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Relational priming

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544942/behavioural-and-neural-evidence-for-the-impact-of-fluency-context-on-conscious-memory
#1
Carlos Alexandre Gomes, Axel Mecklinger, Hubert Zimmer
It has been recently suggested that fluency may impact recognition memory performance when the fluency context varies from trial-to-trial. Surprisingly, such an effect has proved difficult to detect in the masked priming paradigm, one of the most popular means to increase fluency-based memory judgements. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment in which participants encoded words at study and, at test, performed a recognition memory task within a masked priming procedure. In order to optimise the chances of finding priming effects on recognition memory performance, we used low-frequency words, which have been shown to increase hits relative to false alarms and enhance masked priming effects...
April 21, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542275/combination-of-the-immunization-with-the-sequence-close-to-the-consensus-sequence-and-two-dna-prime-plus-one-vlp-boost-generate-h5-hemagglutinin-specific-broad-neutralizing-antibodies
#2
Guiqin Wang, Renfu Yin, Paul Zhou, Zhuang Ding
Hemagglutinin (HA) head has long been considered to be able to elicit only a narrow, strain-specific antibody response as it undergoes rapid antigenic drift. However, we previously showed that a heterologous prime-boost strategy, in which mice were primed twice with DNA encoding HA and boosted once with virus-like particles (VLP) from an H5N1 strain A/Thailand/1(KAN)-1/2004 (noted as TH DDV), induced anti-head broad cross-H5 neutralizing antibody response. To explain why TH DDV immunization could generate such breadth, we systemically compared the neutralization breadth and potency between TH DDV sera and immune sera elicited by TH DDD (three times of DNA immunizations), TH VVV (three times of VLP immunizations), TH DV (one DNA prime plus one VLP boost) and TK DDV (plasmid DNA and VLP derived from another H5N1 strain, A/Turkey/65596/2006)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541076/brand-name-confusion-subjective-and-objective-measures-of-orthographic-similarity
#3
Jennifer S Burt, Kimberley A McFarlane, Sarah J Kelly, Michael S Humphreys, Kimberlee Weatherall, Robert G Burrell
Determining brand name similarity is vital in areas of trademark registration and brand confusion. Students rated the orthographic (spelling) similarity of word pairs (Experiments 1, 2, and 4) and brand name pairs (Experiment 5). Similarity ratings were consistently higher when words shared beginnings rather than endings, whereas shared pronunciation of the stressed vowel had small and less consistent effects on ratings. In Experiment 3 a behavioral task confirmed the similarity of shared beginnings in lexical processing...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540714/arbitrarily-primed-pcr-for-comparison-of-meta-genomes-and-extracting-useful-loci-from-them
#4
Leigh Burgoyne, Lin Y Koh, David Catcheside
A method is described that uses arbitrarily primed PCR followed by many cycles of amplification under stringent conditions and selection by computational means to obtain a set of sequence tags that can be used for the comparison of metagenomes. Relative to unselective shot-gun sequencing, the results are small data sets that can be csompared electronically or plotted as scattergrams that are simple to interpret. The method can be used to compare groups of samples of any size to build in-house databases from which, for example, the provenance of trace soil samples may be inferred...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539349/sleep-loss-promotes-astrocytic-phagocytosis-and-microglial-activation-in-mouse-cerebral-cortex
#5
Michele Bellesi, Luisa de Vivo, Mattia Chini, Francesca Gilli, Giulio Tononi, Chiara Cirelli
We previously found that Mertk and its ligand Gas6, astrocytic genes involved in phagocytosis, are upregulated after acute sleep deprivation. These results suggested that astrocytes may engage in phagocytic activity during extended wake, but direct evidence was lacking. Studies in humans and rodents also found that sleep loss increases peripheral markers of inflammation, but whether these changes are associated with neuroinflammation and/or activation of microglia, the brain's resident innate immune cells, was unknown...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538321/muscle-activation-differs-between-partial-and-full-back-squat-exercise-with-external-load-equated
#6
Josinaldo J da Silva, Brad J Schoenfeld, Priscyla N Marchetti, Silvio L Pecoraro, Julia M D Greve, Paulo H Marchetti
da Silva, JJ, Schoenfeld, BJ, Marchetti, PN, Pecoraro, SL, Greve, JMD, and Marchetti, PH. Muscle activation differs between partial and full back squat exercise with external load equated. J Strength Cond Res 31(6): 1688-1693, 2017-Changes in range of motion affect the magnitude of the load during the squat exercise and, consequently, may influence muscle activation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate muscle activation between the partial and full back squat exercise with external load equated on a relative basis between conditions...
