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cortisol children

Jihui Zhang, Siu Ping Lam, Shirley Xin Li, Yaping Liu, Joey Wing Yan Chan, Michael Ho Ming Chan, Chung Shun Ho, Albert Martin Li, Yun Kwok Wing
INTRODUCTION: There are contradictory findings regarding the associations of parental depression on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity of their offspring. We aimed to explore the associations of parental depression on the diurnal salivary cortisol profile in their child and adolescent offspring. METHODS: A total of 189 unaffected child and adolescent offspring as determined by structured clinical interview were divided into 3 groups according to their parental history of depression, namely current parental depression (CPD, n = 27), past parental depression (PPD, n = 57), and no parental depression (NPD, n = 105)...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Karen J Thorpe, Cassandra L Pattinson, Simon S Smith, Sally L Staton
The majority of preschool children (aged 3-5 years) no longer habitually nap, yet in childcare settings daily mandated naptimes in which children lie down without alternative activity remains a common practice. Mandated naptimes are associated with observed reductions in emotional climate and increased incidence of distress. While intended to be restful, mandatory naptimes may induce stress in those children unable to sleep. To examine this possibility, we applied a 2 (mandated/flexible practice) × 2 (nap/no-nap) design to test group difference in stress responses of children (N = 43, mean age 56...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Svetlana Tikhonova, Linda Booij, Violet D'Souza, Karla T B Crosara, Walter L Siqueira, Elham Emami
BACKGROUND: This scoping review addressed the question 'what do we know about stress-related changes in saliva and dental caries in general population?' METHODS: The review was conducted using electronic searches via Embase, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and WoS. All published human studies with both observational and experimental designs were included. Two reviewers independently reviewed eligible articles and extracted the data. The studies' quality was assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool...
March 13, 2018: BMC Oral Health
Cheryl A Krause-Parello, Michele Thames, Colleen M Ray, John Kolassa
Disclosure of child sexual abuse can be a stressful experience for the child. Gaining a better understanding of how best to serve the child, while preserving the quality of their disclosure, is an ever-evolving process. The data to answer this question come from 51 children aged 4-16 (M = 9.1, SD = 3.5), who were referred to a child advocacy center in Virginia for a forensic interview (FI) following allegations of sexual abuse. A repeated measures design was conducted to examine how the presence of a service-trained facility dog (e...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
Stephanie M Merwin, Chelsey Barrios, Victoria C Smith, Edward P Lemay, Lea R Dougherty
This study examined the impact of parent-child attunement of morning cortisol on parenting and child outcomes in dyads with and without parental depression. Participants included 142 parent-child dyads (3-5 years-old) who provided morning cortisol samples at Wave 1, and 98 dyads returned for the 3-year follow-up at Wave 2. Results indicated that for parents with a history of depression and for female children, stronger attunement predicted increases in parental hostility from Wave 1 to Wave 2. For females only, stronger attunement was related to children's depressive symptoms at Wave 1 and Wave 2...
March 12, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
C Berthin, P Sibilia, J Martins-Hericher, A Donzeau, L Martin
BACKGROUND: Non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NC-CAH) is a recessive autosomal disease caused by a deficiency of adrenal steroidogenesis enzymes. It must be distinguished from classical CAH, either simple virilising or salt-wasting, diagnosed during the neonatal period and responsible for potentially lethal disorders of sexual differentiation. NC-CAH presents a simpler and less specific clinical picture. Herein, we present two cases comprising twin girls consulting for diffuse hypertrichosis...
March 7, 2018: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
Qingyun Lu, Fada Pan, Lingling Ren, Jing Xiao, Fangbiao Tao
Although numerous studies have described the relationship between HPA axis dysregulation and internalizing symptoms among adolescents, research using hair cortisol concentrations in pre- and young adolescent samples has not been reported. We investigated the association of self-reported internalizing symptoms with cortisol concertration in hair among pre- and young adolescents aged 10-12 years. Forty-six boys and 39 girls supplied a hair sample of at least 3 cm in length for an analysis of this period (3 months) cortisol excretion...
