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Relational priming

Garima Hore, Goutam Kumar Saha, Dhriti Banerjee
Dipterans, especially the sarcosaprophagous communities are of substantial importance from medical, veterinary and forensic entomological perspectives. Muscids are generally seen to colonize carcasses at advanced stages of decomposition when the initial dominance of calliphorids and sarcophagids subsides. Ophyra capensis (Wiedemann, 1818), a muscid fly with a relatively wide distribution range is considered of decent forensic relevance as it has been reported not only from cadavers placed outdoors but also from graves and exhumed corpses...
June 19, 2018: Acta Tropica
Franziska Sueck, Miklós Poór, Zelma Faisal, Christoph G W Gertzen, Benedikt Cramer, Beáta Lemli, Sándor Kunsági-Máté, Holger Gohlke, Hans-Ulrich Humpf
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by several fungal species of the genus Penicillium and Aspergillus . 2′ R -Ochratoxin A (2′ R -OTA) is a thermal isomerization product of OTA formed during food processing at high temperatures. Both compounds are detectable in human blood in concentrations between 0.02 and 0.41 µg/L with 2′ R -OTA being only detectable in the blood of coffee drinkers. Humans have approximately a fifty-fold higher exposure through food consumption to OTA than to 2′ R -OTA...
June 22, 2018: Toxins
Jean-François Lemaître, Louise Cheynel, Frédéric Douhard, Gilles Bourgoin, François Débias, Hubert Ferté, Emmanuelle Gilot-Fromont, Sylvia Pardonnet, Maryline Pellerin, Benjamin Rey, Cécile Vanpé, A J Mark Hewison, Jean-Michel Gaillard
To secure mating opportunities, males often develop and maintain conspicuous traits that are involved in intrasexual and/or intersexual competition. While current models of sexual selection rely on the assumption that producing such traits is costly, quantifying the cost of allocating to secondary sexual traits remains challenging. According to the principle of allocation, high energy allocation to growth or sexual traits in males should lead to reduced energy allocation to the maintenance of cellular and physiological functions, potentially causing them to age faster, with impaired survival...
July 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Hakhyun Ka, Heewon Seo, Yohan Choi, Inkyu Yoo, Jisoo Han
The establishment of pregnancy is a complex process that requires a well-coordinated interaction between the implanting conceptus and the maternal uterus. In pigs, the conceptus undergoes dramatic morphological and functional changes at the time of implantation and introduces various factors, including estrogens and cytokines, interleukin-1β2 (IL1B2), interferon-γ (IFNG), and IFN-δ (IFND), into the uterine lumen. In response to ovarian steroid hormones and conceptus-derived factors, the uterine endometrium becomes receptive to the implanting conceptus by changing its expression of cell adhesion molecules, secretory activity, and immune response...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Helen Lai, Jian-Geng Chiou, Anastasia Zhurikhina, Trevin R Zyla, Denis Tsygankov, Daniel J Lew
Tip growth in fungi involves highly polarized secretion and modification of the cell wall at the growing tip. The genetic requirements for initiating polarized growth are perhaps best understood for the model budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Once the cell is committed to enter the cell cycle by activation of G1 cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) complexes, the polarity regulator Cdc42 becomes concentrated at the presumptive bud site, actin cables are oriented towards that site, and septin filaments assemble into a ring around the polarity site...
June 21, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Hao Jiang, Jiangtao Jia, Aleksander Shkurenko, Zhijie Chen, Karim Adil, Youssef Belmabkhout, Lukasz J Weselinski, Ayalew H Assen, Dong-Xu Xue, Michael O'Keeffe, Mohamed Eddaoudi
Rational design and construction of MOFs with intricate structural complexity are of prime importance in reticular chemistry. We report our latest addition to the design toolbox in reticular chemistry, namely the concept of merged-nets based on merging two edge-transitive nets into a minimal edge-transitive net for the rational construction of intricate mixed-linker MOFs. In essence, a valuable net for design enclosing two edges (not related by symmetry) is rationally generated by merging two edge-transitive nets, namely (3,6)-coordinated spn and 6-coordinated hxg...
