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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929995/endocrinological-and-subjective-stress-responses-in-children-with-depressive-anxiety-or-externalizing-disorders
#1
Stephanie Stadelmann, Sonia Jaeger, Tina Matuschek, Yoon Ju Bae, Kai von Klitzing, Annette Maria Klein, Mirko Döhnert
In this study, we used a stress test to investigate endocrinological and subjective stress responses of 8- to 14-year-old children with internalizing or externalizing disorders and healthy controls. The sample (N = 170) consisted of clinical and community children. Parents were given a diagnostic interview to diagnose their children's psychiatric condition. We measured saliva cortisol and subjectively experienced arousal in children before and after the Trier Social Stress Test for Children. Children also rated their performance immediately after the stress test, and 1 hr later they rated their positive and negative thoughts about this stressful event...
September 20, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926761/the-cortisol-awakening-response-and-anterior-cingulate-cortex-function-in-maltreated-depressed-versus-non-maltreated-depressed-youth
#2
Karina Quevedo, Jennifer Doty, Leslie Roos, Justin J Anker
Symptomatology of depression among children who have (vs. have not) experienced maltreatment is greater in severity, more resistant to conventional treatment, and associated with elevated risk for suicide. Recent evidence implicates perturbations in stress regulatory systems and heightened negative self-appraisals as factors that increase the severity of psychopathology experienced by depressed maltreated (vs. non-maltreated) youth. Likely explanatory mechanisms for these differences are disturbances in the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA) and persistent negative self-referential biases supported by prefrontal cortex function including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC)...
September 5, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925341/physiological-attunement-in-mother-infant-dyads-at-clinical-high-risk-the-influence-of-maternal-depression-and-positive-parenting
#3
Cassandra L Hendrix, Zachary N Stowe, D Jeffrey Newport, Patricia A Brennan
A growing number of research studies have examined the intradyadic coregulation (or attunement) of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning in mothers and their children. However, it is unclear how early this coregulation may be present in dyads at clinical high risk and whether certain factors, such as maternal depression or positive parenting, are associated with the strength of this coregulation. The present study examined cortisol attunement within mother-infant dyads in a high-risk sample of 233 mothers who received treatment for psychiatric illness during pregnancy and whose infants were 6 months old at the study visit...
September 19, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918760/effects-of-a-school-readiness-intervention-on-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis-functioning-and-school-adjustment-for-children-in-foster-care
#4
Alice M Graham, Katherine C Pears, Hyoun K Kim, Jacqueline Bruce, Philip A Fisher
Maltreated children in foster care are at high risk for dysregulated hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning and educational difficulties. The present study examined the effects of a short-term school readiness intervention on HPA axis functioning in response to the start of kindergarten, a critical transition marking entry to formal schooling, and whether altered HPA axis functioning influenced children's school adjustment. Compared to a foster care comparison group, children in the intervention group showed a steeper diurnal cortisol slope on the first day of school, a pattern previously observed among nonmaltreated children...
September 18, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910602/hair-cortisol-concentration-in-preschoolers-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-symptoms-roles-of-gender-and-family-adversity
#5
Ursula Pauli-Pott, Susan Schloß, Isabelle Ruhl, Nadine Skoluda, Urs M Nater, Katja Becker
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies on the association between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) activity and ADHD yielded inconsistent findings, particularly in younger children. This might be due to the heterogeneity of the disorder, making moderator effects of variables probable, which circumscribe more homogenous subgroups. There have been indications of moderator effects on this association by gender of child and exposure to family adversity. Moreover, difficulties in capturing long-term basal HPAA activity in younger children might have contributed to the inconsistencies...
September 5, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888516/effects-of-animal-assisted-activities-on-biobehavioral-stress-responses-in-hospitalized-children-a-randomized-controlled-study
#6
Sandra M Branson, Lisa Boss, Nikhil S Padhye, Thea Trötscher, Alexandra Ward
PURPOSE: This study assessed the effectiveness of animal-assisted activities (AAA) on biobehavioral stress responses (anxiety, positive and negative affect, and salivary cortisol and C-reactive protein [CRP] levels) in hospitalized children. DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a randomized, controlled study. METHOD: Forty-eight participants were randomly assigned to receive a 10-minute AAA (n=24) or a control condition (n=24). Anxiety, positive and negative affect, and levels of salivary biomarkers were assessed before and after the intervention...
September 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888057/glucocorticoid-treatment-earlier-in-childhood-and-adolescence-show-dose-response-associations-with-diurnal-cortisol-levels
#7
Martin Vestergaard, Sara K Holm, Peter Uldall, Hartwig R Siebner, Olaf B Paulson, William F C Baaré, Kathrine S Madsen
Heightened levels of glucocorticoids in children and adolescents have previously been linked to prolonged changes in the diurnal regulation of the stress-hormone cortisol, a glucocorticoid regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis (HPA-axis). To address this question, we examined the salivary cortisol awakening response (CAR) and daily cortisol output in 36 children and adolescents (25 girls/11 boys) aged 7-16 years previously treated with glucocorticoids for nephrotic syndrome or rheumatic disorder and 36 healthy controls...