June 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537496/feeder-free-derivation-of-na%C3%A3-ve-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#7
Emily Ward, Kirk Twaroski, Jakub Tolar
Human pluripotent stem cells (HPSCs) cultured in conditions that maintain pluripotency via FGF and TGFβ signaling have been described as being in a primed state. These cells have been shown to exhibit characteristics more closely related to mouse epiblast-derived stem cells than to so called naïve mouse PSCs said to possess a more ground state pluripotency that mimics the early mouse embryo inner cell mass. Initial attempts to create culture conditions favorable for generation of naïve HPSCs from primed HPSCs has required the use of mouse embryonic fibroblasts as a feeder layer to support this transition...
May 24, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537062/evaluation-of-the-immunogenicity-and-impact-on-the-latent-hiv-1-reservoir-of-a-conserved-region-vaccine-mva-hivconsv-in-antiretroviral-therapy-treated-subjects
#8
REVIEW
Gemma Hancock, Sara Morón-López, Jakub Kopycinski, Maria C Puertas, Eleni Giannoulatou, Annie Rose, Maria Salgado, Emma-Jo Hayton, Alison Crook, Catharine Morgan, Brian Angus, Fabian Chen, Hongbing Yang, Javier Martinez-Picado, Tomas Hanke, Lucy Dorrell
INTRODUCTION: Vaccines may be key components of a curative strategy for HIV-1. We investigated whether a novel immunogen, HIVconsv, designed to re-direct T cell responses to conserved viral epitopes, could impact the HIV-1 reservoir in chronic antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated subjects when delivered by modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA). METHODS: Nineteen virologically suppressed individuals were randomized to receive vaccinations with MVA.HIVconsv (5.5 × 10(7) plaque-forming units, pfu, n = 8; 2...
May 19, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536283/signal-integration-in-quorum-sensing-enables-cross-species-induction-of-virulence-in-pectobacterium-wasabiae
#9
Rita S Valente, Pol Nadal-Jimenez, André F P Carvalho, Filipe J D Vieira, Karina B Xavier
Bacterial communities can sense their neighbors, regulating group behaviors in response to cell density and environmental changes. The diversity of signaling networks in a single species has been postulated to allow custom responses to different stimuli; however, little is known about how multiple signals are integrated and the implications of this integration in different ecological contexts. In the plant pathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae (formerly Erwinia carotovora), two signaling networks-the N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum-sensing system and the Gac/Rsm signal transduction pathway-control the expression of secreted plant cell wall-degrading enzymes, its major virulence determinants...
May 23, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536276/persistent-immune-stimulation-exacerbates-genetically-driven-myeloproliferative-disorders-via-stromal-remodeling
#10
Claudio Tripodo, Alessia Burocchi, Pier Paolo Piccaluga, Claudia Chiodoni, Paola Portararo, Barbara Cappetti, Laura Botti, Alessandro Gulino, Alessandro Isidori, Arcangelo Liso, Giuseppe Visani, Maria Paola Martelli, Brunangelo Falini, Pier Paolo Pandolfi, Mario P Colombo, Sabina Sangaletti
Systemic immune stimulation has been associated with increased risk of myeloid malignancies, but the pathogenic link is unknown. We demonstrate in animal models that experimental systemic immune activation alters the bone marrow stromal microenvironment, disarranging extracellular matrix (ECM) microarchitecture, with down-regulation of SPARC and collagen-I and induction of complement activation. These changes were accompanied by a decrease in Treg frequency and by an increase in activated effector T cells. Under these conditions, hematopoietic precursors harboring nucleophosmin-1 (NPM1) mutation generated myeloid cells unfit for normal hematopoiesis but prone to immunogenic death, leading to neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation...
