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tumor lysis syndrome dialysis

Jing Cao, Amy B Karger
Hyperkalemia in specimens from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) may be due to tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) or specimen processing. This report describes a 55-year-old Caucasian woman with CLL who presented to an outside hospital with hyperkalemia and was transferred to a second hospital. Initial evaluation on the core laboratory chemistry analyzer (the VITROS 5600) and the ABL90 FLEX blood gas analyzer showed markedly elevated levels of potassium (K+). TLS was subsequently diagnosed, and dialysis was initiated...
March 28, 2018: Laboratory Medicine
Julie Beaume, Antoine Braconnier, Thibault Dolley-Hitze, Jean-Philippe Bertocchio
Acid-base regulation is essential to maintain homeostasis in humans. Carbonic acid/bicarbonate (H2 CO3 /HCO3 - ) couple is the most predominant extracellular buffer to keep plasma pH within a physiological range. The ability to (re)generate such a buffer is a key milestone that necessitates to understand a precise physiology of both renal tubule and digestive tract. Here, we first reviewed renal and digestive cycles of bicarbonate in physiology. We also reviewed pathological findings where acid-base disequilibrium is involved and nutritional and/or alkali therapy could be necessary...
February 2018: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
Urshila Durani, Nilay D Shah, Ronald S Go
The epidemiology and outcomes of tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) are understudied. We used the National Inpatient Sample (NIS), a nationally representative weighted sample of all U.S. hospital discharges, to study outcomes and predictors of mortality in hospitalized patients with TLS. The NIS was queried for patients with a discharge diagnosis of TLS (ICD-9 code 277.88) from 2010-2013. Baseline characteristics and outcomes were analyzed. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of mortality...
December 2017: Oncologist
Fernando Caravaca-Fontán, Olga Martínez-Sáez, Saúl Pampa-Saico, Maria Eugenia Olmedo, Antonio Gomis, Pilar Garrido
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Tumour lysis syndrome (TLS) is an uncommon complication in solid tumors following treatment initiation, and its spontaneous development (STLS) is exceptional. In this study, we analyse the main clinical and prognostic features of a case series with TLS and STLS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Observational retrospective study in which we included all patients with solid tumours diagnosed with TLS and STLS over a period of 16 years, according to Cairo-Bishop criteria...
February 9, 2017: Medicina Clínica
Pranav S Garimella, Poojitha Balakrishnan, Natraj R Ammakkanavar, Shanti Patel, Achint Patel, Ioannis Konstantinidis, Narender Annapureddy, Girish N Nadkarni
Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a life threatening emergency due to destruction and massive release of intracellular metabolites from cancer cells often resulting in acute kidney injury (AKI), sometimes severe enough to require dialysis (AKI-D). The impact of dialysis requirement in AKI has not been explored. We utilized data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample and using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, diagnoses codes for TLS, AKI and dialysis, evaluated the incidence, risk factors and impact of AKI-D on mortality, adverse discharge and length of stay (LOS)...
January 2017: Nephrology
Kajal S Patel, Jessica E Lau, Anthony S Zembillas, Erika M Gallagher
Rasburicase is a recombinant urate oxidase enzyme administered for treatment of hyperuricemia associated with tumor lysis syndrome. Studies demonstrate effectiveness of single fixed-dose rasburicase as compared to the FDA-approved dose of 0.2 mg/kg intravenously daily for up to five days. Doses in these studies range from 1.5 mg to 7.5 mg. Our study evaluated outcomes in patients who received single 4.5 mg fixed-dose rasburicase. This retrospective, IRB-approved chart review evaluated adult oncology subjects who received fixed-dose rasburicase between January 2007 and April 2014...
July 2017: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
Dilraj Kaur Kahlon, Veronique Dinand, Satya Prakash Yadav, Anupam Sachdeva
We report here a study on efficacy of sevelamer hydrochloride in treating hyperphosphatemia due to tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) in a developing world setting. Twenty one children with hyperphosphatemia due to TLS were included. All received hyper-hydration, allopurinol and sevelamer. Efficacy was assessed by decrease in serum phosphate level, calcium-phosphate product and TLS score as per Cairo Bishop definition. Four children who underwent dialysis were excluded from analysis. Among the remaining 17 patients with hyperphosphatemia, laboratory TLS was recorded in 15 patients and clinical TLS in five...
