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Relational priming

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053848/is-virtual-reality-ready-for-prime-time-in-the-medical-space-a-randomized-control-trial-of-pediatric-virtual-reality-for-acute-procedural-pain-management
#1
Jeffrey I Gold, Nicole E Mahrer
Objective: To conduct a randomized control trial to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of virtual reality (VR) compared with standard of care (SOC) for reducing pain, anxiety, and improving satisfaction associated with blood draw in children ages 10-21 years. Methods: In total, 143 triads (patients, their caregiver, and the phlebotomist) were recruited in outpatient phlebotomy at a pediatric hospital and randomized to receive either VR or SOC when undergoing routine blood draw...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051685/perceiving-and-confronting-sexism-the-causal-role-of-gender-identity-salience
#2
Katie Wang, John F Dovidio
Although many researchers have explored the relations among gender identification, discriminatory attributions, and intentions to challenge discrimination, few have examined the causal impact of gender identity salience on women's actual responses to a sexist encounter. In the current study, we addressed this question by experimentally manipulating the salience of gender identity and assessing its impact on women's decision to confront a sexist comment in a simulated online interaction. Female participants (N = 114) were randomly assigned to complete a short measure of either personal or collective self-esteem, which was designed to increase the salience of personal versus gender identity...
March 2017: Psychology of Women Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051523/emotion-regulating-attentional-control-abnormalities-in-major-depressive-disorder-an-event-related-potential-study
#3
Bin Hu, Juan Rao, Xiaowei Li, Tong Cao, Jianxiu Li, Dennis Majoe, Jürg Gutknecht
Major depressive disorders (MDD) exhibit cognitive dysfunction with respect to attention. The deficiencies in cognitive control of emotional information are associated with MDD as compared to healthy controls (HC). However, the brain mechanism underlying emotion that influences the attentional control in MDD necessitates further research. The present study explores the emotion-regulated cognitive competence in MDD at a dynamic attentional stage. Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 35 clinical MDD outpatients and matched HCs by applying a modified affective priming dot-probe paradigm, which consisted of various emotional facial expression pairs...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049006/the-dynamics-of-immunoglobulin-v-gene-usage-and-clonotype-expansion-in-mice-after-prime-and-boost-immunizations-as-analyzed-by-ngs
#4
Diego J Farfán-Arribas, Shuying Liu, Shixia Wang, Shan Lu
In the current study, an improved NGS approach was developed to study the B-cell repertoire evolution in a simple mouse immunization model including only two DNA immunizations. The combination of 5'RACE and Ion Torrent long reads enabled unbiased immunoglobulin repertoire analysis even from small amounts of peripheral mouse blood. The B-cell population expanded by the vaccine displayed a relatively strong clonality. Upon priming with the first vaccine dose, we observed a consistent pattern of V-segment gene and CDR3 usage (public specificities)...
October 19, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048827/-simultaneous-determination-of-11-mycotoxins-in-feeds-by-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#5
Yunji Wei, Min Feng, Zhenyi Zhu, Jian He, Jinrong Shen, Zhenghe He, Xian Qin, Liying Zhou
A high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 11 mycotoxins in feeds. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile, then cleaned up by multifunctional purification column filler and PRIME HLB solid phase extraction column. The 11 mycotoxins were separated on an Agilent Zorbax SB-C18 column (150 mm×2.1 mm, 3.5 μ m) with gradient elution program, and methanol-5 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution containing 0.1%(v/v) formic acid were used as mobile phases...
August 8, 2017: Se Pu, Chinese Journal of Chromatography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048812/-rapid-and-simultaneous-determination-of-seven-microcystins-in-fish-meat-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-coupled-with-pass-through-solid-phase-extraction
#6
Shiyan Li, Yang Wang, Dingnan Wang, Hongxi Wu, Xueyan Ding, Yiwei Cui, Qing Shen
An analytical method was developed for the simultaneous and rapid determination of seven microcystins in fish meat by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with pass-through solid phase extraction (SPE). The samples were extracted with methanol-water (90:10, v/v) after heat treatment by water bath at 80℃, and then cleaned up with an Oasis PRiME HLB pass-through SPE column. The samples were analyzed directly on a Waters XSelect HSS T3 column using 0.1% (v/v) aqueous formic acid and acidified acetonitrile (0...