May 23, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535686/development-and-characterization-of-a-stable-adhesive-bond-between-a-poly-dimethylsiloxane-catheter-material-and-a-bacterial-biofilm-resistant-acrylate-polymer-coating
#11
Bonnie J Tyler, Andrew Hook, Andreas Pelster, Paul Williams, Morgan Alexander, Heinrich F Arlinghaus
Catheter associated urinary tract infections are the most common health related infections worldwide, contributing significantly to patient morbidity and mortality and increased health care costs. To reduce the incidence of these infections, new materials that resist bacterial biofilm formation are needed. A composite catheter material, consisting of bulk poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) coated with a novel bacterial biofilm resistant polyacrylate [ethylene glycol dicyclopentenyl ether acrylate (EGDPEA)-co-di(ethyleneglycol) methyl ether methacrylate (DEGMA)], has been proposed...
May 23, 2017: Biointerphases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533406/spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-word-retrieval-in-speech-production-revealed-by-cortical-high-frequency-band-activity
#12
Stephanie K Riès, Rummit K Dhillon, Alex Clarke, David King-Stephens, Kenneth D Laxer, Peter B Weber, Rachel A Kuperman, Kurtis I Auguste, Peter Brunner, Gerwin Schalk, Jack J Lin, Josef Parvizi, Nathan E Crone, Nina F Dronkers, Robert T Knight
Word retrieval is core to language production and relies on complementary processes: the rapid activation of lexical and conceptual representations and word selection, which chooses the correct word among semantically related competitors. Lexical and conceptual activation is measured by semantic priming. In contrast, word selection is indexed by semantic interference and is hampered in semantically homogeneous (HOM) contexts. We examined the spatiotemporal dynamics of these complementary processes in a picture naming task with blocks of semantically heterogeneous (HET) or HOM stimuli...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533093/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-a-live-attenuated-influenza-h5-candidate-vaccine-strain-a-17-turkey-turkey-05-133-h5n2-and-its-priming-effects-for-potential-pre-pandemic-use-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#13
Punnee Pitisuttithum, Kobporn Boonnak, Supat Chamnanchanunt, Pilaipan Puthavathana, Viravarn Luvira, Hatairat Lerdsamran, Jaranit Kaewkungwal, Saranath Lawpoolsri, Vipa Thanachartwet, Udomsak Silachamroon, Wanibtisam Masamae, Alexandra Schuetz, Ponthip Wirachwong, Sit Thirapakpoomanunt, Larisa Rudenko, Erin Sparrow, Martin Friede, Marie-Paule Kieny
BACKGROUND: The emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses has raised concerns about their pandemic potential. Vaccination is the most effective way of preventing influenza. In this study, we investigated the safety and immunogenicity of an avian H5N2 live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV H5N2) in healthy Thai adults and its priming immune responses with an H5N1 inactivated vaccine boost. METHODS: This study was done at the Vaccine Trial Centre at Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand and was divided into two parts...
May 19, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532653/hippocampal-ca1-local-field-potential-oscillations-induced-by-olfactory-cue-of-liked-food
#14
Nifareeda Samerphob, Dania Cheaha, Surapong Chatpun, Ekkasit Kumarnsit
Eating motivation is induced not only by negative energy balance but also food related cues. However, neural processing for acquisition of learned food preference remains to be established. This study aimed to identify hippocampal neural signaling in response to olfactory cue (chocolate scent) after completion of repetitive chocolate sessions. Male Swiss albino mice implanted with intracranial electrode into the hippocampus were used for local field potential (LFP) recording. Animals were given chocolate sessions (a piece of 2 g chocolate per each mouse to eat on day 1, 3, 5 and 7)...
May 19, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530403/propitious-dendritic-cu2o%C3%AF-pt-nanostructured-anodes-for-direct-formic-acid-fuel-cells
#15
Gumaa A El-Nagar, Ahmad M Mohammad, Mohamed S El-Deab, Bahgat E El-Anadouli
This study introduces a novel competent dendritic copper oxide-platinum nanocatalyst (nano-Cu2O-Pt) immobilized onto a glassy carbon (GC) substrate for formic acid (FA) electrooxidation (FAO); the prime reaction in the anodic compartment of direct formic acid fuel cells (DFAFCs). Interestingly, the proposed catalyst exhibited an outstanding improvement for FAO compared to the traditional platinum nanoparticles (nano-Pt) modified GC (nano-Pt/GC) catalyst. This was evaluated from steering the reaction mechanism towards the desired direct route producing carbon dioxide (CO2); consistently with mitigating the other undesired indirect pathway producing carbon monoxide (CO); the potential poison deteriorating the catalytic activity of typical Pt-based catalysts...
