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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935783/the-role-of-pharmacogenomics-in-anesthesia-pharmacology
#1
Brett Morgan, Edwin N Aroke, Jennifer Dungan
The field of pharmacogenomics seeks to identify the impact of genetic variants on drug dosing, response, metabolism, and safety outcomes. The narrow therapeutic indices for anesthesia drugs, variability of patient responses to anesthesia, and the risks associated with surgery make anesthetics and the perioperative period prime targets for pharmacogenetic research. Anesthesia providers strive to optimize anesthesia delivery and patient outcomes and to specifically reduce anesthesia-related risks and negative outcomes...
January 2017: Annual Review of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934807/transmission-of-mutans-streptococci-in-mother-child-pairs
#2
S G Damle, Renu Yadav, Shalini Garg, Abhishek Dhindsa, Vikas Beniwal, Ashish Loomba, Shailja Chatterjee
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Dental caries is an infectious, transmissible disease. Maternal transfer of mutans streptococci (MS) has been a subject of research. The aim of this study was to evaluate the transmission of MS from mother to children through genetic analysis. METHODS: Thirty mother-child pairs were included and divided into three groups according to the age of the children. Saliva samples were collected and MS colonies from each mother-child pair were isolated...
August 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934653/leucine-and-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-dependent-activation-of-muscle-protein-synthesis-in-aging
#3
REVIEW
Jean-Pascal De Bandt
The preservation or restoration of muscle mass is of prime importance for healthy aging. However, aging has been repeatedly shown to be associated with resistance of muscle to the anabolic effects of feeding. Leucine supplementation has been proposed as a possible strategy because of its regulatory role on protein homeostasis. Indeed, it acts independently of growth factors and leads to enhanced cap-dependent mRNA translation initiation and increased protein synthesis. Leucine acts as a signaling molecule directly at the muscle level via the activation of mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)...
December 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928762/the-metaphor-police-a-case-study-of-the-role-of-metaphor-in-explanation
#4
Paul H Thibodeau, Latoya Crow, Stephen J Flusberg
While many scholars have pointed to the role of metaphor in explanation, relatively little experimental research has examined whether and how metaphors are used and understood in everyday explanatory discourse. Across 3 experiments, we investigated the nature and function of metaphor in explanation by drawing on a real-world example where the terms guardian and warrior were used to metaphorically explain the role of police officers. We found, first, that the associations participants brought to mind for these concepts differed depending on whether they had previously answered questions about law enforcement (e...
December 7, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928006/cryo-em-study-of-genome-release-of-dicistrovirus-israeli-acute-bee-paralysis-virus
#5
Edukondalu Mullapudi, Tibor Füzik, Antonín Přidal, Pavel Plevka
: Viruses from the family Dicistroviridae can cause substantial economic damage by infecting agriculturally important insects. Israeli acute bee paralysis virus (IAPV) causes honeybee colony collapse disorder in the United States. High-resolution molecular details of the genome delivery mechanism of dicistroviruses are unknown. Here we present a cryo-EM analysis of IAPV virions induced to release their genomes in vitro We determined structures of full IAPV virions primed to release their genomes to a resolution of 3...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926855/temporally-programmed-cd8%C3%AE-dc-activation-enhances-combination-cancer-immunotherapy
#6
Alice Tzeng, Monique J Kauke, Eric F Zhu, Kelly D Moynihan, Cary F Opel, Nicole J Yang, Naveen Mehta, Ryan L Kelly, Gregory L Szeto, Willem W Overwijk, Darrell J Irvine, K Dane Wittrup
Numerous synergistic cancer immunotherapy combinations have been identified, but the effects of relative dose timing are rarely considered. In established syngeneic mouse tumor models, we found that staggering interferon-α (IFNα) administration after, rather than before or simultaneously with, serum-persistent interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor-specific antibody significantly increased long-term survival. Successful combination therapy required IFNα-induced activation of cross-presenting CD8α(+) dendritic cells (DCs) following the release of antigenic tumor debris by the IL-2- and antibody-mediated immune response...