2018: PloS One
S Fredheim, P Foli Andersen, G Laerkholm, J Svensson, C B Juhl, B Olsen, K Pilgaard, J Johannesen
AIM: We investigated children's counter regulatory hormone profiles during a hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemic clamp procedure at day and night. METHODS: In 2013 we assessed the counter regulatory response to hypoglycaemia in eight outpatients with type 1 diabetes, recruited from the Herlev Hospital, Denmark, at a mean age of 9.6 ±2.3 years. Hyperinsulinaemic 80 mU/m2 /min clamps were performed with a stepwise reduction in plasma glucose from euglycaemia (7-9 mmol/L) to hypoglycaemia (<3...
March 8, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Eleni Angeli, Terpsichori Korpa, Elizabeth O Johnson, Filia Apostolakou, Ioannis Papassotiriou, George P Chrousos, Panagiota Pervanidou
There is growing evidence for dysregulation of the stress system in individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The stress system includes neuroanatomical and functional components that function in concert to maintain homeostasis and its main effectors are the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic/adrenomedullary nervous system (SNS). As stress system activity demonstrates a distinct circadian variation, we aimed to describe simultaneously, diurnal rhythms of both the HPA axis and the SNS in children with ADHD and a comparison group...
February 23, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Gadi Lissak
A growing body of literature is associating excessive and addictive use of digital media with physical, psychological, social and neurological adverse consequences. Research is focusing more on mobile devices use, and studies suggest that duration, content, after-dark-use, media type and the number of devices are key components determining screen time effects. Physical health effects: excessive screen time is associated with poor sleep and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as high blood pressure, obesity, low HDL cholesterol, poor stress regulation (high sympathetic arousal and cortisol dysregulation), and Insulin Resistance...
February 27, 2018: Environmental Research
Laurel Raffington, John Prindle, Attila Keresztes, Julia Binder, Christine Heim, Yee Lee Shing
Lower socioeconomic status (SES) environments are marked by higher stress that is hypothesized to alter cortisol secretion in children, thereby damaging hippocampal volume and memory performance. However, empirical evidence demonstrating these putative links is lacking. We assessed the diurnal cortisol awakening response (CAR) on two mornings and cortisol stress reactivity (CSR) with the Trier Social Stress Test for Children in 102 healthy, socio-demographically diverse 6-to-7-year-old children (46% female)...
February 7, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
John W Honour, E Conway, R Hodkinson, F Lam
The metabolites of cortisol, and the intermediates in the pathways from cholesterol to cortisol and the adrenal sex steroids can be analysed in a single separation of steroids by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to MS to give a urinary steroid profile (USP). Steroids individually and in profile are now commonly measured in plasma by liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with MS/MS. The steroid conjugates in urine can be determined after hydrolysis and derivative formation and for the first time without hydrolysis using GC-MS, GC-MS/MS and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Debora Lee Oh, Petra Jerman, Sara Silvério Marques, Kadiatou Koita, Sukhdip Kaur Purewal Boparai, Nadine Burke Harris, Monica Bucci
BACKGROUND: Early detection of and intervention in childhood adversity has powerful potential to improve the health and well-being of children. A systematic review was conducted to better understand the pediatric health outcomes associated with childhood adversity. METHODS: PubMed, PsycArticles, and CINAHL were searched for relevant articles. Longitudinal studies examining various adverse childhood experiences and biological health outcomes occurring prior to age 20 were selected...
February 23, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
E V Ivlev, E A Ruben
THE AIM: A comparative analysis of the injuries of upper airways flexible reinforced laryngeal mask and endotracheal intubation by examining the stress response reaction of the cardiovascular system, as well as the frequency and variety of complications. Blood pressure, heart rate, glucose and cortisol, and complications of airway management in children were analyzed. METHODS: The influence of the method of airway management with surgery in nose and sinuses in children in the stress response, hemodynamics, injuries of the airway were studied...
