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Autoimmune blood disorders

K Soelberg, A C Nilsson, C Nielsen, S Jarius, M Reindl, B Wildemann, S T Lillevang, N Asgari
BACKGROUND: Optic neuritis (ON) is an inflammatory optic neuropathy, where the genetic and autoimmune dependency remains poorly characterized. OBJECTIVE: To investigate autoimmune and immunogenetic aspects of ON. METHOD: In a prospective population-based cohort 51 patients with ON were included. At follow up 20 patients had progressed to multiple sclerosis (MS-ON). All patients were screened for neuronal and systemic autoantibodies. HLA genotypes and allele and genotype frequencies of the PTPN22 C1858T and the PD-1...
March 7, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Min Yang, Li Su, Qin Tao, Chenxi Zhang, Yueyue Wu, Jun Liu
Hashimoto's Thyroiditis (HT) is a common organ-specific autoimmune disorder associated with a high incidence, and insulin resistance is highly related to autoimmune. Here, we examined the insulin sensitivity in HT patients and found decreased insulin sensitivity occurred in HT patients. To explore the relationship between impaired insulin sensitivity and immune status, we established HT model mice which showed similar pathological features and immune features to HT patients. In HT model mice, reinfusion of regulatory T cells (Tregs) from peripheral blood of normal mice could improve insulin sensitivity and decrease the inflammation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Jakob R Passweg, Helen Baldomero, Peter Bader, Grzegorz W Basak, Chiara Bonini, Rafael Duarte, Carlo Dufour, Nicolaus Kröger, Jürgen Kuball, Arjan Lankester, Silvia Montoto, Arnon Nagler, John A Snowden, Jan Styczynski, Mohamad Mohty
Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is an established procedure for acquired and congenital disorders of the hematopoietic system. In 2016, there was a tendency for continued activity in this field with 43,636 HCT in 39,313 patients [16,507 allogeneic (42%), 22,806 autologous (58%)] reported by 679 centers in 49 countries in 2016. The main indications were myeloid malignancies 9547 (24%; 96% allogeneic), lymphoid malignancies 25,618 (65%; 20% allogeneic), solid tumors 1516 (4%; 2% allogeneic), and non-malignant disorders 2459 (6%; 85% allogeneic)...
March 14, 2018: Bone Marrow Transplantation
Simona Perga, Serena Martire, Francesca Montarolo, Ilaria Giordani, Michela Spadaro, Gabriele Bono, Stefania Corvisieri, Ilaria Messuti, Giancarlo Panzica, Fabio Orlandi, Antonio Bertolotto
Autoimmune diseases are a diverse group of chronic disorders and affect a multitude of organs and systems. However, the existence of common pathophysiological mechanisms is hypothesized and reports of shared risk are emerging as well. In this regard, patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have been shown to have an increased susceptibility to develop chronic autoimmune thyroid diseases, in particular Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), suggesting an autoimmune predisposition. However, studies comparing such different pathologies of autoimmune origin are still missing till date...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Agnieszka Pozdzik, Isabelle Brochériou, Cristina David, Fahd Touzani, Jean Michel Goujon, Karl Martin Wissing
The discovery of circulating antibodies specific for native podocyte antigens has transformed the diagnostic workup and greatly improved management of idiopathic membranous nephropathy (iMN). In addition, their identification has clearly characterized iMN as a largely autoimmune disorder. Anti-PLA2R1 antibodies are detected in approximately 70% to 80% and anti-THSD7A antibodies in only 2% of adult patients with iMN. The presence of anti-THSD7A antibodies is associated with increased risk of malignancy. The assessment of PLA2R1 and THSD7A antigen expression in glomerular immune deposits has a better sensitivity than measurement of the corresponding autoantibodies...
2018: BioMed Research International
Ilias Attaye, Merel van Andel, Albertus Jozef Kooter
A 67-year-old Caucasian woman with no prior medical history was admitted to our hospital with complaints of generalised weakness, nausea, diarrhoea and weight loss. The patient suffered from tachycardia and hypotension. Blood tests revealed Graves' thyrotoxicosis and the patient was treated accordingly. However, patient's health continued to decline rapidly and further tests revealed a concomitant Addisonian crisis. Additional treatment with corticosteroids led to a full recovery. It is well known that autoimmune endocrine disorders tend to cluster...