December 6, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925844/a-two-dose-heterologous-prime-boost-vaccine-regimen-eliciting-sustained-immune-responses-to-ebola-zaire-could-support-a-preventive-strategy-for-future-outbreaks
#7
Georgi Shukarev, Benoit Callendret, Kerstin Luhn, Macaya Douoguih, The Ebovac Consortium
The consequences of the 2013-16 Ebola Zaire virus disease epidemic in West Africa were grave. The economies, healthcare systems and communities of Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia were devastated by over 18 months of active Ebola virus transmission, followed by sporadic resurgences potentially related to sexual transmission by survivors with viral persistence in body fluids following recovery. The need to develop and implement strategies to prevent and mitigate future outbreaks is now beyond dispute. The potential for unpredictable outbreaks of indeterminate duration, and control challenges posed by the possibility of sporadic re-emergence, mean that implementation of an effective vaccination programme for outbreak containment necessitates a vaccine providing durable immunity...
December 7, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924442/spanish-norms-for-completion-of-restricted-length-word-stems
#8
María José Soler, Carmen Dasí, Juan Carlos Ruiz, Teresa Cervera
This study presents a normative database of Spanish restricted length word stems that provides useful information for the selection of stimuli in memory experiments with Word Stem Completion (WSC) tasks. The database includes indices relative to stems (total baseline completion, priming baseline completion, priming, number of completions, ratio between given and deleted letters, and syllabic structure), and indices relative to characteristics of the words used to obtain the stems (frequency, familiarity, number of meanings, length, number of syllables, arousal, and valence)...
December 6, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923825/rational-selection-of-syngeneic-preclinical-tumor-models-for-immunotherapeutic-drug-discovery
#9
Suzanne I S Mosely, John E Prime, Richard C A Sainson, Jens-Oliver Koopmann, Dennis Y Q Wang, Danielle M Greenawalt, Miika J Ahdesmaki, Rebecca Leyland, Stefanie Mullins, Luciano Pacelli, Danielle Marcus, Judith Anderton, Amanda Watkins, Jane Coates Ulrichsen, Philip Brohawn, Brandon W Higgs, Matthew McCourt, Hazel Jones, James A Harper, Michelle Morrow, Viia Valge-Archer, Ross Stewart, Simon J Dovedi, Robert W Wilkinson
Murine syngeneic tumor models are critical to novel immuno-based therapy development but the molecular and immunological features of these models are still not clearly defined. The translational relevance of differences between the models is not fully understood, impeding appropriate preclinical model selection for target validation, and ultimately hindering drug development. Across a panel of commonly-used murine syngeneic tumor models, we showed variable responsiveness to immunotherapies. We employed array comparative genomic hybridization, whole-exome sequencing, exon microarray analysis, and flow cytometry to extensively characterize these models, which revealed striking differences that may underlie these contrasting response profiles...
December 6, 2016: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920883/exogenous-secreted-frizzled-related-protein-4-modulates-steroidogenesis-of-rat-granulosa-cells-through-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-and-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathways
#10
Ghamartaj Hossein, Manijeh Khanmohammadi, Parisa Sahranavard Fard, Yasaman Heidarian, Somaieh Kazemnejad, Mohammad Mehdi Akhondi
BACKGROUND: It has been reported that secreted frizzled-related protein-4 known as an antagonist of Wnt signaling pathway plays a role in luteinization process of rodent granulosa cells. The purpose of this study was twofold: 1) to determine whether recombinant human secreted frizzled-related protein-4 (rhSFRP-4) could directly induce terminal differentiation of rat Granulosa Cells (GCs) and 2) to understand how the modulation of β-catenin and Protein Kinase B (PKB)/AKT activity by exogenous SFRP-4 could be involved in steroidogenesis...