September 2017: Anesteziologiia i Reanimatologiia
Annelies van Zwol, Neelke B C Oosterloo, Cartijn T de Betue, Ad Bogers, Inge I de Liefde, Nicolaas E P Deutz, Koen F M Joosten
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Children undergoing cardiac surgery with cardio pulmonary bypass often receive glucocorticoids to reduce the systemic inflammatory response. Glucocorticoids stimulate protein breakdown and increase amino acid availability. We studied whether glucocorticoid treatment influences the availability of amino acids, specifically those involved in the nitric oxide pathway. METHODS: We prospectively studied 49 children with congenital heart disease undergoing cardiac surgery...
February 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
Alyssa Halper, Belen Sanchez, James S Hodges, Aaron S Kelly, Donald Dengel, Brandon M Nathan, Anna Petryk, Kyriakie Sarafoglou
BACKGROUND: Children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) are exposed to fluctuating cortisol and androgen levels. The effects these hormonal states have on bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition are not well studied. OBJECTIVE: Compare BMD and body composition, including visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and Android:Gynoid (A:G) ratio, in children with CAH vs. healthy age-, sex-, and BMI-matched controls. METHODS: Forty-two cases with CAH (average age 12...
February 20, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
Eileen M Condon, Lois S Sadler, Linda C Mayes
Exposure to stressful environments in early childhood can cause a toxic stress response and lead to poor health outcomes, including obesity, cardiac disease, diabetes, and mental illness. In animals and maltreated children, the presence of a nurturing caregiver can buffer against the physiological disruptions associated with a toxic stress response; however, the specific caregiver and parenting characteristics that best promote a protective relationship in humans remain largely unexplored, particularly in families living in high-risk environments...
February 14, 2018: Research in Nursing & Health
Dominika A Winiarski, Melissa L Engel, Niranjan S Karnik, Patricia A Brennan
Early life stress (ELS) has been implicated in the development of aggression, though the exact mechanisms remain unknown. This study tested associations between ELS, callousness, and stress reactivity in the prediction of school-age and persistent early childhood aggression. A longitudinal sample of 185 mother-child dyads completed a lab visit and mothers completed an online follow-up when children were preschool-aged and school-aged, respectively. Physiological and behavioral measures of stress reactivity were collected during the preschool period...
February 13, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Anna Fuchs, Charlotte Jaite, Corinne Neukel, Katja Dittrich, Katja Bertsch, Dorothea Kluczniok, Eva Möhler, Catherine Hindi Attar, Romuald Brunner, Katja Bödeker, Franz Resch, Felix Bermpohl, Michael Kaess
The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) and its end product, the glucocorticoid cortisol, has been shown to be associated with psychopathology. Determining cortisol concentrations in hair (HCC) allows the investigation of long-term HPAA-activity. There is a significant scarcity of studies investigating the link between HCC and psychopathology and quality of life in child and adolescent samples. In addition, as the HPAA constitutes a feedback system enabling adaption to environmental demands, it is important to consider the socio-environmental context that the children grow up in...
February 6, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Jin Hee Kim, Jangwoo Lee, Hyo-Bang Moon, Jeongim Park, Kyungho Choi, Sung Koo Kim, Sungkyoon Kim
Several studies suggested potential links of phthalates to stress-related outcomes. However, limited evidence has been available for the relationships between phthalate metabolites and free cortisol and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in perinatal and postnatal environments. Therefore, we evaluated the relationships between phthalate metabolites and free cortisol and 8-OHdG in mother-child pairs. We repeatedly collected urine samples of 287 mother-child pairs from just before delivery to 15 months of age to measure the levels of four phthalate metabolites - mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) - and free cortisol and 8-OHdG...
January 30, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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