August 8, 2017: Se Pu, Chinese Journal of Chromatography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046679/overexpression-of-npr1-in-brassica-juncea-confers-broad-spectrum-resistance-to-fungal-pathogens
#7
Sajad Ali, Zahoor A Mir, Anshika Tyagi, Hailay Mehari, Rajendra P Meena, Javaid A Bhat, Prashant Yadav, Pradeep Papalou, Sandhya Rawat, Anita Grover
Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) is a commercially important oil seed crop, which is highly affected by many biotic stresses. Among them, Alternaria leaf blight and powdery mildew are the most devastating diseases leading to huge yield losses in B. juncea around the world. In this regard, genetic engineering is a promising tool that may possibly allow us to enhance the B. juncea disease resistance against these pathogens. NPR1 (non-expressor of pathogen-related gene 1) is a bonafide receptor of salicylic acid (SA) which modulates multiple immune responses in plants especially activation of induced and systemic acquired resistance (SAR)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046474/human-alternative-klotho-mrna-is-a-nonsense-mediated-mrna-decay-target-inefficiently-spliced-in-renal-disease
#8
Rik Mencke, Geert Harms, Jill Moser, Matijs van Meurs, Arjan Diepstra, Henri G Leuvenink, Jan-Luuk Hillebrands
Klotho is a renal protein involved in phosphate homeostasis, which is downregulated in renal disease. It has long been considered an antiaging factor. Two Klotho gene transcripts are thought to encode membrane-bound and secreted Klotho. Indeed, soluble Klotho is detectable in bodily fluids, but the relative contributions of Klotho secretion and of membrane-bound Klotho shedding are unknown. Recent advances in RNA surveillance reveal that premature termination codons, as present in alternative Klotho mRNA (for secreted Klotho), prime mRNAs for degradation by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD)...
October 19, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046442/rice-stripe-tenuivirus-has-a-greater-tendency-to-use-the-prime-and-realign-mechanism-in-transcription-of-genomic-than-in-transcription-of-antigenomic-template-rnas
#9
Xiaojuan Liu, Jing Jin, Ping Qiu, Fangluan Gao, Wenzhong Lin, Guohui Xie, Simiao He, Shunmin Liu, Zhenguo Du, Zujian Wu
Most segmented negative sense RNA viruses employ a process termed cap-snatching during which they snatch capped-RNA leaders from host cellular mRNAs and use the snatched leaders as primers for transcription, leading to the synthesis of viral mRNAs with 5' heterogeneous sequences (HSs). With traditional methods, only a few HSs can be determined and identification of their donors is difficult. Here, the mRNA 5' -ends of Rice stripe tenuivirus (RSV) and Rice grassy stunt tenuivirus (RGSV) and those of their host rice were determined by high throughput sequencing...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045899/early-transcriptional-divergence-marks-virus-specific-primary-human-cd8-t-cells-in-chronic-versus-acute-infection
#10
David Wolski, Peter K Foote, Diana Y Chen, Lia L Lewis-Ximenez, Catherine Fauvelle, Jasneet Aneja, Andreas Walker, Pierre Tonnerre, Almudena Torres-Cornejo, Daniel Kvistad, Sabrina Imam, Michael T Waring, Damien C Tully, Todd M Allen, Raymond T Chung, Jörg Timm, W Nicholas Haining, Arthur Y Kim, Thomas F Baumert, Georg M Lauer
Distinct molecular pathways govern the differentiation of CD8(+) effector T cells into memory or exhausted T cells during acute and chronic viral infection, but these are not well studied in humans. Here, we employed an integrative systems immunology approach to identify transcriptional commonalities and differences between virus-specific CD8(+) T cells from patients with persistent and spontaneously resolving hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection during the acute phase. We observed dysregulation of metabolic processes during early persistent infection that was linked to changes in expression of genes related to nucleosomal regulation of transcription, T cell differentiation, and the inflammatory response and correlated with subject age, sex, and the presence of HCV-specific CD4(+) T cell populations...
October 17, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045888/to-plan-or-not-to-plan-does-planning-for-production-remove-facilitation-from-associative-priming
#11
Suzanne R Jongman, Antje S Meyer
Theories of conversation propose that in order to have smooth transitions from one turn to the next, speakers already plan their response while listening to their interlocutor. Moreover, it has been argued that speakers align their linguistic representations (i.e. prime each other), thereby reducing the processing costs associated with concurrent listening and speaking. In two experiments, we assessed how identity and associative priming from spoken words onto picture naming were affected by a concurrent speech planning task...
October 15, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045541/from-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-to-b-cell-lymphoma
#12
L Couronné, E Bachy, S Roulland, B Nadel, F Davi, M Armand, D Canioni, J M Michot, C Visco, L Arcaini, C Besson, O Hermine
In addition to liver disorders, Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is also associated with extrahepatic immune manifestations and B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), especially marginal zone lymphoma, de novo or transformed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and to a lesser extent, follicular lymphoma. Epidemiological data and clinical observations argue for an association between HCV and lymphoproliferative disorders. The causative role of HCV in NHL has been further supported by the response to anti-viral therapy. Pathophysiological processes at stake leading from HCV infection to overt lymphoma still need to be further elucidated...