October 2016: Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920731/do-you-read-how-i-read-systematic-individual-differences-in-semantic-reliance-amongst-normal-readers
#11
Anna M Woollams, Matthew A Lambon Ralph, Gaston Madrid, Karalyn E Patterson
The extent to which meaning is involved in reading aloud has proven an area of longstanding debate, and current computational models differ on this dimension. The connectionist triangle model proposes that normal individuals rely on semantic information for correct reading of words with atypical spelling-sound relationships, but to varying degrees. This proposed individual difference would account for the varying stage of decline at which patients with semantic dementia first show the reading impairment known as surface dyslexia...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917136/decentering-the-self-reduced-bias-in-self-vs-other-related-processing-in-long-term-practitioners-of-loving-kindness-meditation
#12
Fynn-Mathis Trautwein, José R Naranjo, Stefan Schmidt
Research in social neuroscience provides increasing evidence that self and other are interconnected, both on a conceptual and on an affective representational level. Moreover, the ability to recognize the other as "like the self" is thought to be essential for social phenomena like empathy and compassion. Meditation practices such as loving-kindness meditation (LKM) have been found to enhance these capacities. Therefore, we investigated whether LKM is associated to an increased integration of self-other-representations...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916728/differential-response-to-intrahippocampal-interleukin-4-interleukin-13-in-aged-and-exercise-mice
#13
Alyssa Littlefield, Rachel A Kohman
Normal aging is associated with low-grade neuroinflammation that results from age-related priming of microglial cells. Further, aging alters the response to several anti-inflammatory factors, including interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13. One intervention that has been shown to modulate microglia activation in the aged brain, both basally and following an immune challenge, is exercise. However, whether engaging in exercise can improve responsiveness to anti-inflammatory cytokines is presently unknown. The current study evaluated whether prior exercise training increases sensitivity to anti-inflammatory cytokines that promote the M2 (alternative) microglia phenotype in adult (5-month-old) and aged (23-month-old) C57BL/6J mice...
December 1, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916412/kinetics-of-antibody-secreting-cell-and-fecal-iga-responses-after-oral-cholera-vaccination-in-different-age-groups-in-a-cholera-endemic-country
#14
Marjahan Akhtar, Firdausi Qadri, Taufiqur R Bhuiyan, Sarmin Akter, Tanzeem A Rafique, Arifuzzaman Khan, Laila N Islam, Amit Saha, Ann-Mari Svennerholm, Anna Lundgren
Immune responses to oral enteric vaccines in children and infants may be influenced by factors such as age, previous priming with related microorganisms and breast feeding. In this study, we aimed to determine optimal time points to assess immune responses to oral enteric vaccines in different clinical specimens. This was done by investigating antibody secreting cell (ASC) and fecal antibody responses on different days after vaccination using the licensed oral cholera vaccine Dukoral, containing cholera toxin B-subunit (rCTB) and inactivated Vibrio cholerae bacteria, as a model vaccine...
December 1, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913524/cellular-and-vaccine-immunotherapy-for-multiple-myeloma
#15
Alfred L Garfall, Edward A Stadtmauer
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation and donor lymphocyte infusion for multiple myeloma (MM) can induce graft-versus-myeloma immunity and long-term survivorship, but limited efficacy and associated toxicities have prevented its widespread use. Cellular immunotherapies and vaccines seek to induce more specific, reliable, and potent antimyeloma immune responses with less treatment-related risk than is possible with allogeneic transplantation. Advances in molecular biology, and basic and applied immunology, have led to promising approaches such as genetically engineered T cells with chimeric antigen receptors and T-cell receptors targeting myeloma-specific epitopes, vaccine primed ex vivo expanded autologous T cells, expanded marrow-infiltrating lymphocytes, and plasma cell/dendritic cell fusion vaccines...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912844/heparanase-from-basic-research-to-therapeutic-applications-in-cancer-and-inflammation
#16
Israel Vlodavsky, Preeti Singh, Ilanit Boyango, Lilach Gutter-Kapon, Michael Elkin, Ralph D Sanderson, Neta Ilan
Heparanase, the sole heparan sulfate degrading endoglycosidase, regulates multiple biological activities that enhance tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Heparanase expression is enhanced in almost all cancers examined including various carcinomas, sarcomas and hematological malignancies. Numerous clinical association studies have consistently demonstrated that upregulation of heparanase expression correlates with increased tumor size, tumor angiogenesis, enhanced metastasis and poor prognosis. In contrast, knockdown of heparanase or treatments of tumor-bearing mice with heparanase-inhibiting compounds, markedly attenuate tumor progression further underscoring the potential of anti-heparanase therapy for multiple types of cancer...
