birth has been reported as a risk factor. We therefore aimed to test whether low maternal and neonatal 25-hydroxyvitamin D predicted higher risk of childhood celiac disease. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this Norwegian nationwide pregnancy cohort (n = 113,053) and nested case-control study, we analyzed 25-hydroxyvitamin D in maternal blood from mid-pregnancy, postpartum and cord plasma of 416 children who developed celiac disease and 570 randomly selected controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680307/thyroid-function-and-ultrasonography-abnormalities-in-lithium-treated-bipolar-patients-a-cross-sectional-study-with-healthy-controls
#9
Özlem Kuman Tunçel, Fisun Akdeniz, Süha Süreyya Özbek, Gülgün Kavukçu, Gökçen Ünal Kocabaş
INTRODUCTION: Lithium has many effects on thyroid physiology. Although these side effects have been known for a long time, large sample studies of lithium-treated patients using ultrasonography are lacking. The aim of this study is to investigate the detailed thyroid morphologies, hormone levels, and antibodies of lithium-treated patients compared with healthy controls. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved 84 lithium-treated patients with bipolar disorder and 65 gender and age similar controls who had never been exposed to lithium...
June 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670128/clinical-features-of-limbic-encephalitis-with-lgi1-antibody
#10
Meiling Wang, Xiaoyu Cao, Qingxin Liu, Wenbin Ma, Xiaoqian Guo, Xuewu Liu
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyze the clinical manifestation, course, evolution, image manifestation, and treatments of LGI1 limbic encephalitis (LE). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Studies confirmed that LE with the complex antibody of voltage-gated potassium channels is LGI1 LE. Since then, LE cases have been reported. In this study, 10 typical LE cases were searched in PubMed. These cases and one additional case, which we reported herein, were retrospectively analyzed...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669056/pathogenic-th17-and-th22-cells-are-increased-in-patients-with-autoimmune-thyroid-disorders
#11
Marlen Vitales-Noyola, Ana M Ramos-Levi, Rebeca Martínez-Hernández, Ana Serrano-Somavilla, Miguel Sampedro-Nuñez, Roberto González-Amaro, Mónica Marazuela
PURPOSE: To study the levels of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Th17 and Th22 cells in autoimmune thyroid disorders patients. Although Th17 cells seem to play an important role in the pathogenesis of thyroid autoimmune disorders, the specific subsets of these lymphocytes have not been analyzed in this condition. METHODS: We assessed the levels of Th17 (pathogenic and non-pathogenic) and Th22 cells in peripheral blood and thyroid glands of autoimmune thyroid disorders patients (n   =  26, 16 with Graves' disease and 10 with Hashimoto's thyroiditis) and 15 healthy controls by multi-parametric flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy...
July 1, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668542/cd56-cd16-natural-killer-cells-expressing-the-inflammatory-protease-granzyme-a-are-enriched-in-synovial-fluid-from-patients-with-osteoarthritis
#12
P Jaime, N García-Guerrero, R Estella, J Pardo, F García-Álvarez, L Martinez-Lostao
OBJECTIVE: Natural killer (NK) cells have been involved in the pathology of different inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Inflammation is an important regulator of osteoarthritis (OA), but the molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating this process are not well defined. DESIGN: To understand the role of NK cells in OA, we have compared the phenotype (CD56 subsets and perforin and granzyme expression) and cytotoxic function of NK cells in peripheral blood and synovial fluid from patients with OA undergoing total knee arthroplasty...
June 29, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658764/evaluation-of-histologically-and-histochemically-proven-cases-of-vitiligo-and-its-correlation-with-cd4-and-cd8-lymphocyte-counts-using-flow-cytometry
#13
Moninder Kaur, Permeet Kaur Bagga, Tejinder Kaur, Amarjit Singh Kataria
INTRODUCTION: Vitiligo is an acquired cutaneous disorder characterized by progressive and selective destruction of melanocytes from the epidermis. Autoimmunity is strongly implicated in its pathogenesis. The destruction of melanocytes has a correlation with the peripheral blood lymphocyte imbalance mainly including Cytotoxic T cells (CD8+cells) and Helper T cells (CD4+cells). The progression of vitiligo is associated with higher CD8+ counts and lower CD4(+) counts thus, altering CD4+: CD8+ ratio...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655974/lymphocytic-duodenitis-or-microscopic-enteritis-and-gluten-related-conditions-what-needs-to-be-explored
#14
REVIEW
Enzo Ierardi, Giuseppe Losurdo, Andrea Iannone, Domenico Piscitelli, Annacinzia Amoruso, Michele Barone, Mariabeatrice Principi, Antonio Pisani, Alfredo Di Leo
Microscopic enteritis (ME) is characterized by abnormal infiltration of intraepithelial lymphocytes in intestinal mucosa. It was described as duodenal lymphocytosis or lymphocytic duodenitis until the dedicated Consensus Conference of 2015. ME represents a common feature of several gluten-mediated and non-gluten related diseases; therefore, it is an umbrella term embracing several conditions. The most frequent causes of ME are gluten-related disorders (celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, wheat allergy), Helicobacter pylori infection and drug-related damages...