June 20, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Grace M Niemiro, Jacob M Allen, Lucy J Mailing, Naiman A Khan, Hannah D Holscher, Jeffrey A Woods, Michael De Lisio
KEY POINTS: Chronic inflammation underlies many of the health decrements associated with obesity. Circulating progenitor cells can sense and respond to inflammatory stimuli, increasing the local inflammatory response within tissues. Here we show that 6 weeks of endurance exercise training significantly decreases inflammatory circulating progenitor cells in obese adults. These findings provide novel cellular mechanisms for the beneficial effects of exercise in obese adults. ABSTRACT: Circulating progenitor cells (CPCs) and subpopulations are normally found in the bone marrow, but can migrate to peripheral tissues to participate in local inflammation and/or remodelling...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Physiology
S E Johnson-Lynn, A W McCaskie, A P Coll, A H N Robinson
Charcot neuroarthropathy is a rare but serious complication of diabetes, causing progressive destruction of the bones and joints of the foot leading to deformity, altered biomechanics and an increased risk of ulceration. Management is complicated by a lack of consensus on diagnostic criteria and an incomplete understanding of the pathogenesis. In this review, we consider recent insights into the development of Charcot neuroarthropathy. It is likely to be dependent on several interrelated factors which may include a genetic pre-disposition in combination with diabetic neuropathy...
May 2018: Bone & Joint Research
Francesco Santoro, Elena Pettini, Dmitri Kazmin, Annalisa Ciabattini, Fabio Fiorino, Gregor D Gilfillan, Ida M Evenroed, Peter Andersen, Gianni Pozzi, Donata Medaglini
Transcriptomic profiling of the immune response induced by vaccine adjuvants is of critical importance for the rational design of vaccination strategies. In this study, transcriptomics was employed to profile the effect of the vaccine adjuvant used for priming on the immune response following re-exposure to the vaccine antigen alone. Mice were primed with the chimeric vaccine antigen H56 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis administered alone or with the CAF01 adjuvant and boosted with the antigen alone. mRNA sequencing was performed on blood samples collected 1, 2, and 7 days after priming and after boosting...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Francesca Mullins, Shawn Ott, Nakia Mister, Jeffrey Travis
Sickle cell disorders are associated with increased risk of sickling and vaso-occlusive complications when undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery. Monitoring of certain parameters such as venous and arterial oxygen content, hematocrit, acid base homeostasis, and body temperature are required for a superior outcome. Furthermore, perioperative exchange transfusion has a positive effect on the outcome of surgery and on the survival of patients undergoing heart surgery. Avoiding intraoperative hypoxia and hypothermia, and minimizing hemoglobin S (HbS) and hemoglobin C (HbC) levels with exchange transfusion make bypass surgery relatively safe with enhanced outcomes in these cases...
June 2018: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
Ian P Curry, Amanda M Kelley, Steven J Gaydos
INTRODUCTION: There have been few large-scale epidemiological examinations of military aircrew populations reported in recent literature. This study examined 10 yr of medical records contained in the U.S. Army Aeromedical Electronic Resource Office (AERO) in an effort to identify the most prevalent conditions affecting Army aviator career longevity. METHODS: This study was a retrospective epidemiological review; data were retrieved on 24,568 rated aircrew patients from the AERO database, of whom 5...
July 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Olivier Huck, Jian You, Xianxian Han, Bin Cai, James Panek, Salomon Amar
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory disease that has been linked to several risk factors including periodontitis. Identification of new anti-inflammatory compounds to treat arthritis is needed. We had previously demonstrated the beneficial effect of Kava-241, a kavain derived compound, in the management of Porphyromonas gingivalis induced periodontitis. The present study evaluated systemic and articular effects of Kava-241 in an infective arthritis murine model triggered by P.gingivalis bacterial inoculation and primed with collagen antibody cocktail (CIA) to induce joint inflammation and tissular destruction...
June 18, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Xiaolu Wang, Wei Zheng, Lingxuan Zhao, Yuqiu Liu, Binyao Huang, John X Zhang
Whether and how context plays a role in metaphor processing remains a controversial issue. One major theory on metaphor comprehension, the graded salience hypothesis (GSH) model, emphasizes salience as the key factor determining the precedence of semantic access. Using event-related potential technique, the present study examined Chinese metaphors to investigate whether the salient meaning is always processed first regardless of context. The experiment employed a Prime-Target-Probe paradigm. Three-character Chinese verb-object metaphors were used as the Target proceeded by one of the three contexts (the Prime): (1) metaphorical context priming the Target's metaphorical meaning, (2) literal context priming the Target's literal meaning, and (3) irrelevant context as the control condition...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Ayman Chit, Hossein Zivaripiran, Thomas Shin, Jason K H Lee, Antigona Tomovici, Denis Macina, David R Johnson, Michael D Decker, Jianhong Wu
BACKGROUND: Acellular pertussis vaccine studies postulate that waning protection, particularly after the adolescent booster, is a major contributor to the increasing US pertussis incidence. However, these studies reported relative (ie, vs a population given prior doses of pertussis vaccine), not absolute (ie, vs a pertussis vaccine naïve population) efficacy following the adolescent booster. We aim to estimate the absolute protection offered by acellular pertussis vaccines. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of acellular pertussis vaccine effectiveness (VE) publications...