October 10, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042994/immunological-mechanism-of-low-dose-priming-radiation-resistance-in-walker-256-tumor-model-mice
#13
Li Feng, Ling Qin, Dan Guo, Daping Deng, Feng Lu, Hailiang Li, Narisu Bao, Xiting Yang, Hongyu Ding, Jianguo Li
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether low-dose priming radiation induces antitumor immunity that can be augmented by the modulation of natural killer (NK) cell and cytokine activity using a mouse tumor model. Walker-256 cells were injected into the right flank of male BALB/c mice. At 7 days after inoculation, mice were divided into three groups, including group 1,2,3. In group 1 the mice were without radiation, in group 2 the mice were received 2 Gy radiation only, and in group 3 the mice were radiated with a priming dose of 75 mGy followed by 2 Gy radiation after 24 h...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040824/perceived-harm-as-a-mediator-of-the-relationship-between-social-norms-and-marijuana-use-and-related-consequences-among-american-indian-youth
#14
Mark A Prince, Randall C Swaim, Linda R Stanley, Bradley T Conner
BACKGROUND: American Indian (AI) youth are at increased risk for marijuana use with marijuana use rates on or near reservations 1.6-4.8 times higher compared to non-AI youth in the same regions (Stanley et al., 2014). One outcome of the changing social and legal acceptance of marijuana is a decrease in perceived risk among adolescents. It is unknown whether these changes in perceptions of marijuana-related harm will presage higher rates of use among AI youth. Perceptions of others use (i...
October 12, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040326/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-modulates-adipose-tissue-biology
#15
Macarena Beigier-Bompadre, Georgina N Montagna, Anja A Kühl, Laura Lozza, January Weiner, Andreas Kupz, Alexis Vogelzang, Hans-Joachim Mollenkopf, Delia Löwe, Silke Bandermann, Anca Dorhoi, Volker Brinkmann, Kai Matuschewski, Stefan H E Kaufmann
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) primarily resides in the lung but can also persist in extrapulmonary sites. Macrophages are considered the prime cellular habitat in all tissues. Here we demonstrate that Mtb resides inside adipocytes of fat tissue where it expresses stress-related genes. Moreover, perigonadal fat of Mtb-infected mice disseminated the infection when transferred to uninfected animals. Adipose tissue harbors leukocytes in addition to adipocytes and other cell types and we observed that Mtb infection induces changes in adipose tissue biology depending on stage of infection...
October 17, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038121/targeting-il-10-family-cytokines-for-the-treatment-of-human-diseases
#16
Xiaoting Wang, Kit Wong, Wenjun Ouyang, Sascha Rutz
Members of the interleukin (IL)-10 family of cytokines play important roles in regulating immune responses during host defense but also in autoimmune disorders, inflammatory diseases, and cancer. Although IL-10 itself primarily acts on leukocytes and has potent immunosuppressive functions, other family members preferentially target nonimmune compartments, such as tissue epithelial cells, where they elicit innate defense mechanisms to control viral, bacterial, and fungal infections, protect tissue integrity, and promote tissue repair and regeneration...
October 16, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036637/examining-the-contribution-of-cell-wall-polysaccharides-to-the-mechanical-properties-of-apple-parenchyma-tissue-using-exogenous-enzymes
#17
Pauline Videcoq, Adelin Barbacci, Carole Assor, Vincent Magnenet, Olivier Arnould, Sophie Le Gall, Marc Lahaye
The viscoelastic mechanical properties of water-rich plant tissues are fundamental for many aspects of organ physiology and plant functioning. These properties are determined partly by the water in cellular vacuole and partly by the mechanical properties of the cell wall, the latter varying according to the composition and organization of its polysaccharides. In this study, relationships between the viscoelastic properties of apple cortex parenchyma tissue and cell wall pectin, hemicelluloses, and cellulose structures were studied by infusing the tissue with selected sets of purified enzymes in a controlled osmoticum...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034431/cultivation-dependent-and-high-throughput-sequencing-approaches-studying-the-co-occurrence-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-municipal-sewage-system
#18
An-Dong Li, Liping Ma, Xiao-Tao Jiang, Tong Zhang
During the past years, antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) leading for the spreading of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) became a global problem, especially multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria are considered the prime culprit of antibiotic resistance. However, the correlation between the antibiotic-resistant phenotype and the ARG profiles remains poorly understood. In the present study, metagenomic functional screening and metagenomic analysis of coliforms were combined to explore the phenotype and genotype of the ARBs from municipal sewage...
October 15, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034047/processing-of-internal-and-external-signals-for-performance-monitoring-in-the-context-of-emotional-faces
#19
Christian Christian Valt, Marina Palazova, Birgit Stürmer
Performance monitoring can be based on internal or external signals. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate whether relating performance to external signals affects internal performance monitoring. Thirty participants performed a task in which responses were followed by faces whose expressions were partially contingent upon performance. Instructions given to half of the participants mentioned a link between task performance and the upcoming face expression. Instructed participants showed smaller error-related negativity (Ne/ERN) to erroneous responses and larger N170 to faces as compared to participants in the not-instructed group...
2017: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033784/top-down-control-of-visual-attention-by-the-prefrontal-cortex-functional-specialization-and-long-range-interactions
#20
REVIEW
Sofia Paneri, Georgia G Gregoriou
The ability to select information that is relevant to current behavioral goals is the hallmark of voluntary attention and an essential part of our cognition. Attention tasks are a prime example to study at the neuronal level, how task related information can be selectively processed in the brain while irrelevant information is filtered out. Whereas, numerous studies have focused on elucidating the mechanisms of visual attention at the single neuron and population level in the visual cortices, considerably less work has been devoted to deciphering the distinct contribution of higher-order brain areas, which are known to be critical for the employment of attention...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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