2017: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649247/an-antigen-presenting-and-apoptosis-inducing-polymer-microparticle-prolongs-alloskin-graft-survival-by-selectively-and-markedly-depleting-alloreactive-cd8-t-cells
#15
Wei Wang, Khawar Ali Shahzad, Miaochen Li, Aifeng Zhang, Lei Zhang, Tao Xu, Xin Wan, Chuanlai Shen
Selectively depleting the pathogenic T cells is a fundamental strategy for the treatment of allograft rejection and autoimmune disease since it retains the overall immune function of host. The concept of killer artificial antigen-presenting cells (KaAPCs) has been developed by co-coupling peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) multimer and anti-Fas monoclonal antibody (mAb) onto the polymeric microparticles (MPs) to induce the apoptosis of antigen-specific T cells. But little information is available about its in vivo therapeutic potential and mechanism...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637895/cd4-cd8%C3%AE-double-positive-t-cells-in-skin-draining-lymph-nodes-respond-to-inflammatory-signals-from-the-skin
#16
Nana H Overgaard, Jazmina L Cruz, Jennifer A Bridge, Hendrik J Nel, Ian H Frazer, Nicole L La Gruta, Antje Blumenthal, Raymond J Steptoe, James W Wells
CD4(+)CD8(+) double-positive (DP), mature, peripheral T cells are readily detectable in a variety of species and tissues. Despite a common association with autoimmune and malignant skin disorders, however, little is understood about their role or function. Herein, we show that DP T cells are readily detectable in the blood, spleen, and peripheral lymph nodes of naïve C57BL/6 mice. DP T cells were also present in Jα18(-/-) and CD1d(-/-) mice, indicating that these cells are not NK-T cells. After skin administration of CASAC adjuvant, but not Quil A adjuvant, both total DP T cells and skin-infiltrating DP T cells increased in number...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636654/characterization-of-human-fcrl4-positive-b-cells
#17
Michel Jourdan, Nicolas Robert, Maïlys Cren, Coraline Thibaut, Christophe Duperray, Alboukadel Kassambara, Michel Cogné, Karin Tarte, Bernard Klein, Jérôme Moreaux
FCRL4 is an immunoregulatory receptor that belongs to the Fc receptor-like (FCRL) family. In healthy individuals, FCRL4 is specifically expressed by memory B cells (MBCs) localized in sub-epithelial regions of lymphoid tissues. Expansion of FCRL4+ B cells has been observed in blood and other tissues in various infectious and autoimmune disorders. Currently, the mechanisms involved in pathological FCRL4+ B cell generation are actively studied, but they remain elusive. As in vivo FCRL4+ cells are difficult to access and to isolate, here we developed a culture system to generate in vitro FCRL4+ B cells from purified MBCs upon stimulation with soluble CD40 ligand and/or CpG DNA to mimic T-cell dependent and/or T-cell independent activation, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630387/assessment-of-t-helper-17-associated-cytokines-in-third-trimester-of-pregnancy
#18
Tahereh Poordast, Fateme Sadat Najib, Rasoul Baharlou, Atena Bijani, Shaghayegh Moradi Alamdarloo, Alieh Poordast
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia is a common pregnancy-specific disorder associated with significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide. It has been proposed that the imbalance between two CD4+ T cell subtypes, regulatory T cells (Treg) and T-helper 17 cells (Th17), is involved in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. OBJECTIVES: To determine the serum levels of IL-17, IL-21, IL-23 and TGF-β in patients with preeclampsia. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 30 preeclampsia patients, 30 normotensive pregnant women and 30 healthy individuals with no history of malignancies or autoimmune disorders based on simple sampling...
June 2017: Iranian Journal of Immunology: IJI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630094/type-i-ifn-is-necessary-and-sufficient-for-inflammation-induced-red-blood-cell-alloimmunization-in-mice
#19
David R Gibb, Jingchun Liu, Prabitha Natarajan, Manjula Santhanakrishnan, David J Madrid, Stephanie C Eisenbarth, James C Zimring, Akiko Iwasaki, Jeanne E Hendrickson
During RBC transfusion, production of alloantibodies against RBC non-ABO Ags can cause hemolytic transfusion reactions and limit availability of compatible blood products, resulting in anemia-associated morbidity and mortality. Multiple studies have established that certain inflammatory disorders and inflammatory stimuli promote alloimmune responses to RBC Ags. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these findings are poorly understood. Type I IFNs (IFN-α/β) are induced in inflammatory conditions associated with increased alloimmunization...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620980/case-of-autoimmune-autonomic-ganglionopathy-manifesting-anhidrosis
#20
Asuka Yoshifuku, Koichi Yoneda, Yusuke Sakiyama, Osamu Higuchi, Shunya Nakane, Takuro Kanekura
Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG), clinically characterized by gastrointestinal dysmotility, orthostatic hypotension and tonic pupils, is an idiopathic acquired disorder of the autonomic nervous system elicited by antibodies against ganglionic acetylcholine receptor (gAChR). We encountered a 60-year-old man who presented with severe anhidrosis, difficulty in thermoregulation, orthostatic hypotension, gastrointestinal dysmotility, tonic pupils and ptosis. Histologically, an anhidrotic skin sample was normal...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Dermatology
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