September 9, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874240/-review-of-online-prescriptions-of-topical-steroids-for-an-obese-boy-with-iatrogenic-cushing-s-syndrome
#8
Sina Dalby, Inge Østergaard
A 14-year-old boy with obesity developed iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome after having received topical steroid therapy for psoriasis. The diagnosis was suspected when he developed striae, moon face and stunted growth. A review of the Danish online registration of prescriptions: Shared Medicine Card, revealed that an amount of 5.1 kg topical steroids had been prescribed during a period of twelve months. Blood tests showed stunted cortisol release. Primary obesity in children is associated with increased growth...
August 28, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870356/the-childhood-roots-of-cardiovascular-disease-disparities
#9
REVIEW
Donald A Barr
A recent national review of the social determinants of cardiovascular disease (CVD) underscored the growing recognition that poor socioeconomic conditions early in life place children at higher risk for CVD as adults. There is growing evidence that chronic elevation of allostatic load as a consequence of high levels of early childhood stress can trigger early atherosclerotic changes in children independently of behaviors. Elevated levels of circulating cortisol have been documented in children as young as 4 years who were raised in highly stressful circumstances...
September 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866031/emotional-eating-is-related-with-temperament-but-not-with-stress-biomarkers-in-preschool-children
#10
Nadine Messerli-Bürgy, Kerstin Stülb, Tanja H Kakebeeke, Amar Arhab, Annina E Zysset, Claudia S Leeger-Aschmann, Einat A Schmutz, Andrea H Meyer, Ulrike Ehlert, David Garcia-Burgos, Susi Kriemler, Oskar G Jenni, Jardena J Puder, Simone Munsch
Emotional eating (EE) corresponds to a change in eating behavior in response to distress and results in an increase of food intake (overeating (EOE)) or in food avoidance (undereating (EUE)). EE has been related to temperament (i.e. negative emotionality) and dysregulated stress biomarkers in school-aged children; parenting has been understood to influence this relationship in older children. The aim of the study was to investigate to which extent stress biomarkers and negative emotionality are related to EE and to understand the role of parenting in this relationship...
August 31, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864397/adrenocortical-tumors-associated-with-the-tp53-p-r337h-germline-mutation-can-be-identified-during-child-care-consultations
#11
Maria J Mastellaro, Raul C Ribeiro, Antônio G Oliveira-Filho, Ana L Seidinger, Izilda A Cardinalli, Eliana C M Miranda, Simone S Aguiar, Silvia R Brandalise, José A Yunes, Antônio A Barros-Filho
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical features associated with adrenocortical hormone overexpression and familial cancer profiling as potential markers for early detection of adrenocortical tumors in children from South and Southeast Brazil. METHODS: The clinical manifestations and anthropometric measurements of 103 children diagnosed with adrenocortical tumors were analyzed. RESULTS: Between 1982 and 2011, 69 girls and 34 boys diagnosed with adrenocortical tumors were followed-up for a median time of 9...
August 30, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864022/child-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-following-preterm-and-term-birth-what-can-the-placenta-tell-us
#12
REVIEW
Nicolette A Hodyl, Natalie Aboustate, Tina Bianco-Miotto, Claire T Roberts, Vicki L Clifton, Michael J Stark
A significant proportion of children born preterm will experience some level of neurodevelopmental impairment. Changes in placental function have been observed with many antenatal conditions that are risk factors for preterm birth and/or poor neurodevelopment including fetal growth restriction and in-utero inflammation. This review will highlight placental factors that have been studied to understand the underlying mechanisms and identify biomarkers that lead to poor child neurodevelopmental outcomes. These include changes in gross morphological and histopathological structure and the placental inflammatory response to prenatal infection...
September 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861683/neuroendocrine-response-to-school-load-in-prepubertal-children-focus-on-trait-anxiety
#13
D Kapsdorfer, N Hlavacova, D Vondrova, L Argalasova, L Sevcikova, Daniela Jezova
At the time of school-age, the most frequent stress stimuli are related to school environment and educational process. Anxiety may play a big role in coping with stressful situations associated with school load. To approach this issue, we performed a real-life study at school during the classwork. The sample consisted of 36 healthy children aged 10 years, which were divided to low and high trait anxiety group based on the median value of the anxiety score. The investigations were carried out in the classroom during a stress condition (final exams) and non-stress condition (without any exam)...