March 2016: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
M Criscuolo, L Fianchi, G Dragonetti, L Pagano
Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of neoplasms, preferentially hematological malignancies. Well known since at least ninety years ago, this condition can be misdiagnosed and incorrectly managed due to rapid onset of symptoms, sometimes overlapping with cancer-derived clinical conditions. Our purpose is to discuss some old and new issues of this syndrome. Predisposing factors as type of malignancy, chemotherapy regimen and age are promptly available and useful tools for inducing TLS suspicion...
2016: Expert Review of Hematology
Aibek E Mirrakhimov, Prakruthi Voore, Maliha Khan, Alaa M Ali
Tumor lysis syndrome is an oncometabolic emergency resulting from rapid cell death. Tumor lysis syndrome can occur as a consequence of tumor targeted therapy or spontaneously. Clinicians should stratify every hospitalized cancer patient and especially those receiving chemotherapy for the risk of tumor lysis syndrome. Several aspects of prevention include adequate hydration, use of uric acid lowering therapies, use of phosphate binders and minimization of potassium intake. Patients at high risk for the development of tumor lysis syndrome should be monitored in the intensive care unit...
May 4, 2015: World Journal of Critical Care Medicine
S M Latha, D Krishnaprasadh, P Murugapriya, J X Scott
Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) occurs in malignancies with high proliferative potential and tumor burden, such as lymphomas and leukemias. TLS syndrome is an oncologic emergency, requiring prompt intervention. The metabolic derangements cause acute kidney failure and may lead to cardiac arrhythmias, seizures, and death. With the advent of rasburicase, a recombinant urate oxidase, there has been a decline in the TLS-mediated renal failure and the need for dialysis. The recommended regimen and doses pose a heavy financial burden for patients in developing countries like India...
March 2015: Indian Journal of Nephrology
Somasundaram Jayabose, Vignesh Kumar, Rajeswari Dhanabalan, Priya Rajan, Krishnakumar Rathnam, T Kasi Viswanathan
OBJECTIVE: To define the efficacy and safety of low-dose rasburicase in children from south India with hematologic malignancies. METHODS: This study is a retrospective analysis of data on 41 children with hematologic malignacies with laboratory evidence of tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) or clinical features indicating high risk for developing TLS. Patients were treated with rasburicase in doses of 0.1-0.15 mg/kg dose, repeated when necessary. RESULTS: Male : Female ratio was 32:9...
May 2015: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Dereddi Raja Reddy, Pramod Guru, Shihab Sugeir, Vivek Iyer
SESSION TITLE: Infectious Disease Student/Resident Case Report Posters IIISESSION TYPE: Medical Student/Resident Case ReportPRESENTED ON: Tuesday, October 28, 2014 at 01:30 PM - 02:30 PMINTRODUCTION: Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is commonly seen in hematologic and solid tumor malignancies in association with chemotherapy and sometimes spontaneously. Infection associated TLS has never been described to our knowledge.CASE PRESENTATION: A previously healthy young 29 year old male with h/o polysubstance abuse initially evaluated for intermittent chest pain, shortness of breath and ten pound weight loss in a span of one week...
October 1, 2014: Chest
F Perry Wilson, Jeffrey S Berns
Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is an oncologic emergency triggered by the rapid release of intracellular material from lysing malignant cells. Most common in rapidly growing hematologic malignancies, TLS has been reported in virtually every cancer type. Central to its pathogenesis is the rapid accumulation of uric acid derived from the breakdown of nucleic acids, which leads to kidney failure by various mechanisms. Kidney failure then limits the clearance of potassium, phosphorus, and uric acid leading to hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, and secondary hypocalcemia, which can be fatal...
January 2014: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
Sameer Bakhshi, Rajkumar Bikramjit Singh, Khushboo Munot, Subha Pathania
The authors evaluated complications in pediatric acute leukemia with "very high" leukocytosis (VHL) prior to rasburicase availability and without leukopheresis. From Jun 2003 through Dec 2009, 45 out of 457 (10 %) pediatric acute leukemia patients had VHL. Median WBC for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients was 296,500/mm3 (200,000-615,220) and 206,300/mm3 (106,100-541,900) respectively. Laboratory and clinical tumor-lysis-syndrome was seen in 37.7 % and 13.3 % patients respectively; none required dialysis; 6...