November 2016: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907852/the-relevance-of-primary-tumour-location-in-patients-with-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-a-meta-analysis-of-first-line-clinical-trials
#17
Julian Walter Holch, Ingrid Ricard, Sebastian Stintzing, Dominik Paul Modest, Volker Heinemann
BACKGROUND: Retrospective subgroup analyses suggest that primary tumour location (PTL) has a prognostic importance and relates to response to targeted therapy. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis of first-line clinical trials available up to October 2016, which assessed the relevance of PTL in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Right- and left-sided colorectal cancers were differentiated (RC and LC). RESULTS: In 13 first-line randomised controlled trials and one prospective pharmacogenetic study, RC was associated with a significantly worse prognosis compared with LC (hazard ratio [HR] for overall survival: 1...
November 29, 2016: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907119/gray-matter-hypoxia-in-the-brain-of-the-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#18
Thomas W Johnson, Ying Wu, Nabeela Nathoo, James A Rogers, V Wee Yong, Jeff F Dunn
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) has a significant inflammatory component and may have significant gray matter (GM) pathophysiology. Brain oxygenation is a sensitive measurement of the balance between metabolic need and oxygen delivery. There is evidence that inflammation and hypoxia are interdependent. In this paper, we applied novel, implanted PO2 sensors to measure hypoxia in cortical and cerebellar GM, in an inflammation-induced mouse model of MS. OBJECTIVE: Quantify oxygenation in cortical and cerebellar GM in the awake, unrestrained experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model and to relate the results to symptom level and disease time-course...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905928/perceptions-on-the-effect-of-small-electric-fans-on-comfort-inside-bed-nets-in-southern-ghana-a-qualitative-study
#19
Mulako S Jaeger, Olivier J T Briët, Joseph Keating, Collins K Ahorlu, Joshua O Yukich, Samuel Oppong, Peter Nardini, Constanze Pfeiffer
BACKGROUND: Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are known to be highly effective in reducing malaria transmission, morbidity and mortality. However, among those owning an LLIN, use rates are often suboptimal. A reported barrier to bed net use is discomfort due to heat. This qualitative study was part of a larger evaluation conducted in communities without electricity in rural Ghana to assess whether 0.8 W solar powered net fans can increase net use. METHODS: Twenty-three key informant interviews with household heads in the study communities in Shai-Osudoku District, southern Ghana, were conducted from July to August 2015...
December 1, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905119/automatic-female-dehumanization-across-the-menstrual-cycle
#20
Valentina Piccoli, Carlo Fantoni, Francesco Foroni, Mauro Bianchi, Andrea Carnaghi
In this study, we investigate whether hormonal shifts during the menstrual cycle contribute to the dehumanization of other women and men. Female participants with different levels of likelihood of conception (LoC) completed a semantic priming paradigm in a lexical decision task. When the word 'woman' was the prime, animal words were more accessible in high versus low LoC whereas human words were more inhibited in the high versus low LoC. When the word 'man' was used as the prime, no difference was found in terms of accessibility between high and low LoC for either animal or human words...
November 30, 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
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