August 31, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853111/staged-bilateral-laparoscopic-adrenalectomy-for-infantile-acth-independent-cushing-s-syndrome-bilateral-micronodular-non-pigmented-adrenal-hyperplasia-a-case-report
#14
Nasser Simforoosh, Maryam Razzaghy Azar, Mohmmad Hossein Soltani, Mona Nourbakhsh, Hamidreza Shemshaki
ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome is an uncommon disorder in children. While laparoscopic adrenalectomy is well-established in adults, it is rarely used in infants and is associated with some concerns. A seven-month infant was referred to our hospital due to progressive signs and symptoms of Cushing's syndrome. Laboratory data confirmed ACTH-independent hypercortisolism. No history of exogenous corticosteroid contact was observed. The patient underwent left transperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy when she was 7 months old, nevertheless,complete response was not seen...
August 29, 2017: Urology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851236/factors-that-influence-blood-pressure-in-3-to-5-year-old-children-a-pilot-study
#15
Marti Rice, Anne Turner-Henson, Fadi G Hage, Andres Azuero, Cynthia Joiner, Olivia Affuso, Deborah Ejem, Sara Laubinger Davis, Heather Soistmann
While incident elevations in blood pressure (BP) are apparent in preschool years, factors influencing BP in this population have received little attention. The purposes of this pilot study were to determine the feasibility of collecting data from preschoolers and their mothers and to determine effect sizes of relationships between BP and sex, race, birth status, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), geographic location, serum C-reactive protein (CRP), and salivary cortisol (morning, afternoon). A hypothesis-generating correlational design was used; 56 children, aged 3-5 years, were enrolled from six rural and urban Head Start programs in a southeastern state...
January 1, 2017: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842928/early-head-start-families-experiences-with-stress-understanding-variations-within-a-high-risk-low-income-sample
#16
Jason T Hustedt, Jennifer A Vu, Kaitlin N Bargreen, Rena A Hallam, Myae Han
The federal Early Head Start program provides a relevant context to examine families' experiences with stress since participants qualify on the basis of poverty and risk. Building on previous research that has shown variations in demographic and economic risks even among qualifying families, we examined possible variations in families' perceptions of stress. Family, parent, and child data were collected to measure stressors and risk across a variety of domains in families' everyday lives, primarily from self-report measures, but also including assay results from child cortisol samples...
August 26, 2017: Infant Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837956/physiological-mechanisms-of-prosociality
#17
REVIEW
Jonas G Miller
Psychophysiological perspectives can provide unique insights into the nature and motivations of children's prosociality and inform our understanding of individual differences. Here, I review current research on prosociality involving some of the most common physiological measures in developmental psychology, including cortisol, various sympathetic nervous system measures, and high-frequency heart rate variability. The literature has been quite mixed, in part because the link between physiology and prosociality is context-dependent and person-dependent...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834537/an-assessment-of-hair-cortisol-among-postpartum-brazilian-mothers-and-infants-from-a-high-risk-community-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-intra-individual-stability-and-association-in-mother-infant-dyads
#18
Cindy H Liu, Günther Fink, Helena Brentani, Alexandra Brentani
This study examined maternal-infant synchrony of hair cortisol at 12 months after birth and the intra-individual stability of maternal hair cortisol in the postpartum period. Participants were selected from an ongoing São Paulo birth cohort project, where families are considered to be "high-risk" due to their chronic stress experiences, with the majority living in slums (favelas). Cortisol was collected through 3-cm segments of hair samples, with values representing approximate levels of cortisol from 9 to 12 months for mothers and children and 6 to 12 months for mothers...
August 23, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833059/parental-depression-and-parent-and-child-stress-physiology-moderation-by-parental-hostility
#19
Stephanie M Merwin, Katherine A Leppert, Victoria C Smith, Lea R Dougherty
This study examined the moderating role of parental hostility on the associations between parental depression and the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and morning cortisol levels of both parents and children. 148 parents and 148 preschool-aged children provided salivary cortisol samples at waking, 30 and 45 min post-waking on two consecutive days. Parental depression was assessed using a clinical interview, and parental hostility was assessed using an observational parent-child interaction task. Results indicated that the combination of parental lifetime depression and high parental hostility was associated with lower morning cortisol levels in both parents and children...
August 23, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822233/obese-fathers-lead-to-an-altered-metabolism-and-obesity-in-their-children-in-adulthood-review-of-experimental-and-human-studies
#20
REVIEW
Fernanda Ornellas, Priscila V Carapeto, Carlos A Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Marcia B Aguila
OBJECTIVE: To discuss the recent literature on paternal obesity, focusing on the possible mechanisms of transmission of the phenotypes from the father to the children. SOURCES: A non-systematic review in the PubMed database found few publications in which paternal obesity was implicated in the adverse transmission of characteristics to offspring. Specific articles on epigenetics were also evaluated. As the subject is recent and still controversial, all articles were considered regardless of year of publication...
August 17, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
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