August 2014: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Yu Nishida, Hideki Fujii, Atsushi Hagihara, Etsushi Kawamura, Shuji Iwai, Masaru Enomoto, Akihiro Tamori, Tetsuo Arakawa, Norifumi Kawada
A man in his 70's was admitted to our hospital for treatment of a huge hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by transcatheter hepatic arterial embolization (TAE). After treatment, anuria occurred, and laboratory examinations revealed a diagnosis of tumor lysis syndrome (TLS). He underwent conservative therapy including hemodialysis, resulting in complete remission of TLS. On the other hand, poor hepatic functional reserve was seen temporarily. After conservative therapy, biochemical markers returned dramatically. TLS is a group of metabolic complications in cancer therapy...
March 2013: Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi, the Japanese Journal of Gastro-enterology
Gustavo Roberto Marín, Elena Majek
An adolescent with acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed an early and severe tumor lysis syndrome with acute kidney injury after a low and single dose of steroids. Renal dysfunction was attributed primarily to phosphate nephropathy with nephrocalcinosis due to extreme elevations of phosphate in blood. Urinary alkalinization probably contributed to this development. We used peritoneal dialysis with resolution of nephrocalcinosis and normalization of creatinine clearance.
December 2012: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
F Perry Wilson, Jeffrey S Berns
Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) describes the clinical and laboratory sequelae that result from the rapid release of intracellular contents of dying cancer cells. It is characterized by the release of potassium, phosphorous, and nucleic acids from cancer cells into the blood stream, with the potential to cause hyperkalemia; hyperphosphatemia and secondary hypocalcemia; hyperuricemia; AKI; and, should usual homeostatic mechanisms fail, death. TLS most commonly follows treatment of hematologic malignancies, such as acute lymphocytic or lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, and Burkitt lymphoma, but also occurs after treatment of other bulky or rapidly growing tumors, particularly if the patient is highly sensitive to the effects of cytotoxic chemotherapy...
October 2012: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Geoffrey M Fleming, Scott Walters, Stuart L Goldstein, Steven R Alexander, Michelle A Baum, Douglas L Blowey, Timothy E Bunchman, Annabelle N Chua, Sarah A Fletcher, Francisco X Flores, James D Fortenberry, Richard Hackbarth, Kevin McBryde, Michael J G Somers, Jordan M Symons, Patrick D Brophy
OBJECTIVE: Continuous renal replacement therapy is the most often implemented dialysis modality in the pediatric intensive care unit setting for patients with acute kidney injury. However, it also has a role in the management of patients with nonrenal indications such as clearance of drugs and intermediates of disordered cellular metabolism. MEASUREMENTS AND METHODS: Using data from the multicenter Prospective Pediatric Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy Registry, we report a cohort of pediatric patients receiving continuous renal replacement therapy for nonrenal indications...
September 2012: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Aruna Rajendran, Deepak Bansal, R K Marwaha, Sunit C Singhi
Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) refers to the constellation of deranged metabolic state, characterized by hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, hyperuricemia, hypocalcemia, and/or azotemia, secondary to rapid breakdown of tumor cells. It is a life threatening emergency that typically follows administration of chemotherapy or may be spontaneous. Malignancies which have a large tumor burden, rapid turnover, as well as speedy breakdown following chemotherapy are susceptible. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkins lymphoma (particularly Burkitt's lymphoma) are typically predisposed...
January 2013: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Hung Chang, Shen-Yang Lee, Tzung-Chih Tang
Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a severe life-threatening complication which typically occurs in highly proliferative malignancies, such as Burkitt's lymphoma, acute leukemia or germ cell tumors. Although TLS is unusual in multiple myeloma, it should not be overlooked as it is associated with significant morbidity. In recent years, emerging new agents such as thalidomide and bortezomib have been found to be highly effective in the treatment of multiple myeloma. In this milieu, there is greater concern that the rate of TLS in multiple myeloma will increase...
2011: Chang Gung Medical Journal
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