March 5, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Ida Manna, Enrico Iaccino, Vincenzo Dattilo, Stefania Barone, Eleonora Vecchio, Selena Mimmi, Enrica Filippelli, Giulio Demonte, Serena Polidoro, Alfredo Granata, Sara Scannapieco, Ileana Quinto, Paola Valentino, Aldo Quattrone
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune pathology leading to neurodegeneration. Because of the complexity and heterogenic etiology of this disease, diagnosis and treatment for individual patients are challenging. Exosome-associated microRNAs (miRNAs) have recently emerged as a new class of diagnostic biomarkers involved in both autoimmune and neurologic disorders. Interesting new evidence has emerged showing that circulating miRNAs are dysregulated in MS body fluids, including serum, plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid...
March 5, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Hanna Motak-Pochrzest, Andrzej Malinowski
158 non-pregnant women with recurrent implantation failures after IVF/ET procedures were tested for peripheral blood autoimmune profile. The control group consisted of 76 patients after first successful IVF procedure and pregnancy outcome. The objective of this study was to investigate different autoantibodies peripheral blood profile after excluding anatomical, endocrinological, endometrial and genetic disorders and to estimate the risk of implantation failures. The study's including criteria were 1.indications for IVF/ET determined by male factor and unexplained infertility 2...
February 6, 2018: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Zuzanna Małgorzata Łukasik, Marcin Makowski, Joanna Samanta Makowska
Thrombosis and cardiovascular complications are common manifestations of a variety of pathological conditions, including infections and chronic inflammatory diseases. Hence, there is great interest in determining the hitherto unforeseen immune role of the main blood coagulation executor-the platelet. Platelets store and release a plethora of immunoactive molecules, generate microparticles, and interact with cells classically belonging to the immune system. The observed effects of platelet involvement in immune processes, especially in autoimmune diseases, are conflicting-from inciting inflammation to mediating its resolution...
February 28, 2018: Rheumatology International
Oliver J Lawless, Joseph A Bellanti, Milton L Brown, Kathryn Sandberg, Jason G Umans, Li Zhou, Weiqian Chen, Julie Wang, Kan Wang, Song Guo Zheng
BACKGROUND: Allergic and autoimmune diseases comprise a group of inflammatory disorders caused by aberrant immune responses in which CD25+ Forkhead box P3-positive (FOXP3+) T regulatory (Treg) cells that normally suppress inflammatory events are often poorly functioning. This has stimulated an intensive investigative effort to find ways of increasing Tregs as a method of therapy for these conditions. One such line of investigation includes the study of how ligation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) by CpG oligonucleotides (ODN) results in an immunostimulatory cascade that leads to induction of T-helper (Th) type 1 and Treg-type immune responses...
March 1, 2018: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
Gulali Aktas, Mustafa Sit, Oguz Dikbas, Hayri Erkol, Rabia Altinordu, Edip Erkus, Haluk Savli
OBJECTIVE: Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder. The purpose of this study was to determine the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), a novel marker of inflammation, in patients with HT and to compare these values with those from healthy subjects. METHOD: A total of 154 participants were included in the study, 90 HT patients and 64 healthy volunteers. Retrospectively, demographic and laboratory data of the subjects were obtained from our institution's database...
December 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
Riccardo Barrile, Andries D van der Meer, Hyoungshin Park, Jacob P Fraser, Damir Simic, Fang Teng, David Conegliano, Justin Nguyen, Abhishek Jain, Mimi Zhou, Katia Karalis, Donald E Ingber, Geraldine A Hamilton, Monicah A Otieno
Clinical development of Hu5c8, a monoclonal antibody against CD40L intended for treatment of autoimmune disorders, was terminated due to unexpected thrombotic complications. These life-threatening side-effects were not discovered during preclinical testing due to the lack of predictive models. In the present study, we describe the development of a microengineered system lined by human endothelium perfused with human whole blood, a 'Vessel-Chip'. The Vessel-Chip allowed us to evaluate key parameters in thrombosis, such as endothelial activation, platelet adhesion, platelet aggregation, fibrin clot formation, and thrombin anti-thrombin (TAT) complexes in the Chip-effluent in response to Hu5c8 in the presence of soluble CD40L...
February 27, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Lian Duan, Qian Li, An-Li Tong, Jiang-Feng Mao, Miao Yu, Tao Yuan, Xiao-Feng Chai, Feng Gu
Objective: Wolfram syndrome (WS) is a rare, degenerative, and hereditary disorder characterized by ear diabetes mellitus (DM) and optic atrophy (OA). We aim to characterize clinical features in Chinese patients who had been poorly studied until now. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of patients with WS seen in the Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 2002 to 2017. Data including demographic data, clinical presentations, examination results, family history, and genetic analysis were described...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Ayesha Majeed Memon, Farheen Karim
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a form of hemolytic anemia in which red cells lysis occurs due to presence of an autoantibody. Association of AIHA is well known with lymphoproliferative disorders, especially with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. However, AIHA in association with Hodgkin's lymphoma is seen occasionally. Of the AIHA associated with Hodgkin's lymphoma, most are of warm type or mixed type. Cold AIHA, as seen in our case, is very rare in Hodgkin's lymphoma.