2018: PloS One
Pierluigi Plastina, Astari Apriantini, Jocelijn Meijerink, Renger Witkamp, Bartolo Gabriele, Alessia Fazio
Chinotto ( Citrus myrtifolia Raf.) is a widely diffused plant native from China and its fruits have a wide-spread use in confectionary and drinks. Remarkably, only little has been reported thus far on its bioactive properties, in contrast to those of the taxonomically related bergamot ( Citrus bergamia Risso). The present study aimed to investigate potential in vitro anti-inflammatory and radical scavenging properties of chinotto essential oils (CEOs) and to establish to what extent their composition and bioactivities are dependent on maturation...
June 18, 2018: Nutrients
Valentin Joubert, Virginie Silvestre, Mathilde Grand, Denis Loquet, Virginie Ladroue, Fabrice Besacier, Serge Akoka, Gerald Stanislas Remaud
For the last ten years, quantitative isotope ratio monitoring 13C NMR (irm-13C NMR) has been successfully tested and proved as an efficient tool for the determination of the position-specific determination of 13C/12C ratios. Several applications in different domains have shown its interest. In the context of origin assignment, the possibility to track the distribution network of illicit drugs or cutting agents is of prime importance. However irm-13C NMR still suffers from a relative lack of sensitivity limiting its dissemination among control laboratories...
June 18, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Benjamin Banai, Lasse Laustsen, Irena Pavela Banai, Kosta Bovan
Previous studies have shown that voters rely on sexually dimorphic traits that signal masculinity and dominance when they choose political leaders. For example, voters exert strong preferences for candidates with lower pitched voices because these candidates are perceived as stronger and more competent. Moreover, experimental studies demonstrate that conservative voters, more than liberals, prefer political candidates with traits that signal dominance, probably because conservatives are more likely to perceive the world as a threatening place and to be more attentive to dangerous and threatening contexts...
April 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
Parithimar Kalaignan, Jaya Shree Mohan, Arun Jayakumar
The individuals who have been afflicted with mandibular defects involving soft and hard tissue loss are subjected to functional, psychological and social consequences. Rehabilitation is of prime importance in restoring self confidence and improving the quality of life. Complex mandibular defects can be successfully rehabilitated with the three dimensional (3D) computerized diagnostic technique (Simplant-Dentsply sirona implant). one of the important tools for measuring the oral health status by scale knows as oral health impact profile (OHIP)...
May 2018: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
Sara Della Torre, Nico Mitro, Clara Meda, Federica Lolli, Silvia Pedretti, Matteo Barcella, Luisa Ottobrini, Daniel Metzger, Donatella Caruso, Adriana Maggi
Sex impacts on liver physiology with severe consequences for energy metabolism and response to xenobiotic, hepatic, and extra-hepatic diseases. The comprehension of the biology subtending sex-related hepatic differences is therefore very relevant in the medical, pharmacological, and dietary perspective. The extensive application of metabolomics paired to transcriptomics here shows that, in the case of short-term fasting, the decision to maintain lipid synthesis using amino acids (aa) as a source of fuel is the key discriminant for the hepatic metabolism of male and female mice...
June 6, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Kanchan Sinha Roy, D Raghavender Goud, Buddhadeb Chandra, Devendra K Dubey
Extraction of vesicant class of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) such as sulfur mustard and nitrogen mustards from the environmental matrices is of prime importance; from forensic & verification view point of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). For extraction of Convention Related Compounds from nonpolar organic medium, commercially available silica cartridges are used extensively. But silica cartridges exhibit limited efficiency towards vesicant classes of compounds. It is expected that sulfur mustard being nonpolar do not retain sufficiently on silica surface and nitrogen mustards (being basic) are strongly adsorbed on acidic silica surface, resulting in their poor recoveries...
June 16, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
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