May 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529644/3-3-diindolylmethane-stimulates-exosomal-wnt11-autocrine-signaling-in-human-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-enhance-wound-healing
#16
Hui Shi, Xiao Xu, Bin Zhang, Jiahao Xu, Zhaoji Pan, Aihua Gong, Xu Zhang, Rong Li, Yaoxiang Sun, Yongmin Yan, Fei Mao, Hui Qian, Wenrong Xu
Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hucMSCs) are suggested as a promising therapeutic tool in regenerative medicine, however, their efficacy requires improvement. Small molecules and drugs come up to be a convenient strategy in regulating stem cells fate and function. Here, we evaluated 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM), a natural small-molecule compound involved in the repairing effects of hucMSCs on a deep second-degree burn injury rat model. HucMSCs primed with 50 μM of DIM exhibited desirable repairing effects compared with untreated hucMSCs...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529517/role-of-silicon-on-plant-pathogen-interactions
#17
REVIEW
Min Wang, Limin Gao, Suyue Dong, Yuming Sun, Qirong Shen, Shiwei Guo
Although silicon (Si) is not recognized as an essential element for general higher plants, it has beneficial effects on the growth and production of a wide range of plant species. Si is known to effectively mitigate various environmental stresses and enhance plant resistance against both fungal and bacterial pathogens. In this review, the effects of Si on plant-pathogen interactions are analyzed, mainly on physical, biochemical, and molecular aspects. In most cases, the Si-induced biochemical/molecular resistance during plant-pathogen interactions were dominated as joint resistance, involving activating defense-related enzymes activates, stimulating antimicrobial compound production, regulating the complex network of signal pathways, and activating of the expression of defense-related genes...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526786/impact-of-acanthamoeba-cysts-on-stress-resistance-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-yersinia-enterocolitica-4-o-3-listeria-monocytogenes-1-2a-and-escherichia-coli-o-26
#18
Ellen Lambrecht, Julie Baré, Koen Sabbe, Kurt Houf
The formation of robust resting cysts enables Acanthamoeba to resist harsh environmental conditions. This study investigated to what extent these cysts are resistant to physical and chemical stresses as applied in food industry cleaning and disinfection procedures. Moreover it was assessed whether certain intracystic meatborne bacterial pathogens are more stress-resistant than free-living bacterial monocultures and if intracystic passage and subsequent association with trophozoites induces cross-tolerance towards other stressors...
May 19, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526516/comparing-the-effect-of-temporal-delay-on-the-availability-of-egocentric-and-allocentric-information-in-visual-search
#19
Keira Ball, Yan Birch, Alison Lane, Amanda Ellison, Thomas Schenk
Frames of reference play a central role in perceiving an object's location and reaching to pick that object up. It is thought that the ventral stream, believed to subserve vision for perception, utilises allocentric coding, while the dorsal stream, argued to be responsible for vision for action, primarily uses an egocentric reference frame. We have previously shown that egocentric representations can survive a delay; however, it is possible that in comparison to allocentric information, egocentric information decays more rapidly...
May 16, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523216/foresight-beats-hindsight-the-neural-correlates-underlying-motor-preparation-in-the-pro-anti-cue-paradigm
#20
Franziska Emmerling, Felix Duecker, Tom A de Graaf, Teresa Schuhmann, Jos J Adam, Alexander T Sack
BACKGROUND: Human motor behaviors are characterized by both, reactive and proactive mechanisms. Yet, studies investigating the neural correlates of motor behavior almost exclusively focused on reactive motor processes. Here, we employed the pro-/anti-cue motor preparation paradigm to systematically study proactive motor control in an imaging environment. In this paradigm, either pro- or anti-cues are presented in a blocked design. Four fingers (two from each hand) are mapped onto four visual target locations...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
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