March 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Thomas A Pollak, Jonathan P Rogers, Robert G Nagele, Mark Peakman, James M Stone, Anthony S David, Philip McGuire
Blood-based biomarker discovery for psychotic disorders has yet to impact upon routine clinical practice. In physical disorders antibodies have established roles as diagnostic, prognostic and predictive (theranostic) biomarkers, particularly in disorders thought to have a substantial autoimmune or infective aetiology. Two approaches to antibody biomarker identification are distinguished: a "top-down" approach, in which antibodies to specific antigens are sought based on the known function of the antigen and its putative role in the disorder, and emerging "bottom-up" or "omics" approaches that are agnostic as to the significance of any one antigen, using high-throughput arrays to identify distinctive components of the antibody repertoire...
February 21, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Hannelore Ehrenreich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Humoral autoimmunity has gained highest interest in neurology and psychiatry. Despite numerous recent articles on this hot topic, however, the biological significance of natural autoantibodies (AB) and the normal autoimmune repertoire of mammals remained quite obscure. AB may contribute to disorder-relevant phenotypes and are even believed to induce diseases themselves, but the circumstances under which AB become pathogenic are not fully understood. This review will focus on the highly frequent AB against the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor 1 (NMDAR1-AB) as an illustrating example and provide a critical overview of current work (please note that the new nomenclature, GluN1, is disregarded here for consistency with the AB literature)...
March 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Stella X Chen, Brian R Hinds, Aaron M Goodman, Philip R Cohen
Erythroderma is characterized by erythema involving greater than 90% of the body surface area and may be caused by several etiologies, including erythrodermic psoriasis. Psoriasis is an autoimmune skin and systemic condition characterized by erythematous and scaly plaques. Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis is an asymptomatic hematological disorder diagnosed by elevated, small, clonal B-cell counts in the peripheral blood. The characteristics of a 71-year-old man with new onset of erythrodermic psoriasis and concurrent monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis are presented...
December 11, 2017: Curēus
Bianca Ho, Keelin Greenlaw, Abeer Al Tuwaijri, Sanny Moussette, Francisco Martínez, Elisa Giorgio, Alfredo Brusco, Giovanni Battista Ferrero, Natália D Linhares, Eugênia R Valadares, Marta Svartman, Vera M Kalscheuer, Germán Rodríguez Criado, Catherine Laprise, Celia M T Greenwood, Anna K Naumova
BACKGROUND: Sexual dimorphism in DNA methylation levels is a recurrent epigenetic feature in different human cell types and has been implicated in predisposition to disease, such as psychiatric and autoimmune disorders. To elucidate the genetic origins of sex-specific DNA methylation, we examined DNA methylation levels in fibroblast cell lines and blood cells from individuals with different combinations of sex chromosome complements and sex phenotypes focusing on a single autosomal region--the differentially methylated region (DMR) in the promoter of the zona pellucida binding protein 2 (ZPBP2) as a reporter...
February 20, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
Hui Zhong, Karina Yazdanbakhsh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hemolytic anemias caused by premature destruction of red blood cells occur in many disorders including hemoglobinopathies, autoimmune conditions, during infection or following reaction to drugs or transfusions. Recent studies which will be reviewed here have uncovered several novel mechanisms by which hemolysis can alter immunological functions and increase the risk of severe complications in hemolytic disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Plasma-free heme can induce the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) through reactive oxygen species signaling...
February 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Hematology
Tengda Li, Yuanlan Huang, Peng Liu, Yun Liu, Jie Guo, Weiwei Zhang, Mingli Gu, Cheng Qian, Anmei Deng
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an autoimmune liver disease. Its histological characteristics, such as progressive intrahepatic bile duct destruction, cholestasis, and liver cirrhosis, are caused by the body's autoimmune disorders. Interleukin (IL)-35 has two subunits (p35 and Ebi3) and is a member of the IL-12 family of heterodimeric cytokines. IL-35 has immunosuppressive functions and plays an important role in many autoimmune diseases. In this study, we compared plasma levels of IL-35 and relative mRNA expression levels of p35 and Ebi3 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 70 PBC patients and 70 healthy individuals...
2018: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
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